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in B.C. 29 and 25. The image of war, conceived of as a Fury, chained within, is of course a poetic fancy. Some suppose it refers to an ancient painting of War by Apelles, placed by Augustus in his new forum ferro — artis : is an instance of hendiadys (see note on l. 61) for ferreis compagibus artis.
294. impius: has reference to the recent civil and fraternal bloodshed during the contest between Caesar and Pompey, and then between Augustus and Antony.
297. Maia: one of the seven daughters of Atlas, called the Pleiades. Her son by Jupiter was Mercury, the messenger of the gods (see Fig. 36). For the case, see H. 469, 2; LM. 609; A. 244, a; B. 215; G. 395; (H. 415, II).
298–300. pateant, arceret: H. 546; LM. 805; A. 287, e; B. 268, 3; G. 511, R. I; (H. 495, II). Hospitio : the ablative of manner, equivalent to hospitaliter, as in III, 83; or possibly a dative of the end or purpose. fati nescia : ignorant of fate'; ignorant of the destiny of the Trojans, which decreed that they should settle in Italy, she might suppose they intended to make their abode in Africa, and hence repel them from her territories.
301. oris : adstare, stand,' or 'light upon,' takes either the ablative or dative.
302. iussa facit: "executes the commands (of Jupiter). He does this by so influencing the minds of the Carthaginians and their queen, that when the Trojans shall present themselves, their reception will be friendly. ponunt: often used in poetry for deponere.
303. volente deo : ‘because the god wills it.' Probably Mercury is meant.
305-417. On the following morning Aeneas walks forth, attended by Achates alone, to explore the neighboring country. In the forest he is met by Venus disguised as a huntress, to whom he tells the story of his misfortunes. She directs him to continue his walk until he shall reach the new city of Carthage, where he will meet with a kind reception, and she assures him of the safety of the twelve missing ships. She then reveals herself in her real form just as she is vanishing from his sight. Aeneas pursues his way, protected by his mother, who renders him and his companion invisible by surrounding them with a thick mantle of cloud.
305. At: see note on l. 267. Volvens : a free use of the present participle for the past, and equivalent to qui volvebat; an opposite use to that of comitatus, below, l. 312.
306. Ut primum : "as soon as.' See note on l. 216. This clause denotes the time of constituit, not of the infinitives. Exire, explorare, and referre depend on constituit ; 'but pious Aeneas, who was (or had been) meditating much throughout the night, when the genial light first dawned, resolved ic gc forth,' etc.
307. vento: ablative of instrument. The interrogative clauses, quas acces. serit and qui teneant, depend on quaerere. See note on l. 181. For the omission of et before quaerere, see H. 657, 6; LM. 752, A. 208,6; B. 346; G 473, R; (H. 636, 1, 1). The second -ne here is not strictly 'or,' but a second • whether.'
308. inculta : refers to locos and oras. H. 395, 2, N.; LM. 480; A. 187. 6; B. 235, 2, 6, B; G. 286, 1; (H. 439, 3). videt lengthens the last syllable by the ictus. H. 733, 5; LM. 1114; A. 359, f; B. 367, 2; G.721; (H. 599). The final vowel was originally long.
309. exacta : the things ascertained.'
310, 312. Classem - Occulit: ‘he conceals the fleet in the wooded hol. low, under the overarching rock, where it is surrounded by trees with their projecting shadows.'
310. convexo: refers to the secessus longus, l. 159. Nearly the same description is found in III, 229, 230, where secessu longo is substituted for convexo.
312. comitatus: II. 222, 2; LM. 353; A. 135, 6; B. 112, 6; G. 282; (H. 231, 2). The participle is used here not only as a pas. sive, but as a present partici. ple. The regular form would be Achate comitante. Cf. secutae for sequentes, l. 499.
313. Bina : see note on terna, l. 266, and Fig. 65.
314. Cui : limits obvia ; • advanced to meet him.'
315, 316. Virginis — fati. gat: Venus had appeared to Aeneas on other occasions, and especially in the last night of Troy, fully revealed as his divine mother; she now assumes the countenance and dress of a virgin, and also the weapons of the chase, such as befit a Spartan virgin, or a Thracian huntress, like Harpalyce. Trans. : ‘Having as. sumed the face and dress of a virgin, and the arms of a vir
Fig. 6. -- Diana of Versailles gin (either) a Spartan or such as the Thracian Harpalyce (is, who) wearies her steeds,' etc. We often have with qualis, as here, not only an ellipsis of
its antecedent, talis, but also of a verb, and sometimes of a connective. Here all three are omitted; namely, talis, est, quae (or cum). Cf. below, l. 498; IV, 143.
318. de more : "after the manner'; i.e. of huntresses. 319. diffundere: for diffundendam. See note on l. 66.
320. Genu: accusative of specification with Nuda. sinus : 'with the knee uncovered, and the Howing folds of her dress gathered up in a knot'; accusative with a passive participle, with the reflexive force of the Greek Middle voice; cf. the similar construction, I. 228. The statue of Diana with the stag, now in the gallery of the Louvre, corresponds to this description. The dress consists of two pieces, the tunic underneath, and the mantle over it. The tunic is shortened by being partially drawn up underneath the girdle, and allowed to fall over it in a fold, thus bringing the bottom of the tunic a little above the knee. The light mantle is then folded, and knotted round the waist. It seems to be this gathering up of the tunic and knotting of the mantle that Virgil has in mind.
322. Vidistis: H. 574, 581; LM. 933; A. 306; B. 302; G. 595; (H. 508, I and 4).
325. For the ellipsis of dixit, see note on l. 76.
326. mihi: for the dative of the agent after the passive, see H. 431, a; LM. 545; A. 232, 6; B. 189, 2; G. 354; (H. 388, 4).
327. quam— memorem? .whom can I call thee?' For the mood, see note on l. 565.
328. nec hominem sonat: “nor does thy voice sound human. Sonat takes an accusative of the inner object (cognate accusative). Cf. VI, 50; see H. 409, 2; LM. 503; A. 238, a ; B. 176, 4; G. 330; (H. 371, II, n.). certe: see note on late, l. 21.
329. An- an: H. 380, 3; LM. 702; A. 211,b; B. 162, 4, a ; G. 457; (H. 353, 2, N. 4). sanguinis : for the case, see H. 442; LM. 560; A. 216, a, 2; B. 201; G. 370; (H. 397, 2).
330. Sis felix: 'be propitious.' quaecumque : sc. es. 331. tandem : join with iactemur.
332. Iactemur: see note on videat, 1. 181. -que : at the end of the line loses its final vowel in scanning. H. 738, N. 2; LM. 1137; A. 359, C, R.; B. 367, 6; G. 745, 3; (H. 613, N. 5).
335. dignor: as a deponent, signifies 'I deem worthy of,' and governs the accusative of the direct object (me), and the ablative of that of which one is deemed worthy (honore).
338. Carthage is here called the city of Agenor, because its founder, Dido, is descended from him.
339. fines: ‘the country,' or 'territory,' around the city in distinction from regna, realm,” which is here the organized state, genus : though
grammatically in apposition with fines, relates in sense to the substantive Libycorum implied in Libyci. Cf. IV, 40.
340. urbe : see note on Italiam, 1. 2. The sense of the passage 11. 335340 is this: I am no goddess, deserving of worship, but a simple Tyrian huntress; for we whom you will see here are Tyrians, descendants of Agenor, forming a Punic state under Dido, a fugitive from her brother. But though we are Tyrians, the country itself (fines) is the warlike Libya.
341. iniuria: 'the story of her injuries, fugiens : cf. volvens, l. 305. 342. summa sequar fastigia : ‘I will relate the principal events.'
343. Sychaeus: here has the y long, in l. 348 short. agri: “in land,' limits ditissimus. See note on l. 14.
344. Phoenicum: also limits ditissimus. H. 442; LM. 560; A. 216, 2; B. 201, 1; G. 372; (H. 397, 3). miserae : for ab ea misera. See note on l. 326.
345. pater: Dido's father was Belus, mentioned below, l. 621. primis Ominibus : “in the first marriage ceremonies '; i.e. in her first marriage.
348. Quos: refers to Sychaeus and Pygmalion. inter: the prepositions ante, contra, inter, and propter are sometimes placed after the relative pronoun, and occasionally after the demonstrative hic. See note on 1. 13.
349. Impius: especially because he committed the murder ante aras. Sychaeus was a priest of Hercules.
350, 351. securus amorum Germanae : "regardless of his sister's love,' i-e. her love for Sychaeus. For the genitive with securus, see note on l. 14.
352. Multa malus simulans : giving false reasons for the disappearance of Sychaeus. spe: i.e. 'with the hope of seeing him again. amantem : the fond wife.'
353. Ipsa sed, etc. : 'but (in spite of Pygmalion's dissimulation) the very ghost, etc.
354. modis miris : is hardly distinguishable from the singular; “in a wonderful manner,' wonderfully. It is joined with pallida. Cf. X, 822; VI, 738.
356. Nudavit: the ghost seemed in the dream to conduct her to the altar, to show her the instruments and traces of his murder, and then to lead her to the place where his treasures were concealed. Cf. II, 296.
357. celerare, excedere: the infinitive instead of the regular construction after suadeo, which is ut with the subjunctive. H. 565; A. 331, 8; B. 295 and 5, N.; G. 546, R. I; (H. 498, I).
358. Auxilium viae : 'as an aid for the voyage. Viae is an objective genitive. H. 440, 2; LM. 571; A. 217; B. 200; G. 363, 2; (H. 396, III). recludit: equivalent to effodit ; 'digs out' of the earth; i.e. in the dream the ghost seems to do so.
362. quae forte paratae : “that happened to be ready'; already launched and prepared for different destinations.
363. auro: H. 477, II; LM. 645; A. 248, c; B. 218, 8; G. 405; (H. 421, III, X. I).
364. Pygmalionis opes: not actually the treasures of Pygmalion, but wealth which he had expected to secure by murdering Sychaeus.
365. locos : see note on 1. 2. cernis : is used with the same freedom as vides, above, l. 338: 'you have before you,' 'can see.'
367. Byrsam: the citadel of Carthage was so called, according to the Greeks whose explanation Virgil follows, from Búpoa, 'a hide'; because the colonists cut a bull's hide into strips and thus managed to inclose a large tract of land for the Acropolis of their new settlement. The real meaning of byrsa, however, which is a corruption of the Phoenician word bosra, seems to be citadel.
368. possent: H. 643; LM. 1026; A. 340; B. 314, 1; G. 628; (H. 524). tergo : for corio, “hide,' as in V, 405, and elsewhere.
370. Quaerenti: the present participle to express an action which had been going on and was hardly completed, as volvens, l. 305. talibus : sc. verbis. | 371. imo: H. 497, 4; LM. 565; A. I93; B. 24I, I; G. 29, R. 2; (H. 440, 2, N. 1, 2).
372. dea: Aeneas feels that she is something more than a simple huntress, notwithstanding her disavowal. pergam and vacet ( were I to go on,' s were there leisure'): would regularly be followed by the present subjunctive in the apodosis; but the indicative; componet, is substituted to express the absolute certainty of the conclusion in the mind of the speaker.
374. Ante: "before I should conclude. Vesper : the god of evening. He is represented by the evening star, and his office is to close the portals of the sky, or Olympus, when the sun with his chariot has entered in; and thus, as it were, he puts the day to rest (componere).
376. Troiae : H. 440, 4; LM. 569; A. 214, f; B. 202; G. 361; (H. 396, VI). iit: see note on Vidistis, l. 322. vectos: as in l. 121.
377. Forte sua: 'of its own will,' as opposed to the idea of any foresight or plan of ours. oris : dative, for the usual prose construction, ad oras.
378, 379. raptos — veho : this is one principal proof of his piety.
380. Italiam patriam : ‘Italy, our fatherland '; because Dardanus our ancestor was born in Italy. et genus ab Iove summo: 'and (land of our ancestry (which is) from highest Jove.' Genus is accusative. Dardanus was the son of Jupiter.
381. Bis denis : see note on bis septem, 1. 71.
382. data fata : see II, 771–784; III, 94-98, 154-171, and note on l. 205. secutus : for sequens. See note on comitatus, 1. 312.
383. Vix septem : barely seven’; scarcely even this small number survive. Euro: for vento.
385. Europa pulsus : cf. note on 233. querentem = ut quereretur.