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France, one of the most favourite that these speculations, on both features of the treaty, would not at sides, were from their nature subpresentamount to much, would soon jeet to error. It was the misfor. be nothing, and might in the end tune of the treaty that we could not turn against us. Upon this occa- judge of it but from experiment, fion he also mentioned the discove- and in making the experiment we ries that had been made of mines might be undone. of pitcoal in almost all the pro- He concluded by taking notice of vinces of that kingdom.
two arguments that had been much With respect to glass, he declared relied upon in the defence of the that he had seen a cut-glass cup, treaty. It was said that France bought at a retail shop in Paris for opened to us a market of 24 mil. 25. uid. and that for one of the lions of people, in return for ours, same form a workman in London of only eight millions : but to give had charged 55. for the cutting this argument any weight, it should alone. With respect to cottons, he be thewn, which had never yet been remarked that some years ago the done, that these 24 millions of peouse of Swiss printed linens in France ple had as much occasion for our had nearly ruined their home ma- commodities as we had for their's, nufactory: that this had excited the and as much money to lay out in manufacturers to exert themselves, purchasing them. It should be and that they now made as beautiful shewn that they would as certainly printed linens and cottons as any clothe themselves in our woollens in the world. Our coarse woollens and cottons, as we should drink would be secure till the French their wines and brandies. learned how to manage their sheep The other argument was, that properly ; but our superfines would by extending our commerce and be beat out of the home market.- multiplying our manufactures, it Since the year 1760, this manufac- would increase our resources, and ture had been brought in France to make us more able to contend the highest perfection, and did not with France in war. But this, he fear a competition with the Eng- observed, was upon a supposition that lith : had there been the least ap- it would not proportionably increase prehension for its safety, the French the resources of France. If it tenda ministry would never have suffered ed, as it manifestly did, to incite the importation of our woollens the French to become a commercial upon so easy a duty; they would and manufacturing nation, their recautiousy have protected a manu- fources would increase in as much factory which had been nursed by a greater proportion as their poputheir government at an immense. lation exceeds ours. If it were alkexpence for above a century. They ed how it tended to incite France might take a few more coarse goods to commercial exertions, he answerfrom us, in order to mix them ed, by opening to her our home with their own, for the American market, the richest market in Eumárket; and this he thought would rope; by exciting the industry and be their practice, much to our de- ingenuity of her own people to luptriment, in other articles besides our port their own fabricks; and above woollens. He allowed, after all, all, by giving her every opportu.
nity, the could wish for, of acquir- orat his market-to venture abroad ing that manufacturing skill, by with perhaps but one-eighth of the which we at present surpass her advantages of many other commerand all the world.
cial countries and to bring home · The bishop of Llandaff was an- wealth in one hand and revenue in fwered by the marquis of Lanf- the other. down. He said, there were two The second point they had to fundamental points for the commitconsider was, whether, in case it tee to decide upon: the first was, should be thought right to remove whether our old commercial system all unnatural restrictions from our should be changed, as totally erro- commerce, and to open it to the neous;-the second, whether, if it world, France should be an excepshould be thought right to open our tion? The ground taken by those trade to the world, France, for who contended for the affirmative any political reasons, should be ex- was the invariable and systematic cepted?
political enmity of that country to With respect to the first ; before this. But he denied the fact : nopersons of their lordships enlight- thing, he said, could be less foundened understanding, he believed it ed; and this he proved at large would require very little discussion. from the history of the two nations, In fact, truth had made its own from a view of the political state of way. Commerce, like other fci- Europe, and from his own converences, had fimplified itself, He gave fations with several of the most a short account of the change that eminent ftatesmen of France. had taken place in the opinions of Having cleared these points, and mankind upon this subject, and declared that he heartily approved fhewed that the old fyftem, with all of the principle of the treaty, and its monopolies, prohibitions, pro- was only forry that it had not been te&ting duties, balances of trade, and carried to a greater extent; he said, all the calculations formed upon there were some particulars upon them, was generally and justly ex- which he was not entirely satisfied ploded; andconsequently, that with with the conduct of the negotiators. them all the learned prelate's ar- He was free to own that he thought guments which were gounded up- greater advantages for this country on that system, fell to the ground. might have been obtained. What It was a proud day, he said, for the floated in his own mind was fomemanufacturers of this country, to thing of this fort: to have admitted fee them come down in a body from freely, article for article, all manutheir strong holds, fenced in by factures, where the first materials prohibitions, and mixing with the were equally attainable, any mo. world. Seated as they had been on mentary superiority, under such cir. the throne of monopoly, they gene- cumstances, being in negotiation of roully chose to descend from it; and no account. Some unreciprocal arseeing the true policy of the mea- ticles would remain on both sides; fure, consented without a murmur wine, brandy, vinegar, and oil, on to give up all their fences and forti- the fide of France; coals, lead, fications, to meet the foreign manu- tin, on ours. Theirs were luxufacturer on equal terms at their own ries, which we can get ellewhere;
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ours are necessaries which they can- to tell the public and parliament of not, at least, to advantage; we had Great Britain, that they did not consequently a right to expect an know their own interest, and must eguivalent for both. There was be- abide the consequence, he would be fides, the political tendency of the looked upon as infatuated. He treaty, in doing away prejudices, hoped therefore something would be and removing the probability of done without delay, and that Irewar, which manifestly in the end land would not be left to receive tends to double the force of France greater favour from France than by putting her at her ease. Com- from Great Britain. pentation therefore was due for these He concluded with declaring his three points; and what occurred to opinion, that if this country should his mind was, to get some advan- decline, it would not be on account tage in point of navigation, and to of this treaty, but for other obvious have said something of this sort to causes. If we continued under a France: In proportion as we give perpetual fluctuation of adminiftraup to you land, you must give up tions, and, in consequence, of fyrto us leac
tems, as we had done for many Secondly, he thought a favour- years past, if we went on rotting able opportunity had been neglect- in our corruption, and facrificing ed of doing something for the set- the army, the church, and the state, țlement and security of India. to the paltry purpose of procuring
Thirdly, he expressed his asto- majorities in the two houses of parnishment at seeing the neutral code liament, we could never expect to recognized in the treaty. He was be prosperous, wealthy, or powerauthorized, he thought, from what ful." paffel at making the peace, in giv- The defence of the treaty, during ing it as his opinion and conjecture, the whole progress of its discufthat it was a point the French would fion, fell almost totally upon Lord never have insisted upon. It was Hawkesbury, who to the objections not the interest of either country of its adversaries opposed tbe varito suffer new marines to start up ous arguments which we have aland grow too powerful. Hitherto, ready itated in its favour, with great at leaft, these were the politics of judgment and ability. The marFrance relative to Ruflia.
quis of Buckingham also took a Fourthly, no steps appeared to considerable share in the debate have been taken for putting a stop on the side of government; and the to the erections at Cherburg. duke of Manchester, the lords Stor
He lastly adverted to Ireland, and mont, Loughborough, and Ports said it was scarcely credible that we chester, on the fide of opposition. had no settlement either made or in The greatest number that divided view with that country. It was in the committee was upon the first įdle to talk of the Irish propositions resolution, when there appeared having been made and rejected, and contents 81, not contents 35. that therefore nothing was to be. In the course of these debates a done. Such language was much fingular altercation took place betoo humoursome to use towards a tween the duke of Richmond and great country. If a minister were lord Lansdown, relative to contra
dictory opinions, charged by the of a favourite scheme. And as a former to have been held by the proof that he had never given a marquis in different situations, upon direct approbation, he read a letter his grace's plan of fortification *. written to him by the duke, fubles It was aflerted, on the one side, quent to the time of the supposed that when lord Shelburne was at approbation,' in which he requeits the head of the treasury, the plan him to turn the matter in his had been communicated to him, thoughts, and give him an answer and that he had expressed a direct thereon as soon as he conveniently approbation of it. This affertion could; adding, that when he knew was as positively contradi&ted by his opinion, he fhould form his ordthe marquis, who nevertheless ac- nance estimate accordingly. To reknowledged, that at the time the but this presumptive evidence, the communication was made he had duke of Richmond read a letter from not had leisure to consult with those Mr. Pitt, who was present at thetime of his friends, who were most capa- the approbation was alledged to have ble of giving an authoritative opi- been given, in which he declares, nion on the subject. That it hap- “ That the impreffion made upon pened at the moment of settling the his mind at the time was, and had preliminaries of the peace; when continued foon everyréfectionfiuce, particular circumstances, known he that his lordihipdidfignify his approbelieved to most of their lordships bation of the plans of fortification." (he meant the divisions which sub- On the 7th of March the concurs fifted in the cabinet) might make it rence of the lords in the resolutions neceflary, for him to use fome ad- and address was communicated to drefs with the noble duke, and to the commons; and the day followbe cautious of provoking a very ing the address was presented by irritable mind by a direct rejection both houses to the king. ;
* Our readers will recollect the decided and active part taken by the confidential friends of lord Lansdown in the house of commons, upon the debate on the ord. aance estimates of the last feflion.
CHA P. IV.,
Consolidation of the duties of custom and excise. Tbe Speech of the chancellor of
the exchequer upon that subject; states the origin of ihe duties of tonnage and, poundage; the nature and inconveniences of those duties; the method hitherto, adopted for remedying them; their insufficiency. Explanation of the new plan of consolidating the duties of cujtom, and of excise. Provisions to be made for the. security of the public creditors. Upwards of three thousand resolutions to be moved. General concurrence of the boufe in this measure. Mr. Burke's Speech, an the occasion. Sir Grey Cooper mentions the progress made in it during the administration of Lord North. Bill brought in for the consolidation of duties. Provihons relative to the French treaty included therein ; objected to on that, account. Motion for separating the latter from the former, rejected. Motion 10, the same effeet, by Mr. Bastard, rejeEted. Warm debate, and motions on the Same subječt rejected in the house of lords. Bill receives the royal assent. Innovation in the mutiny bill again carried, after much debate. Pension of Sir John,
Skynner; Mr. Burke's Speech on that business. Motion in the upper house, by lord, , Rawdon, relative to the Spanish convention, and the evacuation of the Mosquito -fbore; Speeches of lord Carmarthen and the lord chancellor on the same subject.
Motion by Mr. Beaufny, for taking the corporation and test aets into consideration ; - endeavours to prove that the latter was never defigned to include protestant
dissenters, and ibat the reasons for the former had ceased; that no man ought 10 be punished for opinions; that disqualifications are punishments; that the disqualifications were not defensible by any faie necesity. Dilsenters vindicated from the charge of republicanism, and of aiming at the revenues of the church; teffs, that would remain after the appeal, suficient. Objećtion answered relative 10 the union. Remark on the impiety of a facramental test. Mr. Beaufoy answered by Lord North, and by Mr. Pitt; fupported by Mr. Fox; his remarks on the latę conduct of the diflenters. ·Mr. Beaufoy's motion rejected by 178 10 100. Budget; flourishing state of the finance; controverted by Mr. Sberidan. Notice given by Mr. Alderman Newnham, of a motion relative to the embarrassed state of affairs of the Prince of Wales. Retrospect of various matters relative to that affair ; first establishment of the Prince's boufbold; diference of opinions on the allowance to be made him; debt contracted ; meritorious conduct of the Prince of Wales. Application to the king for allistance rejected. Reduction of all his establishments and savings appropriated for payment of the debt. Misunderstanding between the King and the Prince. Generous offer of the duke of Orleans. Application to parliament. Conversation on the subječt in the house of commons; numerous appearance of the Prince's friends. Mr. Pitt's declaration, that he would have 10 disclose circumstances of an unpleasant nature. Mr. Rolle’s menace, to bring forward an enquiry concerning the connection between the Prince and Mrs. Fitzherbert. Prince of Wales demands to have the whole of his conduet enquired, into; authorizes Mr. Fox to explain certain parts thereof. Mr. Rolle's beha
viour warmly censured, and defended by Mr. Pitt. General disposition in favour , of the Prince. The manier privately accommodated wirb the Prince the day