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For the next practice work, I make several circles on the board, writing the color words in different places on the segments, and ask the children to color their practice circles the way the words tell them. I tell them how the pictures for a "movie" are taken, not in their order in the story, but all the pictures in one place at the same time; and then how they have to be cut apart and pasted in their order in the story. All this as preface to the next occupation of cutting the segments of these “mixed-up” pictures apart and laying them in the right order. At the end of this lesson, each child is given an envelope in which to put his segments and we save them for seat work whenever a drill on color seems advisable.
During the last drawing lesson, each child makes a nineinch circle from gray construction paper, lays one of the perfectly cut segments on it, so that the point touches the pinhole at the center, and traces around it. I allow them to work in pairs at this, one child holding the segment in place and the other tracing, as few small children can hold such a small pattern and trace around it at the same time. Then a hole is punched through the segment and the line is cut nearly all around. Then with a paper fastener to hold the colored circles back of the gray “screens" and a heavy paper tab pasted to the back of the "reel," extending out an inch or so, and used by the children in turning the circle around, so as to show the "pictures" through the opening in the gray paper, the “movie show" is ready to take home for the edification of the family, and often to the benefit of younger children, who enjoy attending tho movie and calling off the names of the pictures, as much as the "show men” enjoy running their film.
F. M. C. W.
TUNE: “Oats, Peas, Beans, and Barley Grow"
We wash our face and comb our hair, as we call them. Besides teaching the names of the colors,
Clean our teeth and nails with care, the making of the "screen" and "film" gives several
Polish our shoes and change our dress, valuable drawing lessons.
And give our mother a little caress. First the children learn how to draw circles, by marking
Then off to school we trip, tra la, a strip of paper with dots four inches apart, putting a pin
We skip and skip, tra la, tra la. through one dot and a pencil point through the other, and with the pin end for the center describing a circle on white
Play our games and lessons learn, drawing paper. Then cut the circle out and fold it through
Then home again we backward turn, the middle three times, making eight "reels" for their film.
Tra la la la, la, la, la, la, With small children I give this much in one lesson, using
Tra la la la, la, la la la, print paper so that each child can have all the paper he
Play our games and lessons learn, needs to get a true circle with no ragged edges. Before
Tra la la la, la la la la. the next drawing period, at least one seat period, and more if necessary, is devoted to making circles, cutting and
At the words “Tra la la la," etc., the children may skip folding them. The good ones made in practice time are
in a circle or out of the room on their way home. saved for practicing the color work. I tell the children
Any suitable motions may be introduced by the teacher. how many, many pictures have to be taken for each "movie" and how often the same picture has to be taken over and over before it looks just right, and what long days of work their actor friends put in, and they take real pleasure in
Fay La Vere Enloe making and coloring their screens” as many times as are needed before perfect work is obtained. When the children
The following is a little plan which I use to make my can make, cut and fold good circles, each child makes one pupils realize the value of their daily recitation in connection from good white drawing paper. These I collect and save
with their monthly spelling grade. until the color work is good enough to put on them.
In a small record book I keep the name of each pupil, The next drawing lesson we devote to learning to put
followed by his spelling record. Every time a child misses even washes of the six colors and black and brown, one
a word a vertical mark is made after his name. Every time color on each segment of the circle. We start with red,
he turns some one down, a circle is placed to his credit. then orange, yellow, green, blue, violet, black and brown.
The child understands that every time he misses a word, I include the last two in order to give the children a chance
it takes two off his final grade, but he also knows that to learn to read those words as well as the other color words.
every time he turns some one down, it adds one to his final On the back of each segment, the name of the color is grade, so that if he misses a word, he must turn two people written. During this period I write the color words in a
down if he keeps his grade from falling. row on the board and call on the children to tell which color
When the child sees how much depends on his daily to put in the square I draw beside each word. This is left recitation, you will notice that he at once takes more on the board until the next seat period for reference.
interest in his daily spelling lessons.
Through Grade Two in Hand-Work II
TOW a bright, attractive blackboard poster was planned. How quickly these things were done! How eager they
were to be good readers, so that they could receive and many interesting things about the country: After interpret the telegrams quickly! hearing "The Dutch Twins," by Lucy Fitch Perkins, and Then came the Pilgrims' reasons for leaving Holland and reading "Ned and Nan in Holland,” by Olmstead and Grant, coming to America. "Mary of Plymouth,” by Otis, was we felt as if we had actually visited that country. Then extremely interesting and gave us many ideas for our next we planned our blackboard poster.
poster. We depicted the Pilgrims in America. We showed one Holland home with its surroundings. To the left, about a foot of space colored blue allowed us Green chalk made the grass, dark blue chalk made the sky to portray a suggestion of the ocean, with Plymouth Rock and canal. Out of tablet paper a Holland house was cut on its coast and the Mayflower anchored near. On the rest and then colored red The windmill and tree trunks were of the blackboard length, white chalk was used, to show colored red also, as “Ned and Nan” told us that the wind- the snow-covered ground and the gray sky. Log houses mills and tree trunks were painted the same color as the were cut and pasted in row, close to the ocean. A dense house.
forest formed the background. A
Away back in this forest Wooden shoes were in evidence. There were tulips in were the wigwams and Indians. shoe flower pots, shoes hanging on forked sticks to dry, A touch of color was given this poster also. The wigand shoe boats on the canals.
wams were colored light brown and, in many cases, the Other things were in and near the canal Ducks swam children designated the tribe by making a picture on the in it and waddled along its banks. The much petted wigwam. The Indians' faces were copper colored. Their storks stood on one foot in the canal or hunted eels in its suits and their head-dress feathers were colored also. The depths.
tree trunks were dark brown; the bare branches a lighter Hollanders, themselves, were not forgotten. "Ned and brown. The log houses were light brown and Plymouth Nan" were watching their ducks, the father was going to Rock was light brown ,with 1620 printed on it in dark brown. his windmill, and the mother stood near the house. A The hulk of the Mayflower was gray, with Mayflower typical Holland milk wagon was passing.
printed on it in black. Thus, two more blackboard posters You should have heard the lectures given. They em- found a place in our schoolroom. bodied ideas concerning:
There was more paper cutting connected with this
month's work. We had a table of things made by PilI The Hollanders
grims. We hung a large, white poster above this table. 1 Dress
On this poster, in letters cut from black paper, appeared 2 Occupations
the name of our display:
THINGS MADE BY PILGRIMS
Then slips one-half by one and one-half inches were cut, III Windmills
and the names of things on display were written on them. 1 Uses
Each slip was then pasted or pinned to the thing designated, IV Shoes
viz.: 1 Kinds
Quilt square 2 Uses
Home-made soap V Animals
Pine-knot candle VI Milk wagons
Butter paddle 1 How decorated
Clam-shell spoon 2 How drawn
Goose-quill pen 3 Type of milk cans
Gourd dipper, etc. Reading was correlated with this hand-work also. The Down to the present day the last paper cutting correlachildren liked to play that they were receiving telegrams. tions were brought. Colored pictures were cut from cataThese telegrams pertained to their posters. A telegram was logues and magazine advertisements. Both of these posters sent to each child and that child did as the telegram said. were number correlations. The dinner, planned for four, Examples: Georgia, find a windmill. Sadie, spell the name was based on actual prices in our city last November. As of the flowers in the wooden shoe flower pots. Theodore, we had to buy carefully, just enough of each type of food write the name of the place where we see the shoe boats, was prepared for that dinner. There must be no waste. the storks and the ducks. Margaret, draw a weather- The poem, “Over the River and Through the Wood," vane. Pauline, find a Holland story in one of our readers. suggested a "To Grandmother's House" poster.
How to Economize Time in the Schoolroom
Principal, Lutheran School, Des Plaines, Ill. N the days of the “Little red schoolhouse," the curricu- has a
has a just complaint to make about an apparent injustice lum consisted R's,
hear it some other time. raphy. The teachers during that period could devote considerable time to drills in these branches. Since then,
Distribution of Books, etc. times have changed, and with this change has come an
Books, papers, etc., that must be distributed during a enlarged course of study. The natural consequence is that
recitation should be given out, if possible, during the the teachers of to-day must gauge their time, in order to attain the required standard.
preceding recess period, so as to save time during the actual recitation period. This also holds true when tests are to
be given. Whenever possible, the test-questions should Promptness
be written upon the blackboard before school-time. A In order to economize time in the schoolroom, it is
convenient map may be drawn over them. When the imperative that the school day begin and end promptly. time for the test arrives, the map may be raised - presto! In order to accomplish this, an instructress ought to be time saved! in her classroom at least fifteen to thirty minutes before school begins. All pupils, upon their arrival, should be Separating Essentials from Non-essentials obliged to take their respective places, to arrange their A teacher who adheres too closely to her text-books, and books, to review their studies, etc. If this be done, the teacher at the stroke of nine in the morning, or whenever essentials, also is in danger of losing precious time. It may
who has not the skill of separating essentials from nonthe session begins, will be able to get a "flying start," so
happen that she will spend more time on the non-essentials to speak. There will be no need of waiting for pupils to file into the room with their wonted noise and commotion . important points, necessarily pre-supposes that the teacher
than upon the essentials. To be able to select the most
be conversant with them. She can read the lessons to be Preparation
taught and underline the main facts. She can even ask The teacher should also have the subject-matter to be her pupils to do the same, and thus give them an opportunity taught well organized. This, of course, will require prep- to delve immediately into the important facts, and thus aration, and that, probably, preparation at home. She also save time. must equip herself with the necessary knowledge, so that she can impart it without hesitation to her class. Were Judicious Hearing of Memory Gems she to use her text-book constantly, her recitations would
We Lutheran teachers demand our pupils to memorize prove to be uninteresting. The pupils might become restless and, in time, unruly. To re-adjust the discipline etc. Our object is, not only to sharpen the pupils wits,
Bible verses, hymn stanzas, the chief parts of our catechism, would entail the loss of valuable minutes.
but also to give them memory treasures “ that fail not, Record Books
where no thief approacheth, neither moth corrupteth.'
Now it is usual to assure ourselves that each individual Another feature that should not be overlooked in econo
child has studied his part. This, however, does not necesmizing time is the daily record book. Even if it is only sitate that each one of them must recite the complete part used to note down the numbers of the pages and lessons to be learned. It would be waste of time to do so. to be heard for the next day, it is indeed a time-saver. Think of the delay resulting from a teacher's asking her
Economy of Time Imperative pupils: “Children, where shall we find our lesson for today?”. A friendly argument might arise among the pupils charge of a country school, with its six to eight grades,
Those of us who were fortunate enough to have had as to the exact number of the page and lesson.
have had a good opportunity to learn to economize time. Distinct Answers by Pupils
We were compelled to "throw together" grades in order to
reach our goal. Now let us not delay in effecting changes The question-and-answer method is used a great deal in that will gain for us precious minutes in our classes. Proour schools. If we do not insist upon the children's giving crastination, you know, also is a thief of time. Let us retheir answers distinctly, we shall be tempted to repeat them adjust ourselves, so that we may get the greatest possiblo for the benefit of the other pupils. A habit thus formed is benefit out of our school time. Minutes lost cannot be hard to be got rid of; but we must overcome it, otherwise
regained. more valuable minutes will be gone. In this category also belong the ejaculations that many teachers employ when expressing their pleasure or displeasure with answers given,
Children's Stories as, for instance: Good! - Not right! — Correct! etc.
(Continued from page 563) They, too, are thieves of precious time.
Sometimes men of affairs of our own day like the late
Andrew Carnegie, put into the form of proverbs the guiding Self-control
maxims of their lives. The following list of proverbs may Every now and then will occur something in a schoolroom give a suggestion of a “Child's Book of Proverbs.” which will require a rebuke or an admonition. Let us be Proverbs may be classed under heads, relation to duties, on our guard lest these so-called "scoldings” take the virtues, etc. They must be brief, pithy, and significant. dimensions of a sermon, and probably extend into a They are useful as pegs in the memory to which löng “fourthly” or “fifthly.” Do as little of this during the chains of moral reflections may be attached. They serve actual school-time as possible. Rather call the culprit to as guide-posts to duty and give clear directions at critical your desk during the recess periods or after school, and have moments. They act as first principles of conduct which a heart-to-heart talk with him. This may accomplish may always be applied to moral divisions. And it must more than an open rebuke before the class — and you have
be remembered that he who repeats the words of another economized time. Do not enter into a lengthy discussion puts himself into the character off that other for the time of a breach of discipline with your culprits; but if a pupil being.
Supplementary Reading and Language Lessons
How Saburo San Found the Royal Flower of Japan
Nell Hampton Dick
(A True Fairy Story)
ONhe cup of Times, there are any years man ju the name
Fairy, I don't want to spoil the beautiful flowers - let of Osaka San. He worked each day gathering bamboo them stay here forever — they are so beautiful!” for the workmen who were building houses, or in doing any "Gather them," the Fairy commanded. “I have the odd job that he could find, in order to earn his daily bread. power to call forth more.”
He and his wife and five little children lived in a bamboo So Saburo gathered them until his arms were full. Then house just at the outskirts of a bamboo forest. Very, very the Fairy said, “Take them to your father and tell him to often they went hungry, many times having nothing to go with you to the Emperor." eat but a small portion of rice, the seeds of the bamboo, “But, dear Fairy,” began Saburo - but there were only or a dry crust of bread. As Osaka San grew older it became the purple asters, the ox-eye daisies and the corn-marigolds harder to secure work, and as he was a kind and loving nodding in the breezes. father, his heart was filled with sadness as he saw his Saburo hastened home with the wonderful flowers. He family suffering for food and clothing.
found his father weary and sad, for he had received but a Saburo San, his oldest child, was now ten years old, and bare sen for all his wood that day. He looked up with his childish face was sober and growing sad, too, as he saw astonishment as Saburo stood before him. He had seen his father and mother worn and sad from hard work and many beautiful flowers, but never before had he seen any poverty. He, too, worked and gathered wood to sell. so beautiful as these. Then Saburo told him of the Fairy
One day in November he had been working alone, and all that had taken place. “Come,” he said, “come gathering wood and tying it in bales for to-morrow's sales. with me, father, and we will go to the Emperor these He grew tired and lay down to rest on a moss-covered bank flowers are for him.” where the purple asters, the ox-eye daisies and the corn- They soon reached the Emperor's palace and Saburo marigolds were blooming.
asked if he might see the Emperor. At first the high officials He looked up at the flowers as they nodded and swayed refused to admit him, but when they noticed the gift he in the breezes and touched them with his little brown hands. carried, they knew that the Emperor had often wished for He loved the flowers and the birds they were his play- some flower that was beautiful enough to be the royal mates. Suddenly a voice clear and sweet said, “Saburo flower of his empire. So little Saburo was ushered into the San, why are you so sad? Why don't you fly kites and presence of the Emperor. He bowed low and laid the play as other little boys do?”
Howers at the monarch's feet, who gave an exclamation of To his surprise, he saw perched on the top of one of the surprise and delight when he saw them. He questioned purple asters, a tiny figure, not over six inches tall, dressed Saburo about the flowers, wanting to know just where they in a shimmering robe of silver and gold, wearing a crown grew. studded with gems, and carrying in her tiny hand a silver "They came from near my home, in the edge of the great wand.
bamboo forest, but there are no more like them,” said “Why, dear fairy,” said Saburo, rubbing his eyes to be Saburo. “They just suddenly appeared and I gathered sure he wasn't dreaming, “dear fairy, how can I be merry them and brought them to you.' and play when I see my poor father and mother so sad, and “If you can get flowers like these for me, or give me the my little brothers and sisters going hungry? I do all I can secret of how to get them to grow in the royal gardens, you to help them, but each day times grow harder and food and shall never want for anything," said the Emperor. clothing more scarce. Who are you, dear fairy, that you Osaka San and Saburo hastened back home with the ask me this?"
wonderful news and there was rejoicing in the little home, The fairy swung from the purple aster to a corn-marigold for the Emperor had liberally rewarded them for the gift nearer Saburo, and her face seemed to grow more beautiful of the flowers. as she said, “Saburo, I am the Flower Fairy and this mossy The next day, as Saburo was eating his lunch on the mossy bank is my throne. I have the power to bring happiness bank, the Flower Fairy came again to the nodding, purple to any of the friends of the flowers. I have been watching aster. With a gracious smile she extended her wand and you, Saburo
I know how kind and tender your heart is. motioned for Saburo to come near. Then she told him I know how you work and help your father and mother, how to take the purple asters, the ox-eye daisies and the and help care for your little brothers and sisters. I know corn-marigolds, and by cultivating them and giving them that you love my subjects, the flowers, for I have watched certain care and attention they would grow each year into you care for them and guard them. For all this I have a beautiful flowers as beautiful as the ones she called forth blessing for you, Saburo. You shall be the guardian and the day before. “This is my reward to you, Saburo," she take to the Emperor the flower that shall become the royal said. “The secret shall be yours until you choose to give flower of Japan.'
it to the Emperor, who will reward you greatly.” Then • Then the Flower Fairy touched the blossoms of the she suddenly disappeared. purple asters, the ox-eye daisies and the corn-marigold with So the dainty bamboo green house, with its oiled paper her wand, and the petals began to enlarge and unfold until roof, was built near the little home, and in time wonderful each blossom became a large, globe-like, feathery ball. chrysanthemums --- purple, white and gold — single, double
For a moment Saburo stood speechless at their wonderful and semi-double- grew in marvelous beauty. Then the beauty, then he clasped his hands, exclaiming, "Oh, good Emperor came one day and the secret became his, and the fairy, how beautiful! how beautiful!”
family moved from the little cottage, for they were to be “Gather them,” said the Flower Fairy, "and take them the gardeners and care for the chrysanthemums in the royal to the Emperor.”
gardens of the Emperor. So to-day the chrysanthemum is Saburo reached out his hands to gather the wonderful the royal flower of Japan.
The Courtship of Miles Standish
their friends in England. Priscilla wished herself back in
Hearing this, John Alden rushed to the seashore like a madman, perplexed and bewildered, saying, “It is my fault that she has chosen between us. He beheld the Mayflower riding at anchor, and the thought came to him that it would be better for him to return on the morrow to England on the Mayflower than to remain in Plymouth, claim the love of Priscilla, and face the wrath of Miles Standish. Turning from the shore, he hurried along in the twilight to the home of Miles Standish, who was anxiously waiting for an answer.
John Alden related all that had happened and how Priscilla had rejected the offer of marriage from the brave Captain. Up leaped the Captain of Plymouth and stamped on the floor! Choking with rage, he shouted, “John Alden, you have betrayed me! Let there be nothing between us
save war and hatred!” John Alden and Priscilla
In the midst of his anger, a messenger appeared in the
doorway, bringing rumors of danger and trouble with the APTAIN MILES STANDISH Strode to and fro Indians. Buckling on his sword, the Captain strode away
through the room, in his simple dwelling at Plymouth, to the council and left John Alden alone. The Elders of
viewing his weapons and hunting implements. John Plymouth impatiently awaited the arrival of Miles StandAlden, his friend and companion, was writing a letter at a ish, for they were undecided how to answer the Indian pine table by the window. As he wrote, he was often challenge, which consisted of two arrows tied with a interrupted by the proud Captain, who boasted of his rattlesnake skin. It did not take Miles Standish long to deeds and his soldiers, who were always ready to meet
decide. He took the rattlesnake skin, filled it to the jaw the Indians.
with powder and bullets, and handed it back to the savage, For a long time Miles Standish stood at the window saying, “Here, take it! This is your answer!” Silently and sadly gazed upon the hill, where lay buried his dear the savage disappeared through the forest. wife, Rose Standish, and many other Pilgrims. For a Early the next morning, before the village awoke from its while he paced the room in thought and then seated himself sleep, the brave Captain, with ten warriors, led by an by the window and read, while John Alden was busily Indian guide, marched northward to quell the sudden writing important letters which were to go to England by uprising among the savages. the Mayflower in a day or two. These letters told of the At daybreak many assembled on the seashore to bid terrible winter at Plymouth and were full of the fame of farewell to the Mayflower, which was to return to England. the Puritan maiden, Priscilla.
Foremost among them was John Alden. After spending a As he wrote, thoughts of the beautiful Puritan maiden restless night, he determined to return to England and to were uppermost in his mind. Upon finishing his work, he try to forget his anguish. Just as he was ready to step was very much surprised and embarrassed to hear certain into the boat, he turned and beheld Priscilla standing intentions of Miles Standish. After the death of Rose dejected among her friends. Her sad imploring look Standish, the Captain became very lonely. He wished to caused him to turn aside from his purpose, and decide to offer his heart and hand to Priscilla, but since he was timid, remain, that he might protect and support her in her he asked that John Alden bear his message to her. John weakness. He stood on the shore and watched the MayAlden could hardly refuse, since he and Miles Standish flower as it sailed out of the harbor. were such close friends. Nevertheless, he was reluctant As he turned around, he found Priscilla standing by his
side. She feared that he was offended and had come to His heart burned within him as he sped on his journey seek his forgiveness. He, too, owed her an apology for through the forest, for he, too, loved Priscilla. On his way, his actions. They were both willing to forgive and clasped he stopped now and then to gather some wild flowers for her. hands in friendship. Casting a last look at the Mayflower,
As he approached her home, he could hear her singing, they walked homeward together, and their friendship grew as she sat at her spinning-wheel. Hardly had his feet dearer. touched the doorstep, ere she rose to greet him. When Meanwhile Mlies Standish was marching northward to she told John Alden that she had been thinking of him he meet the Indians. After a march of three days, he came was dumb with delight, and he stood before her speechless, to their encampment. Immediately they wished to barter giving her the flowers for an answer. He thought of the for muskets and powder. When Miles Standish refused, first great snow of the winter, when he had made a path two Indian braves stepped forth and displaying sharp for her, and she had welcomed him to her fireside that he knives, insulted him, saying, "He is a little man; let him might warm himself. What a golden opportunity he had go and work with the women.” Indignant at this insult, lost! Had he but spoken then!
Miles snatched a knife from one of the braves and plunged They sat and talked of the beautiful springtime, and of it into his heart. In the fight that ensued, the other brave