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CHAPTER XIII. THE SATYRS, FAUNS, PRI.APUS, ARISTAEUS TERMINUS.
BEhold ! Those are Satyrs who dance under the shade of that tall and spreading oak; they have heads armed with horns, goat's feet and legs, crooked hands, and tails not much shorter than horses’ tails. There is no animal in nature more libidinous than these gods. Their *name itself shows their nature. The Fauns, whom you see joined with the Satyrs, differ from them in the name only; at least they are not unlike them in their looks: for they have hoofs and horns, and are crowned with the branches of the pine. When they meet drunken persons, they stupify them with their looks alone. The boors of the country call them the “rural gods;” and pay them the more respect because they are armed with horns and nails, and painted in terrible shapes. Faunus, or Fatuellus, was the son of Picus, king of the Latins. He married his own sister, whose name was Fauna or Fatuella: he consecrated and made her priestess; after which she had the gift of prophecy. History likewise tells us that this Faumus was the father and prince of the other Fauns and Satyrs. His name was given him from his skill in prophecying; and thence also fatus signifies both persons that speak rashly and inconsiderately, and enthusiasts; because they who prophecy, deliver the mind and will of another, and speak things which themselves, many times, do not understand. Priapus, painted with a sickle in his hand, was the son of Venus and Bacchus, born at Lampsacus; from whence he was banished, till by the oracle’s
*Satyrus derivatur are rms rains a veretro. Euseb. Prap. Evan. 15*
174 t command he was recalled, and made god of the gardens, and crowned with garden herbs. He carries a sickle in his hand, to cut off from the trees all superfluous boughs, and to drive away thieves and beasts, and mischievous birds; whence he is called Avistupor. His image is usually placed in gardens, as we may learn from Tibullus, Virgil, and Horace. He is called Hellespontiacus by the poets; because the city Lampsacus, where he was born, was situate upon the Hellespont. He was very deformed, which misfortune was occasioned by the ill usage that his mother suffered while pregnant, from Juno. He was named Priapus, Phallus, and Fascinum, from his deformity. All these names have an indecent signification; though by some he is called Bonus Daemon, or the good Genius. Aristaeus; whom you see busied in that nursery of olives, supporting and improving the trees, is employed in drawing oil from the olive, which art he first invented. He also found out the use of honey, and therefore, you see rows of bee-hives near him. For these two profitable inventions, the ancients paid him divine honours. He was otherwise called Nomius and Agraeus, and was the son of Apollo by Cyrene; or, as Cicero says, the son of Liber Pater, educated by the nymphs, and taught by them the art of making oil, honey, and cheese. He fell in love with Euridice, the wife of Orpheus, and pursued her into a wood, where a serpent stung her so that she died. On this account the nymphs hated him, and destroyed all his bees to revenge the death of Euridice. The loss was exceedingly deplored by him; and asking his mother's advice, he was told by the oracle that he ought by sacrifices to appease Euridice. Wherefore he sacrificed to her four bulls and four heifers, and his loss was supplied; for suddenly a swarm of bees burst forth from the carcases of the bulls.
Another god, greatly honoured in the city of Rome, is Terminus, because they imagine that the boundaries and limits of men's estates are under his protection. His name, and the divine honours paid to him by the ancients, are mentioned by Ovid, Tibullus, and Seneca. The statue of this god was either a square stone, or a log of wood planed; which they usually perfumed with ointment, and crowned with garlands.
And, indeed, the Lapides Terminales (that is, “land-marks,”) were esteemed sacred; so that whoever dared to move, or plough up, or transfer them to another place, his head became devoted to the Diis Terminalibus, and it was lawful for any body to kill him.
And further, though they did not sacrifice the lives of animals to those stones, because they though that it was not lawful to stain them with blood; yet they offered wafer made of flour to them, and the first fruits of corn, and the like: and upon the last day of the year, they always observed festivals to their
honour, called Terminalia.
QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION.
How are the Satyrs represented P
How are the Fauns represented, and what are they called by the country-boors 2
What does history say of Faunus?
How did he obtain his name *
Who was Priapus, and where was he born ?
How is he represented, and for what is the sickle in his hand?
Why was he called Hellespontiacus?
Where is his image placed?
What is Aristacus's employment?
What did he invent?
Why was he called Nomius’
What is the story of Euridice 2
How did Terminus derive his name *
What was his statue 2
What is said of the Lapides 1 erminales?
What did the ancients offer assacrifices to these stones?
THE GODDESSES OF THE WOODS,
HERE comes a goddess, taller than the other goddesses, in whose virgin looks we may ease our eyes, which have been wearied with the horrid sight of those monstrous deities. Welcome, Diana | your hunting habit, the bow in your hand, and the quiver full of arrows, which hang down from your shoulders, and the skin of a deer fastened to your breast, discover who you are. Your behaviour, which is free and easy, but modest and decent; your garments, which are handsome and yet 'o. show that you are a virgin. Your name indicates your modesty and honour. Actaeon, the son of Aristaeus, the famous huntsman, unfortunately observing you, whilst bathing, was changed into a deer, which was afterwards torn Tin pieces by the dogs. - • ‘Further honour is due to you; because you represent the Moon, the glory of the stars, and the only goddess who observed perpetual chastity. Nor am I ignorant of that famous and deserving action which you did to avoid the flames of Alpheus, when you so hastily fled to your nymphs, who were altogether in one place; and so besmeared both yourself and them with dirt, that when he came he did not know you : whereby your honest deceit succeeded according to your intentions; and the dirt which injures every thing else, added a new lustre to your virtue. Diana is called Triformis and Tergemina. First, because though she is but one goddess, yet she has three different names, as well as three different offices. In the heavens she is called Luna; on the