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strong-built cloud culminating to fulness'. The line is toa consistent not to be spoilt by alteration; it gives the idea of a firm bed of cloud rising into a point, a fully formed well-defined mass, to which the strong expression Quam cum perscidit is well applicable.

370. Dissimilis inter se turbareque mixtas. Lachm. has inter se res, which Munro rejects as interse becomes one word; he prefers res inter se; may not inter sese be the right reading, i.e. partis ? “they must needs fight as differing from one another and fall into confusion as now mixed together'.

428. incita, 'roused', Munro, and so 137, ualidi uis incita uenti, 'the force of the strong wind when aroused,' 582 incita cum uis Exagitata foras erumpitur, 'when their force afterwards stirred and lashed into fury bursts abroad'. I should prefer to translate it in each case 'set in motion', from which it passes naturally into its later use of 'moving rapidly, rapid'.

475. Nam ratio consanguineast umoribus omnis, ‘For liquids have a kindred principle in all cases'. ollis Lachm. and Munro, I think unnecessarily.

483. illi gives a possible sense 'to join that mist', i.e. halitui 478.

490. Tam magni montis tempestas atque tenebrae Coperiant marin, 'In such huge mountains do storm and darkness cover the sea', or 'such huge mountains of storm and darkness', is so natural and Lucretian an expression, cf. 189, cum montibus adsimulata Nubila portabunt uenti, as to make any alteration unnecessary. 548. Et merito, quoniam plaustris concussa tremescunt

Tecta, uiam propter, non magno pondere tota;
Nec minus exultantes dupuis cumque uim

Ferratos utrimque rotarum succutit orbes. Lucretius who is fond of accumulating ablatives, cf. 367, magnoque tumultu Ignibus et uentis furibundus fluctuet aer (which I would translate, “the air full of fury heaves with waves of fire and wind exceeding tumultuously', rather than make ignibus et uentis depend on furibundus), 155, Terribili sonitu flamma crepitante crematur, is likely to have preferred plaustris, followed as it is and explained by non magno pondere, to plaustri, which would more naturally depend on tecta than pondere, 'with good reason, since buildings by the way-side tremble under the shock of wagons, no great weight yet shaking the whole of them'. In the next line scrupus (Munro) is very probable, uiai (Lachm.) certain ; but after nec minus, et or a similar word would surely be expected, and hence I venture to think, in spite of the unusualness of a bare cumque, that the right reading is Nec minus ex. et scrupus cumque uiai, 'and rock no less than a pebble on the road at times jolts the iron tires of the wheels'. Analogous, though of course with a difference in the qua preceding which makes it inconclusive, is the use of cumque in such lines as 85, Quid faciant et qua de causa cumque ferantur, where cumque, of which Munro takes no notice either in his translation or notes, seems to go rather with the ferantur than the qua, 'what they do and what is the reason of their motion in any case'; the often quoted Dulce lenimen mihi cumque salue Rite uocanti, if genuine, shows that cumque may stand independently, whether it is taken with salue or uocanti.

563. Inclinata minent is retained by Lambinus, and I think rightly; it recurs perhaps in 1195, frons tenta mebat, i. e. minebat, the in having fallen out from its looking like another M. The meaning is shown in the compound imminere, 'to hang over', a word very expressive either of the upper part of a house bulging out and appearing on the point to fall, or of a brow heavy and overhanging the rest of the face, as in severe illness. For the same reason I would change tellens in 237 to cellens as Wakefield, rather than pellens Munro, or pollens Lachm.

568. Quod nisi respirent uenti, uis nulla refrenet Res. 570. Nunc quia respirant alternis inque grauescunt. In both places Munro translates, 'abate their blowing', and practically this is the meaning. Yet it may be doubted whether in itself respirare can mean a pure negative; it seems rather to contain the double idea 'to blow and lull', which agrees with the notion of alternation conveyed by the passage throughout, collecti redeunt ceduntque repulsi.

574. Et recipit prolapsa suas in pondera sedes, “and after tumbling forward recovers its proper position to an equipoise'. Munro reading pondere says in his note, 'prolapsa answers to inclinatur, recipit sedes in pondere to retro recellit; falling forward out of its place is the natural force of prolapsa in Forc. and comp. 1006, primordia ferri In uacuum prolapsa cadunt coniuncta : recipit sedes in pondere then is a proper expression, not prolapsa in pondera'; granting that prolapsa has this meaning, and answers to inclinatur, why should this necessitate pondere? Recipit sedes in pondere seems to me slightly unnatural, in pondera not so; the accus. implying the motion of recovery or return to a former position is more like Latin idiom than the abl., which states the return in its accomplished, more quiescent, state.

600. Idque is perhaps right; its vagueness suits the tone of the passage, “the void it has made'.

618. Exsiccare suis radiis ardentibu' solem, we see him with his burning rays thoroughly dry clothes', Munro; perhaps suis may be expressed by the mere force of his rays'. 623. Tum porro uenti quoque magnam tollere partem

Umoris possunt uerrentes aequora uenti.
Una nocte uias quoniam persaepe uidemus

Siccari, mollisque luti concrescere crustas. Lachm. says ‘Absurda et sine pondere repetitio ; nam quae secuntur satis intellegi non possunt nisi addimus qua re efficiantur, ita Uentis una nocte, &c.' The repetition is not absurd and has weight, preceded as the second uenti is by uerrentes aequora, 'for do they not sweep the surface, those winds ?' uentis is unnecessary to explain what explains itself, and is to take away from Lucretius one of those ornaments of style of which he is never too profuse, and which, when they do occur, are the more jealously to be retained for their rarity. 663. Et satis haec tellus morbi caelumque mali fert,

Unde queat uis immensi procrescere morbi. Lachm. changes morbi to orbi, Munro to nobis, which is found in the Juntine, and is read by Lambinus. I believe morbi to be right, a carelessness of style paralleled by many others, e.g. 778, 9, infesta atque aspera tactu. Nec sunt multa parum tactu uitanda. 932, 3, Perpetuo quoniam sentimus et omnia semper Cernere odorari licet et sentire sonare.

715. Aut quia sunt aestate aquilones ostia contra,

Anni tempore eo qui etesiae esse feruntur. 729, 30, 1. Fit quoque uti pluuiae forsan magis ad caput ei

Tempore eo fiant quo etesia flabra aquilonum

Nubila coniciunt in eas tunc omnia partis. These two passages seem so parallel as to explain each other. In each case the eo refers to the relative which follows, in each there is the same hiatus of the relative in the same place of the verse. How then explain qui in 716? It can hardly be a locative like die quinti, &c., for as a locative qui seems to confine itself to the meaning of 'how'. Perhaps it is an illustration of that loose undefined power of the relative, of which the earlier Latin was full, though in literature, as might be expected, it was an ever diminishing quantity. Literally translated the line would be, at that time of the year which is the so-called Etesian winds', drawn out, 'which coincides with the so-called period of Etesian winds’; an attraction of the same kind as orbis quae terra dicitur, literally is 'the globe which is the so-called earth', such attractions being in fact contractions or compressions of a double sentence. This expansive power of the relative pronoun, extends, I think, to the demonstratives; e.g. Redditus his primum terris, ‘restored to earth first here', and this would be the meaning of Catullus's Illa rudem cursu proram imbuit Amphitrite (LxIv. 11), if, as I have conjectured, this is the true reading of that line, it was that Amphitrite, i.e. the Amphitrite of that time when the Argo was built that first imbrued a prow as yet strange to voyaging'. In 730 quo is not disproved by tunc in the next line; for tunc is to be taken closely with omnia, ‘at that time in which the winds are driving the clouds towards those parts, as then happens, all together'.

743. Remigio oblitae pennarum uela remittunt is perhaps right; the birds instead of sailing along smoothly and evenly, move their wings with an effort like that of a straining rower. oblitae pennarum remittunt uela remigio (dat.), ‘forgetting the use of their wings give up their sails to (take to) rowing'. 799. Denique si calidis etiam cunctare lauabris

Plenior efflueris, solio feruentis aquai

Quam facile in medio fit uti des saepe ruinas.
Carbonumque grauis uis atque odor insinuatur
Quam facile in cerebrum, nisi aqua praecepimus ante.
At cum membra domnus percepit feruida seruis,

Tum fit odor uini plagae mactabilis instar. In 800, for efflueris I propose e flustris, i. e. on a full stomach after being on the sea; the effect of the inhaled brine followed by a hearty meal being to produce fainting fits. Cf. 933, Denique in os salsi uenit umor saepe saporis, Cum mare uersamur propter: In 803, may not aqua be right, 'anticipated it by taking water'. The aceus. after praecepit in 1050 is different. In 804, feruida sorbus would not be very far from the letters of feruida seruis or feruis, and would agree with the vegetable character of the smells mentioned before. Feruida sorbus would be 'branches of boiling service-berries', and as such a decoction would go on in the kitchen or in chambers attached to it, membra domus would be a natural if homely addition to the picture. Service-berries, of which Pliny xv. 21, mentions four kinds, three of them vinous in flavour, and one of the three acid, were actually made into a kind of wine (Plin. xiv. 16) to which Virgil alludes, G. III. 379, Pocula laeti Fermento atque acidis imitantur uitea sorbis. Hence uini in 805 need not be changed to uiri.

851. Partim agrees with the general description of the fountain, part hot, part cold, i. e. hot by night, cold by day. This use of partim is easily intelligible, though strictly the same fountain is not partly hot, partly cold, at the same moment; the fountain is heated partly', passing naturally into‘the fountain assumes its part of heat' or 'takes its turn of heat'. 951. Denique per dissepta domorum sacea uoces

Peruolitanat, permanat odor frigusque uaposque
Ignis, qui ferri quoque uim penetrare sueuit.
Denique qua circum caeli lorica coercet
Morbida uisque simul cum extrinsecus insinuatur
Et tempestatem terra caeloque coorta
In caelum terrasque remotae iurae facessunt.

Quandoquidem nil est nisi raro corpore nexum
Lachmann, whom Munro follows, changes caeli lorica to
Journal of Philology. VOL. II.

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