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termined the victory to Pan, when Apollo and he
Effodit, et domini quales conspexerit aures,
He dug a hole, and in it whispering said,
QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION.
How was Anollo advanced to honour 2
ow did he kill Hyacinthus, and o: was the effect of it?
SEC. 3.-NAMES OF APOLLO. As the Latins call him Sol, because there is but one sun; so some think the Greeks gave him the name of Apollo for the same reason. Though bthers think that he is called Apollo, either because he drives away diseases, or because he darts vigorously his rays. * He was called Cynthius, from the mountain Cyn, thus, in the island of Delos ; whence Diana also was called Cynthia.
And Delius, from the same island, because he was
born there : or, as some say, because Apollo (who is the sun,) by his light, makes all things manifest; for which reason he is called Phanaeus. He was named Delphinius, because he killed the serpent Python, called Delphis : or else, because when Castilius, a Cretan, carried men to the plantations, Apollo guided him in the shape of a dolphin. His title Delphicus comes from the city Delphi, in Boeotia. Here Apollo had the most famous tem
ple in the world, in which he uttered the oracles to:
those who consulted him; which he first received
from Jupiter. They say that this famous oracle became dumb at the birth of our Saviour, and when Augustus, who was a great votary of Apollo, desired to know the reason of its silence, the oracle answered him, that in Judea a child was born, who was the son and image of the supreme God, and had
commanded him to depart, and return no more an
Me puer Hebraeus divos Deus ipse gubernans, .
Apollo was likewise called Didymaeus, which word in Greek, signifies twins, by which are meant the two great luminaries of heaven, the sun and the moon, which alternately enlighten the world by day and by night.
He was also called Nomius, which signifies either a shepherd, because he fed the cattle of Admetus; or because the sun, as it were, feeds all things that the earth generates, by his heat and influence. Or perhaps this title may signify lawgiver; and was
given him, because he made very severe laws, when,
he was king of Arcadia.
He was styled Paean, either from allaying sorrows, or from his exact skill in striking; wherefore he is.
'armed with arrows. And we know that the sun strikes us, and often hurts us with his rays, as with so many darts. ... He is accordingly referred to in this character by Homer:
Bent was his bow, the Grecian hearts to wound,
- Fierce as he mov’d his silver shafts resound.
By this name Paean, his mother Latona, and the
spectators of the combat, encouraged Apollo, when he fought with the serpent Python, crying frequently, “Strike him, Paean, with thy darts.” By the same name the diseased invoke his aid, crying, “Heal us, Paean.” And hence the custom came, that not only all hymns in the praise of Apollo were called Paeanes, but also, in all songs of triumph in the celebration of all victories, men cried out, “lo Paean.” After this manner the airy and wanton lover in Ovid acts his triumph too:
“Dicite Io Paean, et Io, bis discite, Paean :
Decidit in casses praeda petita meos.” Art. Am. 2.
He was called Phoebus, from the great swiftness of his motion.
He was named Pythius, not only from the serpent Python, which he killed, but likewise from asking and consulting; for none among the gods was more consulted, or delivered more responses, or spake more oracles than he ; especially in the temple which he had at Delphi, to which all sorts of nations resorted, so that it was called “the oracle of all the earth.” The oracles were first given out by a young virgin; afterwards it was determined that an old woman
should give the answers, in the dress of a young maid, who was therefore called Pythia, from Pythius, one of Apollo's names, and sometimes Phoebas, from Phoebus, another of them. But as to the manner by which the woman understood the god's mind, men differ. There are also different opinions respecting the tripos on which the oracle sat. Some say that it was a table with three feet; on which she placed herself when she designed to give forth oracles. But others say, that it was a vessel, in which she was plunged before she prophesied; or rather, that it was a golden vessel, furnished with ears, and supported by three feet, whence it was called tripos ; and on this the lady sat down. It happened that this tripos was lost in the sea, and afterwards taken up in the nets of fishermen, who contended among themselves which should have it: the Pythian priestess being asked, gave answer that it ought to be sent to the wisest man of all Greece. Whereupon it was carried to Thales of Miletus; who sent it to Bias, as to a wiser person; Bias referred it to another, and that other referred it to a fourth, till, after it had been sent backward and forward to all the wise men, it retured again to Thales, who dedicated it to Apollo, at Delphi. The seven wise men of Greece were, “Thales of JMiletus,” “Solon of Athens,” “Chilon of Lacedæmon,” “Pittacus of JMytilene,” “Bias of Priene,” “Cleobulus of Lindi,” and “Periander of Corinth.” I will add some remarkable things concerning them : Thales was reckoned among the wise men, because he was believed to be the first that brought geometry into Greece. He first observed the courses of the times, the motion of the winds, the nature of thunder, and the motions of the sun and the stars. Being asked what he thought the most difficult thing
in the world, he answered, “To know one's self.” This perhaps was the occasion of the advice written on the front of Apollo's temple, to those that were about to enter, “Know thyself.” Tyagi reavrov. * When Solon visited Croesus, king of Lydia, the king showed his vast treasures to him, and asked him whether he knew a man happier than he “Yes,” says Solon, “I know Tellus, a very poor, but a very virtuous man, at Athens, who lives in a little tenement, and he is more happy than your majesty: for neither can those things make us happy, which are subject to the changes of the times; nor is any one to be thought truly happy till he dies.” . It is said, when king Croesus was afterward taken prisoner by Cyrus, and laid upon the pile to be burnt, he remembered this saying of Solon, and often repeated his name; so that Cyrus asked why he cried out Solon, and who the god was whose as- . sistance he begged. Croesus said, “I now find by experience that to be true, which he told me;” and he then-related the story. Cyrus, on hearing it, was so touched with the vicissitude of human affairs, that he preserved Croesus from the fire, and ever af. ter had him in great honour. Chilo had this saying continually in his mouth: “..We quid mimium cupias,” “Desire nothing too much.” Yet when his son had got the victory at the Olympic games, the good man died with joy, and all Greece honoured his funeral. "Bias, a man no less famous for learning than nobility, preserved his citizens a long time. And when at last, says Cicero, his country Priene was taken, and the rest of the inhabitants, in their escape, carried away with them as much of their goods as they could ; one advised him to do the same, but he made answer. “Ego vero facio, nam omnia mea mecum. porto.” “It is what I do all eady; for all things that are mine I carry about me.” He often said,