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286–340. Juno, enraged that she can not ultimately prevent the success of the Trojans, determines, at least for the present, to visit them with her wrath. She summons the fury Allecto from the lower world to forward her plan of kindling strife between the Trojans and Latins.
286. Inachiis: Argos is termed Inachian from Inachus, its ancient king and founder.
294, 295. Num potuere: 'could they?' was it possible that they should fall? etc. No! they found a way through the midst of battalions and flames,
297. credo: 'I suppose, forsooth'; in bitter irony.
300. Ausa (sum): 'I have dared'; i.e. even against the known decrees of fate.
304, 305. Mars — valuit: Pirithoüs, king of the Lapithae, invited all the gods to his wedding feast, excepting only Mars. On account of this slight, Mars stirred up the Centaurs to make war on the Lapithae.
305, 306. concessit Calydona Dianae : Calydon, an ancient state of Aetolia, had neglected the worship of Diana, who therefore punished its king, Oeneus, and his people, by sending a fierce wild boar to ravage their land.
307. scelus: for poenam sceleris. The accusatives Lapithas and Caly. dona are in apposition with gentem and Calydona in the foregoing clause.
310. Quod si: “but if.'
317. Hac - suorum : 'at this sacrifice (mercede, 'reward,''price') of their people let the son-in-law and father-in-law consummate their alliance.'
320. Cisseis: the daughter of Cisseus '; Hecuba. The allusion is to the dream of Hecuba before the birth of Paris. As she dreamed that her offspring would be a fire-brand, and the cause of the destruction of Troy, so has Venus brought forth in Aeneas a like offspring (idem) — one attended with the same destiny, who shall in like manner, by becoming betrothed to a foreign princess, occasion disaster to the new or restored Troy (Pergama recidiva), and thus he shall be a second Paris.
326. cordi: “(are) a pleasure'; probably originally a locative.
329. atra: 'dark’ and black’are common appellations of all objects con. nected with the lower world, including both the ghosts, the gods, and monsters, and even Proserpine. The Romans conceived the hair of the furies to be composed wholly of serpents.
336. versare : 'to involve in,' distract with.'
339. crimina belli: i.e. crimina, ex quibus bella oriantur ; mutual wrongs and accusations which may lead to war.
341-405. The fury Allecto takes possession of the mind of Amata, and stimulates her to resist the marriage of Aeneas and Lavinia. Unable to dissuade Latinus from his purpose, Amata conveys Lavinia to the woods, under the pretext of celebrating the rites of Bacchus.
348. Quo monstro : = ut eo monstro.
350. fallit furentem : 'beguiles her in her frenzy'; as in her excitement she does not perceive the serpent.
354. lues: 'the pest. Before she feels the full power of the serpent's spirit (Vipeream animam), she has recourse to gentle entreaties.
360. O genitor: 'O (thou her) father.'
370. reor: Amata judges that since Ardea, the city of Turnus and the Ru. tuli, is separate from (Dissidet, taken literally) and independent (libera) of the kingdom of Latinus, Turnus is a foreigner (externus), and that the gods so pronounce (dicere). The queen seeks to show how the oracle may apply to Turnus as well as to Aeneas.
372. Inachus Acrisiusque : according to the tradition which Virgil follows, Danaë, the daughter of Acrisius, and granddaughter of Inachus, landed in Italy, and married the prince of the Rutuli, Pilumnus. Thus her descendant, Turnus, is of Argive extraction.
377. Immensam : ‘in its whole extent.' She roamed wildly (lymphata) throughout the city, in every street and by-way, unrestrained by any sense of decorum, and therefore not keeping within the limited circle of her palace and royal walks.
383. Dant animos: 'give life,'' velocity’; i.e. to the top.
389, 390. solum — Vociferans: exclaiming that thou (Bacchus) alone art worthy of the virgin.'
390. molles : the thyrsi are wreathed with vine and ivy leaves; hence, soft or pliant, with reference only to the leaves. sumere: the subject is eam, referring to Lavinia.
391. Te lustrare: 'moves around thee'; i.e. in the dances around thy altar. sacrum pascere crinem : 'grows the sacred lock'; referring to the custom in the worship of Bacchus, of growing a sacred lock in honor of the god.
405. stimulis - Bacchi: on every side pursues with the goads of Bacchus'; i.e. with a power equal to the real influence of Bacchus.
406–474. Allecto now proceeds to Ardea, the city of Turnus, and appears to him in his sleep under the form of an aged priestess. Failing at first to rouse his spirit against Aeneas, she assumes her real form. Turnus awakes full of fury, and summons his followers to war against the Trojans.
412. avis : dative.
418. innectit: sc. crinibus.
421-426. The whole passage implies that Turnus has been the principal de fender of Latium against its enemies, especially against the Tyrrhenians.
427. adeo : 'even '; join with haec. So important is the occasion that juno herself has directed me to say this.
428. Saturnia: see note on I, 23.
430. in arma: join with laetus ; eager for arms'; with a mind joyful in the expectation of war. Others take laetus with para, equivalent to an adverb.
432. magna: may be the accusative plural neuter with iubet ; "the power of the gods demands great achievements (of thee) '; or may be joined with vis.
433. dicto parere fatetur: consents to fulfill (obey) his promise.' See above, l. 366.
446. oranti: while still speaking.' Orare is used also in its etymological sense in X, 96.
447. tot hydris : cf. l. 329.
450. geminos: two serpents were made conspicuous on the heads of furies and of the Gorgons.
459. proruptus : with a middle force, breaking forth.' corpore: for ex corpore.
460. toro, etc.: he seeks for his arms on the couch and in his dwelling; his sword especially on the couch. Heroes kept weapons by them, even when in bed.
See VI, 524. 462. Ira super: '(and) anger still more’; anger on account of the prefer. ence of Aeneas as suitor for Lavinia.
464, 465. aquai amnis: the bubbling stream of water.'
467. polluta pace : ‘since the peace (between Latinus and Turnus) has been violated '; i.e. by Latinus in now promising Lavinia to Aeneas.
470. Se — Latinisque :'(he declares) that he comes (to the contest) a match (satis) for Trojans and Latins both.'
473. Hunc — iuventae: the wonderful grace of his beauty and youth moves one'; admiration, i.e. of Turnus, who is young and beautiful. Others are stimulated by the renown of his regal ancestors (atavi reges), and still others by the memory of his former deeds in war.
475-571. Allecto turns now to the Trojans, and finding Ascanius engaged in the chase, she causes his hounds to attack a stag which is the favorite of the family of Tyrrheus, the herdsman of King Latinus. The wounded stag flees to the house of Tyrrheus for shelter. The herdsmen call to arms; Ascanius is succored by his countrymen, and the first blood is shed. Allecto is
then dismissed by Juno to the infernal regions, by the way of Lake Amp
477. Arte nova: 'with new device'; with the intention of devising a stratagem of mischief additional to those already executed. quo litore: where on the shore.'
483. cornibus ingens: lofty with his horns'; the prose form would be cornibus ingentibus.
492. Ipse : ‘himself'; of his own accord. sera, etc.: 'in the night, however late.'
494, 495. fluvio secundo Deflueret: ‘was floating on the downward current.' 495. ripa: 'on the bank'; at times resting on the shore.
498. erranti deus: unaided, his hand might have erred, but a superior power (Allecto is meant) directed the arrow. For the use of deus, see note on II, 632.
504. conclamat: = clamore convocat.
505. pestis: the scourge'; Allecto. She has already made the rustics aware of the outrage.
509. Quadrifidam: proleptic.
516, 517. The lake of Diana on the Alban mount, far to the southeast of the Tiber, and the river Nar and lake Velinus far to the northeast; i.e. the whole country far around heard the sound. The lake of Diana, now called Lago di Nemi, is near Aricia, fifteen miles south of Rome. The river Nar runs between Umbria and the Sabine country, and falls into the Tiber. The lake Velinus was produced by the overflow of the river Velinus, and was led into the Nar by an artificial channel.
523. Non certamine agresti agitur: the contest is carried on not in the rustic manner.'
528. primo: = primum.
532. fuerat maximus : 'had been the oldest'; until now, when his life ends; when he is struck by the fatal arrow.
533. vulnus: as in II, 529, for the weapon itself. udae Vocis iter: of the moist passage of the voice.' Udae limits iter logically.
535. Corpora: sc. sternuntur.
541. Promissi facta potens: 'having fulfilled her promise'; lit. having been made mistress of her promise.' dea: i.e. Allecto.
572-640. The strife is continued by Juno. The shepherds hasten to Laurentum, and Turnus with them urges Latinus to war. The king, resisting in vain, leaves the control of things to other hands. On the refusal of Latinus, Juno herseif opens the Temple of Janus, as the signal of war. The Italians now make preparations for war, and their principal cities and nations are described.
572, 573. extremam manum : 'the finishing hand.' 574. ex acie : ‘from the battleground.' 577. igni: 'fiery passion'; as in II, 575. 578 sqq. The infinitives depend on an idea of saying implied in ingeminant. 580. attonitae Baccho: 'maddened by Bacchus.'
581. Insultant: 'rush through'; here a transitive verb. The husbands and sons of the Bacchanals, influenced by the name of Amata, importune (fatigant) war.
591. ubi, etc.: 'when no power is given (the king) to overcome their mad purpose.'
593. auras inanes : 'the empty air'; the air that can not answer his prayers.
595. has poenas: “punishment for this.' 597. seris : too late.'
598. omnis — portus: the port in which I am seeking my refuge is so near that it is all (omnis) open before me (in limine); the passage may be translated, 'my haven of rest is all in view.' 601. protinus: ‘perpetually'; continuously from that time.
601, 602. urbes Albanae: Alba, the mother of Latium, together with its colo. nies grouped about it in the Alban hills.
605 sqq. The deeds of Augustus are referred to. The Getae were a Thracian people, conquered about 25 B.C. The Hyrcanians were a Caspian tribe. See note on IV, 367. Augustus sent an army against the Arabs in B.C. 24. The Indi sent envoys to Augustus to sue for peace, at the time of his threatened invasion of the Parthians.
The latter people, or rather their king Fig. 63. — Temple of Janus (11. 607 sqq.)
Phraates, daunted by the preparations of
Augustus, B.C. 20, voluntarily sent back the standards which they had captured from Crassus. This event is often mene tioned by the poets as one of the most brilliant successes of Augustus.
607. Belli portae : see note on I, 294. 609. aerei: here a dissyllable, ae-rei.
612. cinctu Gabino : • with the Gabinian cincture '; a peculiar mode of adjusting the toga.