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wild women, his companions, are called Thyades and Maenades, which words signify madness and folly. They were also called JMimallones, that is, imitators or mimics; because they imitated all Bacchus’ actions. Biformis, because he was reckoned both a young and an old man; with a beard, and without a beard: or, because wine (of which Bacchus is the emblem) makes people sometimes cheerful and pleasant, sometimes peevish and morose. He was named Brisaeus, either from the nymph his nurse; or from the use of the grapes and honey, which he invented, for brisa signifies a bunch of pressed grapes; or else from the promontory Brisa, in the island of Lesbos, where he was worshipped.

Bromius, from the crackling of fire, and noise of

thunder, that was heard when his mother was killed. Bimater, because he had two mothers: the first was Semele, and the other the thigh of Jupiter, into * he was received after he was saved from the e. He is called also by the Greeks Bugenes, that is, born of an ox, and thence Tauriformis, or Tauriceps; and he is supposed to have horns, because he first ploughed with oxen, or because he was the son of Jupiter Ammon, who had the head of a ram. Daemon bonus ; the “good angel;” and in feasts, after the victuals were taken away, the last glass was drunk round to his honour. Dithyrambus, which signifies either that he was born twice, of Semele and of Jove; or the double gate that the cave had, in which he was brought up 1 or perhaps it means that drunkards cannot keep secrets; but whatever is in the head comes in the mouth, and bursts forth, as fast as it would out 95 two doors. . Dionysius or Dionysus, from his father Jupiter, or from the nymphs called Nysae, by whom he was

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nursed, as they say, or from a Greek word, signify. ing “to prick,” because he pricked his father's side with his horns, when he was born; or from Jupiter's lameness, who limped when Bacchus was in his thigh; or from an island among the Cyclades, called Dia, or Naxos, which was dedicated to him when he married Ariadne; or lastly, from the city of Nysa, in which Bacchus reigned. Evius, or Evous: for, in the war of the giants, when Jupiter did not see Bacchus, he thought that he was killed, and cried out “Alas son 1" or i. when he found that Bacchus had overcome the giants, by changing himself into a lion, he cried out again, “Well done son.” E3 of Evan, from the acclamations of Bacchantes, who were therefore called Evantes. Euchius, because Bacchus fills his glass plenti, fully, even up to the brim. Eleleus and Eleus, from the acclamation wherewith they animated the soldiers before the fight, or encouraged them in the battle itself. The same acclamation was also used in celebrating the Orgia, which were sacrifices offered up to Bacchus. Iaccus was also one of his names, from the noise which men make when drunk; and this title is given him by Claudian; from whose account of Bacchus, we may learn, that he was not always naked, but sometimes clothed with the skin of a tiger. Lenaeus; because wine palliates and assuages the sorrows of men’s minds; or from a Greek word, which signifies the “vat” or “press” in which wine is made. Liber and Liber Pater, from libero; as in Greek they call him Exovespio; [Eleutherios] the “Deliverer;” for he is the symbol of liberty, and was worshipped in all free cities. Lyaeus and Lyceus signify the same with Liber: Tër wine frees the mind from cares; and those who have drank pleutifully, speak whatever comes in them minds. The sacrifices of Bacchus were celebrated in the night, therefore he is called Nyctilius and Nysaeus, because he was educated upon the mountain Nysa. Rectus, ‘Ostas [Orthos, because he taught a king of Athens to dilute his wine with water ; thus men, who through much drinking staggered before, by mixing water with their wine, begin to go straight. His mother Semele and his nurse were sometimes called Thyo : therefore from this they called him Thyoneus. Lastly, he was called Triumphus; because, when in triumph the conquerors went into the capitol, the soldiers cried out, “Io triumphe '''

QUESTIONS FOR ExamixATION:

From what is the name of Bacchus derived 2
What are his companions called 2
Why was Bacchus called Biformis 2
Why, Brisaeus : -
Why, Bromius

Why, Bimater?

Why, Bugenes :
Why, Dithyrambus?_
Why, Dionysius *

Why, Evius

Why, Evan Ž

Why, Eleus 2

Why, Iacchus 2

Why, Liber 2

Why, Nyctilius:

Why, Rectus 2

Why, Triumphus?

SEC. 3.-ACTIONS OF BACCHUS.

Bacchus invented so many things useful to mankind, either in finishing controversies, in building cities, in making laws, or obtaining victories, that he was declared a god by the joint suffrages of the whole world. What Bacchus could not himself do, his priestesses were able to accomplish; for by striking the earth with their thyrsi, they drew forth rivers of milk and honey and wine, and wrought several other miracles, without the least labour. Yet these received their whole power from Bacchus.

1. He invented the use of wine: and first taught the art of planting the vine from which it is made; as also the art of making honey, and tilling the earth. This he did among the people of Egypt, who therefore honoured him as a god, and called him Osiris. The ass of Nauplia merits praise, beeause by knawing vines he taught the art of pru

hing them.

2. He invented commerce and merchandise, and found out navigation, when he was king of PhoePllCla. 3. At the time when men wandered about unsettled, like beasts, he reduced them into society, he taught them to worship the gods. 4. He subdued India, and many other nations, riding on an elephant: he victoriously subdued Egypt, Syria, Phrygia, and all the east; where he erected pillars, as Hercules did in the west: he first invented triumphs and crowns for kings. 5. Bacchus was desirous to reward Midas the king of Phrygia, because he had done him some service; and bid him ask what he would. Midas desired, that whatever he touched might become gold : Bacchus was troubled that Midas asked a gift which might prove so destructive to himself; however, he granted his request, and gave him the power he desired. Immediately whatever Midas touched became gold, even his meat and drink; he then perceived that he had foolishly begged a destructive gift: and desired Bacchus to take his gift to himself again. Bacchus consented, and bid him bathe in the river Pactolus; Midas obeyed; and hence the sand of that river became gold, and the river was called Chrysorrhoos, or Aurifluus.—Ovid JMet. 11.

6. When he was yet a child, some Tyrrhenian unariners found him asleep, and carried him into a ship : Bacchus first stupified them, stopping the ship in such a manner that it was immoveable; afterward he caused vines to spring up the ship on a sudden, and ivy twining about the oars; and when the seamen were almost dead with the fright, he threw them headlong into the sea, and changed them into Dolphins. Ovid Met. 3.

QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION.

Why was Bacchus declared a god?
What were his priestesses able to perform 2
What was the first invention attributed to him *
Why does the ass of Nauplia merit praise 2
What were Bacchus' second and third inventions *
What did he do as a conqueror *
What was Midas' request?
What circumstance occurred when he was but a child 2

SEC. 4.—THE SACRIFICES OF BACCHUS.

In sacrifices there are three things to be considered, viz. the creatures offered, the priests who offer them, and the sacrifices themselves, which are celebrated with peculiar ceremonies. The fir, the ivy, bindweed, the fig, and the vine, were consecrated to Bacchus. So also were the dragon and the pie, signifying the talkativeness of drunken people. The goat was slain in his sacrifices, because he is a creature destructive to the vines. the Egyptians sacrificed a swine to his honour before their doors. - 2. The priests and priestesses of Bacchus were the Satyrs, the Sileni, the Naiades, but especially the reveling women called Bacchae, from Bacchus’ name. 3. The sacrifices themselves were various, and celebrated with different ceremonies, according to the variety of places and nations. They were cele– brated on stated days of the year, with the greatest regard to religion, as it was then professed,

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