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• - 32 when he had vanquished Viridomarus, king of the Gauls, as we read in Virgil :

“Tertiaque arma Patri suspendet capta Quirino."

And the third spoils shall grace Feretrian Jove-o". 6 Those spoils were called opina, which one gener" took from the other in battle.

Fulminator, or Ceraunius, in Greek Koo", *

Jupiter's title, from hurling thunder, which is thought to be his proper office, if we believe the poet:


O quires hominumque Deûmque
AEternis regis imperiis, et fulmine terres.”— -
virg. AEn. 1, 229.

0 king of gods and men, whose awful hand
Disperses thunder on the seas and land ;
Dispensing all with absolute command.

In Lycia they worshipped him under the name of Gragus, Tezotos [Grapsios] and Genitor. In AEgium, about the seacoast, he is said to have had a temple with the name of Homogynus. At Praeneste he was called Imperator. There was a most famous statue of him at that place, afterward translated to Rome. He was called Latialis, because he was worshipped in Latium, a country of Italy; whence the Latin festivals are denominated, to which all the inhabitants of those cities of Italy resorted, who desired to be partakers of the solemnity; and brought to Jupiter several oblations; particularly, a bull was sacrificed at that time, in the common name of them all, of which every one took a part. The name Lapis, or as others write, Lapideus, was given him by the Romans, who believed that an oath” made in the name of Jupiter Lapis, was the most solemn of all oaths. And it is derived either

* Juramentum per Jovem. Lapidem omnium sanctissimum. Cic. 7, ap. 12.

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from the stone which was presented to Saturn by his wife Ops, who said it was Jupiter, in which sense Eusebius says, that Lapis reigned in Crete; or from the flint-stone, which, in making bargains, the swearer held in his hand, and said, “If knowingly I deceive, solet Diespiter, saving the city and the capitol, cast me away from all that is good, as I cast away this stone;” upon which he threw the stone away. The Romans had another form, not unlike to this, of making bargains, which may be mentioned here: f*If with evil intention I at any time deceive; upon that day, O! Jupiter, so strike thou me, as I shall this day strike this swine; and so much the more strike thou, as thou art the more able and skilful to do it;” he then struck down the swine. In the language of the people of Campania, he is called Lucetius, from lur ; and among the Latins Diespiter, from dies. Which names were given to Jupiter, “because he cheers and comforts us with the light of the day, as much as with life itself:” or, because he was believed to be the father of light. The people of Elis used to celebrate him by the title of Martius. He was also called Muscarius, because he drove away the flies: for when the religious exercises of Hercules were interrupted by a multitude of flies, he immediately offered a sacrifice to Jupiter, which being finished, all the flies flew away. e was styled Nicephorus, that is, carrying victory: and by the oracle of Jupiter Nicephorus, emperor Adrian was told, that he should be promoted to the empire. Livy often mentions him ; and ma

* Si sciens fallo, me Diespiter, salva urbe arceque, bonis ejitiat ut ego hunc lapidem.— Fest ap. Lil.

i Si dolo malo aliquando fallam, tu illo die, Jupiter, me sic serito, ut ego hunc porcum hodie feriam ; tantoque magis ferito, quanto magis potes, pollesque. Liv. 1, 1


my coins are extant, in which is the image of Jupiter bearing victory in his hand. He was called Opitulus, or Opitulator, the helper, and Centipeda, from his stability; because those things stand secure and firm which have many feet. He was called Stabilitor and Tigellus, because he supports the world: Almus and Alumnus, because he cherishes all things. -He was styled Olympius, from Olympus, the name 4. of the master who taught him, and of the heaven t wherein he resides, or of a city which stood near the mountain Olympus, and was anciently celebrated . far and near, because there a temple was dedicated : to Jupiter, and games solemnized every five years. To this Jupiter Olympus, the first cup was sacrificed in their festivals. When the Gauls besieged the capitol, an altar was erected to Jupiter Pistor; because he put it into the minds of the Romans, to make loaves of bread, and F. throw them into the Gaul's tents; upon which the siege was raised.

The Athenians erected a statue to him, and worshipped it upon the mountain Hymettus, giving him |

in that place the title of Pluvius; this title is mentioned by Tibullus:

“Arida nec Pluvio supplicat herba Jovi.”

Praedator was also his name, not because he protected robbers, but because out of all the booty taken 5: from the enemy, one part was due to him. For when the Romans went to war, they used to devote to the gods a part of the spoil that they should get, and for that reason there was a temple at Rome dedicated to Jupiter Praedator.

He was styled Quirinus, as appears by that verse of Virgil, cited above, when we spoke of the name of



Rex and Regnator are his common titles in Virgil, Homer, and Ennius. Jupiter was also called Stator, which title he first had from Romulus on this occasion : when Romulus was fighting with the Sabines, his soldiers began to fly; upon which Romulus, as Livy relates, thus prayed to Jupiter:* “O ! thou father of the gods and mankind, at this place at least drive back the enemy, take away the fear of the Romans, and stop their dishonourable flight. And I vow to build a temple to thee upon the same place, that shall bear the name of Jupiter Stator, for a monument to posterity, that it was from thy immediate assistance that Rome received its preservation.” After this prayer the soldiers stopped, and returning again to the battle, obtained the victory; upon which Romulus consecrated a temple to Jupiter Stator. The Greeks called him zavno [Soter] Servator, the saviour, because he delivered them from the Medes. Conservator also was his title, as appears from divers of Dioclesian's coins, on which were his effigies, with thunder brandished in his right hand, and a spear in his left; with this inscription: Conservatori. In others, instead of thunder, he holds forth a little image of victory, with this inscription: Jovi Conservatori Orbis, To Jupiter the conservator of the world. The augurs called him Tonans and Fulgens. And emperor Augustus dedicated a temple to him, so call- . ed; wherein was a statue of Jupiter, to which a little bell was fastened. He is also called Bpovrates [Brontaios] by Orpheus; and Tonitrualis, the thunderer, by Apuleius; and an inscription is to be seen upon a stone at Rome, Jovi Brontonti.

* Tupater Deum hominumque, hinc saltem arce hostem, deme terrorem Romanis, fugamgue foedam siste. Hic ego tibi templum Statori Jovi, quod monumentum sit power, tua praesenti ope servatam urbem esse, voveo. Liy, l. 1.

Trioculus, Tele26axwoo [Triopthalmos] was an epithet given him by the Grecians, who thought that he had three eyes, with one of which he observed the affairs of heaven, with another the affairs of the earth, and with the third he viewed the sea affairs.

There was a statue of him, of this kind, in Priamus' .

palace, at Troy; which, beside the two usual eyes, had a third in the forehead. Pejovis, or Pejupiter, and Pedius, that is, “little Jupiter,” was his title when he was described without his thunder, viewing angrily short spears which he held in his hand. The Romans accounted him a fatal and noxious deity; and therefore they worshipped him only that he might not hurt them. Agrippa dedicated a pantheon to Jupiter Ultor, “the avenger;” at Rome, according to Pliny. • He was likewise called Xenius, or Hospitalis, because he was thought the author of the laws and customs concerning hospitality. Whence the Greeks call presents given to strangers wenia, as the Latins called them lautia. Zevo [Zeus] is the proper name of Jupiter, because he gives life to animals.

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Had Jupiter many names?
What did the Greeks call him 2
What name did he obtain in Lybia 2
By whom and on what account was he called Belus 2
Why was he called Capitolinus 2
Why was he called Tarpeius, and why Optimus Maximus?
How did he obtain the title of Diespiter
Why was he styled Dodonaeus 2
Why was he named Elicius 2
Explain the reason why the name Feretrius was given him :
Why was he called Fulminator 2 -
What was he called at Praeneste 2
Why was he called Latialis :
o did he obtain the name Lapis, and from what is it de-
rived 2
What was the Roman way of making bargains 2
Why was he called Lucetius 2

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