Imagens das páginas

Why was he styled Muscarius, and why Nicephorus 2
Why was he denominated Opitulator, Centipeda, Almus, and
Ruminus 2
On what account was he denominated Olympius, Pistor, Plu-
vius, Praedator 2
What are his titles in Virgil, Homer, and Ennius 2
How did he obtain the title Stator 2
Why, and by whom was he called Soter:
What was he called by the augurs ?
Why was he called Trioculus * .
Why was he called Xenius, and why Zeus 2


• Natural philosophers many times think that heaven is meant by the name Jupiter: whence many authors express the thunder and lightning, which came from heaven, by these phrases: Jove tomante, fulgente, &c. and in this sense Virgil used the word Olympus.

o “Panditur interea domus omnipotentis Olympi.” A.N. 10. Meanwhile the gates of heaven unfold. • Others have imagined that the air, and the things that are therein contained, as thunder, lightning, rain, meteors, and the like, are signified by the same | name. In which sense Horace is to be understood, when he says: sub Jove, that is, “in the open air.” Some, on the contrary, call the air Juno, and the fire Jupiter, by which the air being warmed becomes fit for the production of things. Others, again, call the sky Jupiter, and the earth Juno : because out of the earth all things spring; which Virgil has elegantly expressed in the second book of his Georgics: “Tum pater omnipotens foecundis imbribis a ther,

Conjugis in gremium letae descendit, et omnes
Magnus alit, magno commistus corpore, foetus.”

Euripides thought so, when he said that the sky

Ought to be called Summus Deus, “the great God.”

Plato's opinion was different; for he thought that the

sun was Jupiter; and Homer, together with the

aforesaid Euripides, thinks that he is fate; which 4. ..

[ocr errors]

fate is, according to Cicero's definition,-”“The cause from all etermity why such things as are already past, were done; and why such things as are doing at present, be as they are; and why such things as are to follow hereafter, shall follow ac: cordingly.”. In short, others by Jupiter understand the soul of the world; which is diffused not only through all human bodies, but likewise through all the parts of the universe, as Virgil poetically describes it: -

The heaven and earth's compacted frame,
And flowing waters, and the starry frame,
And both the radiant lights, one common soul
Inspires, and feeds, and animates the whole.
This active mind, infus’d through all the space,
Unites and mingles with the mighty mass—AEn. 6.

"Jupiter is usually represented by the ancients as governing the world by his providence; and is described as viewing from an eminence the pursuits and contentions of mankind, and weighing in his scales their fortunes and their merits. He is the moderator of the differences of the gods, and whenever any of the inferior deities asked him a favour, he was disposed to nod his assent: -

He, whose all-conscious eyes the world behold,
Th’ eternal thunderer, sat enthron’d in gold:
High heav'n the footstool for his feet he makes,
And wide beneath him, all Olympus shakes.
He spake ; and awful bends his sable brows,
Shakes his ambrosial curls, and gives the nod;
The stamp of fate and sanction of the god:
High heaven, with trembling, the dread signal took,
And all Olympus to the centre shook—Homer.

All heaven is represented as shaken with his terrors, and neither men nor gods had the temerity to oppose his will :

* ALterna rerum causa; curea, quae preterierint, facta sint; et ea, que instant, fiant; et ea, quae consequentur, futura sint £ic. de Divin, 1.

[ocr errors]

———— ——— —)

[ocr errors][graphic]

. Then spake th' almighty father as he sat
Enthron'd in gold; and clos'd the greaf debate,
Th' attentive winds a solemn silence keep ;
The wond'ring waves lie level on the deep;
Earth to his centre shook; high heav'n was aw’d,
And all th’ immortal pow'rs stood trembling at the god. .

What do philosophers understand by the word Jupiter
What meaning do others give of it?
What is the example from Horace 2
How does Virgil understand it in the Georgics 2
Repeat the original and translation ?
Give me the opinion of Euripides, Plato, and Homer ?
Repeat the lines from the sixth AEneid, and point out the ap-
ication ?
How is Jupiter represented by the ancients 2
Repeat the lines from Homer ? -
How is he represented by Virgil 2




Apollo is represented as a beardless youth, with long hair, comely and graceful, who wears a laurel crown, and shines in garments embroidered with gold, with a bow and arrows in one hand, and a harp in the other. He is at other times described holding a shield in one hand and the Graces in the other. And because he has a threefold power in heaven, where he is called Sol; in earth, where he is named Liber Pater; and in hell, where he is styled Apollo; he is usually painted with these three things: a harp, a shield, and arrows. The harp shows that he bears rule in heaven, where all things are full of harmony; the shield describes his office in earth, where he gives health and safety to terrestrial creatures; his arrows show his authority in hell, for whoeyer he strikes with them, he sends them into hell.

« AnteriorContinuar »