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superior ministers. Besides these four ministers there were two prophets to do sacrifice, and five delegates, to see that all things were performed in , order; the first was called the king, and the other four Epimeletes.

The Thesmophoria was instituted by Triptolemus; and those women who vowed perpetual chastity were initiated in them. For some days a fast was kept; and wine was altogether banished from her altar; whence this expression came, Cereri nuptias facere, which (among the ancients) signifies a feast where there was no wine. Swine were sacrificed to this goddess, because they hurt the fruits of the earth:

“Prima Ceres avidae gavisa est sanguine porcae,
Ulta suas merita caede nocentes opes.” . Ovid Fast. 1.

o Ceres with blood of swine we best atone, -
Which thus requite the mischief they have done.

And garlands, composed of ears of corn, were of sered to her :

“Flava Ceres, tibi sit nostro de rure corona
Spicea, quae templi pendeat ante fores.” Tibullus.

To thee, fair goddess, we'll a garland plait
Of ears of corn, to adorn thy temple gate.

Ambarvalia were instituted to purge the fields, and to beg fruitfulness and plenty. They were so called, because the sacrifices were led about the fields; as the suburbs [amburbia] were esteemed sacred, because the sacrifice was carried round the city. These sacrifices were performed by husbandmen, who carried a sow with young, or a cow-calf, through the corn and the hay, in the beginning of harvest, thrice; the countrymen following him with dancing and leaping, and acclamations of joy, till all the fields rung with the noise. In the mean time, one

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of them, adorned with a crown, sung the praises of Ceres; and after they had offered an oblation of wine mixed with honey and milk before they began to reap, they sacrificed the cow to her. The rites of the Ambarvalia are beautifully described by Virgil:

“Cuncta tibi Cererem pubes agrestis adoret:
Cui tu lacte favos, et miti dilue Baccho,
Terque novas circum felix eat hostia fruges;
Omnis quam chorus et socii comitantur ovantes,
Et Cererem clamore vocent in tecta : neque ante
Falcem maturis quisquam suppomat aristis,
Quam Cereri, torta redimitus tempora quercu,
Det motus incompositos, et carmina dicat.” Geo. 1.

Let ev'ry swain adore her power divine,
And o and honey mix with sparkling wine :
Let all the choir of clowns attend this show,
In long procession, shouting as they go;
Invoking her to bless their yearly stores,
Inviting plenty to their crowded floors.
Thus in the spring, and thus in summer's heat,
Before the sickles touch the rip'ning wheat,
On Ceres call; and let the lab’ring hind
With oaken wreaths his hollow temples bind:
On Ceres let him call, and Ceres praise,
With uncouth dances, and with country-lays,

QUESTIONS FOR Examinatiox

How is Ceres represented 2 Who is she, and who were her brothers ? What kind of altar was dedicated to her on the motintain AEleus 2 --What were the usual names of her mother Ceres f Why was she named Melaena 2 Where did she conceal herself; who discovered her; and who persuaded her to come out of her retirement 2 What happened to the world during her absence 2 What inventions are ascribed to her ? In what respects does she resemble the earth 2 Why does she carry a poppy? What is the history of Triptolemus 2 What is the history of Stellio 2 What is the history of Erisichthon 2 What were the Eleusinia • From what is the word “mystery" derived so instituted the Thesmophoria, and who were initiated fa.

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Why were the Ambarvalia instituted .." the lines from Virgil in which these sacrifices are de scit - *

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THE muses are nine virgins, crowned with palms; their dress is decent and becoming. They sit together in the shade of a laurel arbour. Some of them play on the harp, some upon the cithern, some upon the pipe, some upon the cymbal, and some harmoniously sing and play at once. Methinks I hear them with united minds, voices, and hands, make an agreeable concord arise from their different instruments, governing their several voices in such a manner as to produce the most noble harmony.

They are the mistresses of all the sciences, the presidents of the musicians and poets, and the governors of the feasts and solemnities of the gods, They are the daughters of Jupiter and the nymph Mnemosyne, and were born on the mountain Pierius. Some affirm that they had other parents, and ancient writers say, that they lived before Jupiter, and were the daughters of Coelum. They are called the daughters of Jupiter and Mnemosyne (which in Greek signifies “memory,”) because all students and scholars ought not only to have greatingenuity, but ready memories.

The Musae were formerly called Mosae, and were so named from a *Greek word that signifies “to inquire,” because men, by inquiring of them

• 'Aro as awaz, id est, ab inquirendo. Plato in Cratylo.

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