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liberty. In fome people I fee great liberty indeed; in many, if not in the moft, an oppreffive degrading fervitude. But what is liberty without wifdom, and without virtue? It is the greateft of all poffible evils; for it is folly, vice, and madness, without tuition or reftraint. Those who know what virtuous liberty is, cannot bear to fee it difgraced by incapable heads, on account of their having high-founding words in their mouths. Grand, fwelling fentiments of liberty, I am fure I do not defpife. They warm the heart; they enlarge and liberalize our minds; they animate our courage in a time of conflict. Reflections on the French Revolution.
LIBERTY AND PEACE.
LIBERTY is a good to be improved, and not an evil to be leffened. It is not only a private bleffing of the first order, but the vital fpring and energy of the state itself, which has juft fo much life and vigour as there is liberty in it. But whether liberty be advantageous or not, (for I know it is a fashion to decry the very principle) none will difpute that peace is a bleffing; and peace muft in the courfe of human affairs be frequently bought by fome indulgence and toleration at least to liberty.Speech on Conciliation
LIBERTY AND SERVITUDE.
A brave people will certainly prefer liberty, accompanied with a virtuous poverty, to a depraved. and wealthy fervitude. But before the price of comfort and opulence is paid, one ought to be pretty fure it is real liberty which is purchafed, and that the is to be purchased at no other price. I fhall always, however, confider that liberty is very equivocal in her appearance, which has not wifdom and juice for her companions; and does not lead profperity and plenty in her train.- Reflections on the Revolu
tion in France.
TAKING in the whole view of life, it is more fafe to live under the jurisdiction of severe but steady reafon, than under the empire of indulgent, but capricious paffion. Appeal from the new to the old Whigs.
LEARNING. (SEE NOBILITY AND PRIESTHOOD.)
WE are but too apt to confider things in the ftate in which we find them, without fufficiently adverting to the caufes by which they have been produced, and poffibly may be upheld. Nothing is more cercain, than that our manners, our civilization, and all the good things which are connected with manners, and with civilization, have, in this European world of ours, depended for ages upon two principles; and were indeed the refult of both combined; I mean the spirit of a gentleman, and the fpirit of religion. The nobility and the clergy, the one by profeffion, the other by patronage, kept learning in existence, even in the midft of arms and confufions, and whilst governments were rather in their caufes than formed. Learning paid back what it received to nobility and to priesthood; and paid it with ufury, by enlarging their ideas, and by furnishing their minds. Happy if they had all continued to know their indiffoluble union, and their proper place! Happy if learning, not debauched by ambition, had been fatisfied to continue the inftructor, and not afpired to be the mafter! Along with its natural protectors and guardians, learning will be caft into the mire, and trodden down under the hoofs of a swinifh multitude.Reflections on the Revolution in France.
The phyfical Caufe of Love.
WHEN We have before us fuch objects as excite love and complacency, the body is affected, fo far as I could obferve, much in the following manner: The head reclines fomething on one fide; the eye
lids are more closed than usual, and the eyes roll gently with an inclination to the object; the mouth is a little opened, and the breath drawn flowly, with now and then a low figh; the whole body is compofed, and the hands fall idly to the fides. All this is accompanied with an inward fenfe of melting and languor. These appearances are always proportioned to the degree of beauty in the object, and of fenfibility in the obferver. And this gradation from the higheft pitch of beauty and fenfibility, even to the loweft of mediocrity and indifference, and their correfpondent effects, ought to be kept in view, elle this defcription will feem exaggerated, which it cer tainly is not. But from this defcription it is almost impoffible not to conclude, that beauty acts by relaxing the folids of the whole fyftem. There are all the appearances of fuch a relaxation; and a relaxation fomewhat below the natural tone feems to me to be the caufe of all pofitive pleasure. Who is a ftranger to that manner of expreffion fo common in all times and in all countries, of being foftened, relaxed, enervated, diffolved, melted away by pleafure? The univerfal voice of mankind, faithful to their feelings, concurs in affirming this uniform and general effect; and although fome odd and particular inftance may perhaps be found, wherein there appears a confiderable degree of pofitive pleasure, without all the characters of relaxation, we must not therefore reject the conclufion we had drawn from a concurrence of many experiments; but we muft ftill retain it, fubjoining the exceptions which may occur according to the judicious rule laid down by Sir Ifaac Newton in the third book of his Optics. Our pofition will, I conceive, appear confirmed bevond any reasonable doubt, if we can fhew that fuch things as we have already obferved to be the genuine conftituents of beauty, have each of them, feparately taken, a natural tendency to relax the fibres. And if it must be allowed us, that the appearance of the human body, when all thefe con
fituents are united together before the fenfory, fur ther favours this opinion, we may venture, I believe, to conclude, that the paffion called love is produced by this relaxation. By the fame method of reasoning which we have used in the enquiry into the caufes of the fublime, we may likewife conclude, that as a beautiful object prefented to the fenfe, by causing a relaxation in the body, produces the paf fion of love in the mind; fo if by any means the paffion fhould firft have its origin in the mind, a relaxation of the outward organs will as certainly enfue in a degree proportioned to the caufe.--Sublime and Beautiful.
LOVE (NOT ARISING FROM LUST.)
I likewife diftinguifh love, by which I mean that fatisfaction which arifes to the mind upon contemplating any thing beautiful, of whatsoever nature it may be, from defire or luft; which is an energy of the mind, that hurries us on to the poffeffion of certain objects, that do not affect us as they are beautiful, but by means altogether different. We fhall have a strong defire for a woman of no remarkable beauty; whilft the greatest beauty in men, or in other animals, though it caufes love, yet excites nothing at all of defire. Which fhews that beauty, and the paffion caufed by beauty, which I call love, is different from defire, though defire may fometimes operate along with it; but it is to this latter that we muft attribute thofe violent and tempeftuous paffions, and the confequent emotions of the body which attend what is called love in fome of its ordinary acceptations, and not to the effects of beauty merely as it is fuch.- -Ibid.
LOVE AND ADMIRATION,
THERE is a wide difference between admiration and love. The fublime, which is the caufe of the
former, always dwells on great obje&ts, and terrible; the latter on fmall ones, and pleafing; we fubmit to what we admire, but we love what fubmits to us; in one cafe we are forced, in the other we are flattered, into compliance.--Ibid.
Ir you liften to the complaints of a forfaken lover, you obferve that he infifts largely on the pleafures which he enjoyed or hoped to enjoy, and on the perfection of the object of his defires; it is the lofs which is always uppermoft in his mind. The violent effects produced by love, which has fometimes been even wrought up to madness, is no objection to the rule which we feek to eftablifh. When men have suffered their imaginations to be long affecteḍ with any idea, it fo wholly engroffes them as to fhut out by degrees almoft every other, and to break down every partition of the mind which would confine it. Any idea is fufficient for the purpofe, as is evident from the infinite variety of caufes, which give rife to madnefs; but this at moft can only prove that the paffion of love is capable of producing very extraordinary effects, not that its extraordinary emotions have any connection with pofitive pain.-Ibid.
Effects of outrageous Language. (See AMERICA.)
THIS outrageous language, (relative to America) which has been encouraged and kept alive by every. art, has already done incredible mifchief. For a long time, even amidft the defolations of war, and the infults of hoftile laws daily accumulated on one another; the American leaders feem to have had the greatest difficulty in bringing up their people to a declaration of total independence. But the Court Gazette accomplished what the abettors of independence had attempted in vain. When that difingenuous compilation, and ftrange medley of railing