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13. Karthago: for information concerning proper names, location of cities, etc., see the Vocabulary, and Map, p. 30. contra: for prepositions placed after their cases, see H. 676, 1; LM. 668; A. 263, N.; B. 144, 3; G. 678, 3; (H. 569, II, 1). longe: is joined with contra. Not only opposite but ‘far' opposite; separated from the mouth of the Tiber by the Mediterranean Sea.

14. dives, etc. : 'rich in resources, and formidable in the pursuits of war.' See H. 451, 2; LM. 573; A. 218, a; B. 204, I; G. 374; (H. 399, I, 3).

15. terris magis : for the ablative with the comparative, instead of the accusative of the object, see H. 471, 3; LM. 616; A. 247, a, N.; B. 217; G. 398, 296, R.; (H. 417, 1, N. I). unam: emphatic; 'one in particular '; here the emphasis is increased by its position at the end of the verse.

16. Posthabita Samo : ‘(even) Samos being less esteemed.' The most ancient temple and worship of Juno were in the island of Samos, where she was nurtured, and where she was married to Jupiter. The -o in Samo is not elided here, and yet retains its quantity, the hiatus being relieved by the caesural pause.

17. Hic currus fuit: the gods, like the heroes, used war chariots. Hic refers to Urbs (1. 12) and = in hac urbe. hoc: agrees with the following noun, regnum, though it refers to Urbs. H. 396, 2; A. 195, d; B. 246, 5; G, 211, R. 5; (H. 445, 4). regnum esse : 'to be the ruling power. The infinitive after tenditque fovetque instead of ut sit. Regnum is a substitute for regno, a dative of the end, and gentibus a dative of the thing affected. See H. 433; LM. 548; A. 233, a; B. 191, 2; G. 356; (H. 390, II, N. 2).

18. Si qua: “if in any way.' sinant: H. 576; LM. 936; A. 305, 6, 2; b. 303; G. 596, 1; (H. 507). iam tum : 'even then'; so early in the history of Carthage; before it was even completely built, and before it had subdued even the neighboring tribes of Africa. tenditque fovetque : both purposes and fondly hopes.' The couplet, que que, for et et, 'both — and,' is not infre. quent in poetry.

19. sed enim : an elliptical expression; "but (she feared for Carthage) for she had heard.' Trans. "but yet, but indeed. Cf. the language of Tennyson, The Coming of Arthur:

‘But — for he heard of Arthur newly crowned.' duci: "was being derived'; the race was even then springing up.

20. quae verteret: for the subjunctive, see H. 590; LM. 835; A. 317, 2; B. 282, 2; G. 630; (H. 497, 1). The overthrow of the Tyrian citadels'has reference to the sack of Carthage by Scipio Aemilianus, B.C. 146.

21. Hinc: • hence'; i.e. from this offspring. late regem: for late regnantem ; “ruling far and wide.' This usage of the substantive for an adjective or participle is chiefly poetical. For the adverb before rex, see H. 497, 5; LM. 670; A. 188, d; B. 354, d; G. 439; (H. 359, N. 4),

22. exscidio Libyae : "for the destruction of Africa. For the two datives, see note on regnum esse, 1. 17. After the Scipios had destroyed the power of Carthage, the succeeding generations of Romans rapidly advanced to the conquest of the world, thus becoming late regem, everywhere supreme. volvere : decreed. The three Parcae are Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos. The first draws the thread from the distaff, the second winds or twists it by turning (volvere) the spindle, and the last decides the destinies of men by cutting the thread with the shears. But volvere may also have reference merely to the 'revolving' or 'circling' of events.

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Fig. 1. — Judgment of Paris (1. 27) 23. Id: the destiny of Rome and Carthage above described. veteris : .former.

24. Prima : 'of old.' quod : see note on qui, l. 1. pro Argis : ‘for Greece.'

25. Necdum etiam : not even yet. Not only was the war itself still fresh in her memory, with all the irritating circumstances attending the ten years' siege of Troy, but she had not ceased to think of the provocations which had preceded and brought about the war. The passage from 1. 25 to 28 inclusive, is parenthetical.

26. repostum: for repositum.

27. Iudicium: Eris, the goddess of strife, threw among the gods assembled to celebrate the marriage of Peleus and Thetis, a golden apple inscribed, 'to the fairest. The prize was claimed by Juno, Venus, and Minerva; the shepherd Paris, son of Priam, being summoned to act as judge, assigned the apple to Venus. See Fig. 1. iniuria is explanatory of iudicium. formae : an objective genitive.

28. invisum : 'hated,''odious'; on account of her jealousy of Electra, from whom and Jupiter the Trojan race had sprung. rapti: Ganymede, according to the myth, when hunting on Mount Ida, was seized by the eagle of Jupiter, and carried to Olympus. See Fig. 44.

29. The construction of the sentence, interrupted by the preceding parenthetical lines, is here resumed. His accensa super : ‘being inflamed by these things besides. These old causes of hostility are added to her jeal. ousy for Carthage. super : an adverb.

30. Troas : for this form of the accusative, see H. 110; A. 64; B. 47, 3; G. 65; (H. 68). reliquias Danaum: for reliquias Danais ereptas; referring to Aeneas and his followers.

31. Arcebat: "was repelling from. She did this by stratagems, not by direct opposition; she instigated the inferior powers, as, for example, Aeolus and Iris, to injure the Trojans.

32. acti fatis : see note on fato profugus, l. 2. circum: see note on contra, l. 13.

33. molis : see H. 447; LM. 557; A. 214, d; B. 203, 5; G. 366; (H. 398, 1, and 402).

34-49. Six years after the fall of Troy (see introductory note to Book Third) Aeneas and his followers arrived at Drepanum, in the west of Sicily, where they were hospitably entertained by Acestes, a prince of Trojan descent. During this visit Anchises, the father of Aeneas, died. The Tro. jans were now, in the seventh summer, setting sail again from Drepanum, joyful (laeti) in the hope of soon reaching Italy, the end of their wanderings. The narrative, therefore, begins in the middle of the adventures which form the subject of the poem. What had previously transpired is related by Aeneas himself in the second and third books.

34, 35. in altum Vela dabant: 'were unfurling their sails for the deep '; ventis is understood with dabant.

35. salis : sal is frequently used for mare. aere: with the brazen prow.' The prow of a ship was sheathed with copper in Virgil's time. For the form of the ship, see Fig. 24; for the rostrum, or beak, Fig. 41.

36. aeternum servans vulnus : cherishing the eternal wound'; "the bitter wrath' mentioned in 1. 25.

37. Mene – desistere : am I to desist from my purpose, defeated?' H. 616, 3; LM. 976; A. 274; B. 334; G. 534; (H. 539, III).

39, 40. classem Argivum : a,' not 'the, fleet of the Greeks.'

40. ipsos : 'themselves, as distinguished from the ships. ponto: after mergo and summergo the ablative, either with sub or in, or without a prepo. sition, is used. See VI, 342; also below, l. 584.

41. Unius : ‘of one only. Pallas was angry with Ajax alone, and friendly

to the rest of the Greeks, whereas Juno was angry with the whole of the Trojan race. The i in Unius is scanned short here, as frequently in genitives of this termination. H. 93, 4; LM. 1088; A. 347, a, 1; B. 362, 1, a; G. 722; (H 577, 3, (3)). ob noxam : the outrage offered to Cassandra by Ajax the Less, or the Oilean Ajax, in the temple of Minerva, during the sack of Troy. See II, 403-405. Pallas, enraged on account of this violation of her sanctuary, raised a storm against the fleet of Ajax, on his return from Troy, when passing near the Euboean promontory of Caphereus, destroying the fleet, and killing Ajax himself with lightning. His body was then cast by the waves upon the rocks. Oili: gen, of Oileus (cf. Achilli, 1. 30), here a patronymic, son of Oileus.'

42. Ipsa : signifies that Pallas did this "herself,' personally, without the interposition of any other divinity.

44. transfixo: 'pierced' by the lightning.

45. Turbine : with the lightning-blast,' the wind supposed to accompany the bolt. Infigo takes indifferently the dative or ablative. Cf. V, 504; IX, 746.

46. ego: contrasted with Pallas. diyum : for divorum. incedo : suggests a majestic mien. Cf. 1. 405. It is substituted here for sum to express in a livelier manner the conscious superiority of Juno. regina : H. 393, 10; LM. 465; A. 185; B. 167, 168; G. 325; (H. 362, 2, N. 1).

47. soror: Juno and Jupiter were children Fig. 2. — Juno (Ludovisi) of Saturn.

48. Iunonis : is more forcible than meum would have been. See note on V, 354.

49. Praeterea : for posthac, “hereafter.' The indic., adorat and imponet, expresses the idea more forcibly than the subj.; 'surely no one henceforth adores, no one will bring sacrifice. The present is occasionally used for the future in lively or earnest discourse, indicating strong assurance. See II, 322.

50–63. Description of the realm of Aeolus in the Liparaean islands. 51. austris : the names of particular winds are often put for the general term.

52. antro: not the situation of Aeolus himself, but the place in which the winds are restrained and bound.

54. vinclis, carcere : ablative of means.

55. magno cum murmure montis : with the loud reëchoing of the moun. lain.' The hollow mountain resounds with the roaring of the winds, furious to burst the barriers. Cf. below, l. 245. Here and in l. 53, the spondees, which predominate, suggest well the power of the struggling winds, and the alliteration their roar.


56. arce: the palace was built on the summit or slope of a mountain, and is called, in l. 140, aula. Virgil probably conceives of the king seated on a throne in the open air. Some, however, think that the poet has in mind a throne within the castle or palace.

58. Ni faciat, ferant, verrant: for the present subjunctive, see H. 576, 2; A. 308, e; G. 596, R. I; (H. 509, N. 2). Cf. II, 599; VI, 293. In prose the imperfect subjunctive would be used.

59. Quippe : ‘for,' “because'; is removed from its proper place, at the beginning of the sentence, by poetic license. Trans. : For should he not do this, they would swiftly bear away,' etc.

60. speluncis : for the case, cf. II, 553; though the ablative also occurs after abdere.

61. molem et montis altos : an instance of hendiadys (two nouns joined by a coördinate conjunction, equivalent logically to one noun modified by an adjective or a genitive) for molem montium altorum. insuper : "above' or • upon’them. Cf. III, 579. Some render it moreover.'

62. foedere certo : 'according to a determinate law. H. 475; LM. 612; A. 245; B. 219; G. 408; (H. 416). Join with the infinitives.

63. premere: 'to restrain (them) sciret : "who might' or 'that he might know.' See note on l. 20. iussus : ‘when ordered'; i.e. by Jupiter.

64-80. The address of Juno to Aeolus, and his reply.

65. namque: is elliptical here, as enim above, I. 19. It introduces the ground of her appeal to Aeolus: 'I come to thee, for —' Cf. I, 731; VII, 195.

66. mulcere, tollere: are governed by dedit as accusatives, instead of being in the form of the participle in -dus. H. 622; LM. 994; A. 294, d; B. 337, 7, b), 2); G. 423; (H. 544, N. 2).

67. Tyrrhenum aequor : “the Tuscan sea'; that part of the Mediterranean which lies between Italy and the islands of Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica. For the accusative after navigat, see H. 409; A. 237, d; B. 176, 4; G. 333, 2, R. 2; (H. 371, II).

68. victos: the household gods of Troy, as its protectors, must be considered vanquished in suffering the city to be captured and destroyed.

69. summersas obrue puppis: lit. “the ships being sunk, bury (thou) in the waves '; a Latin idiom which should be turned into English by two independent verbs, “Sink and bury the ships in the waves.' H. 639; A. 292, R.; G. 664, R. I; (II. 549, 5).

70. diversos : *(their crews) asunder.'

71. bis septem : bis or ter with a numeral is a favorite mode of expressing numbers in poetry, corpore : an ablative of description. See note on l. 164.

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