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cause, with some others nearly as basis, and rendered any farther at. strong, they entirely overthrow the tempts to vindicate her unnecessary. false accounts hitherto given us of “But the bishop's defence," says the murder. The next thing done our author, " was carefully sup. is to proceed to the true account,“ pressed by the tyranny of the and from the circumstances of this “ masculine queen. The writing, affair, as stated to us by the bishop of “ subscribed by the peers of Scot. Ross, and from the agreement be- “ land, was locked up in the regis. tween his teftimony and that of " ter of Mary, and among the pa. Camden, a cotemporary author, em. “ pers in the Corion library. And ployed under the patronage and “ as Camden's history of Elizabeth intrusted with the papers of Cecil “ came not out till near half a cen. himself, we can have very little " tury had passed over the transroom to doubt of the murder's hav. “ actions, and till the slanders aing been originally planned by " gainst Mary had made a deep imMurray and Morton, whose secret “ pression upon the yielding faith views in this matter are thus dir. “ of the nation, so it lay long se. closed to us by Camden :-rThese “ quertered from the generality of 66 two above all things thought it " readers, by being confined to 118 6 best utterly to alienate the queen’s “ original Latin.” * mind from the king, their love In this manner it is to be ac. 66 being not yet well renewed ; and counted for, in some degree, why
to draw Bothwell into their fo. the memory of this unfortunate * ciety, who was lately reconciled queen has been so long ftigmatised 6 to Murray, and was in great with the enormous crimes of which « favour with the queen, putting she has hitherto been supposed “ him in hope of divorce from his guilty, and from which her present " wife and marriage with the queen zealous advocate seems indeed most " as soon as he was a widow. To fully to have exculpated her. The " the performance hereof, and to jonnets, contracts, and letters he has 5 defend him against all men, they proved in a very satisfactory inanner " bound themselves under their to have been the works of her ene. " hands and feals ; fuppofing that mies ; and from the writings of her “ if the matter succeeded, they enemies themselves he has detected " could, with one and the fame their views in the forgery. The “ labour, make away the king, murder of Darnley, of which she
weaken the queen's reputation an has been so long lupposed an ac“ mong the nobility and commons, complice, is here plainly discovered “ tread down Bothwell, and draw to have been both planned and exee “ unto themfelves the whole managing cuted by her molt inveterate foes, < of the state."
some of whom afterwards, in the And most completely indeed did most awful moments of their lives, they succeed in their attempts, acquitted her in the most folemn though the reader will undoubtedly manner of having had any share in be amazed, on the review of this it. And, to conciude this account evidence, to find that such teltimo. in the Author's own words--"Theie nies have not lung fince settled the “s conte:lions, made (most of them) reputation of Mary upon a solid « so openly to the attending multi
“ tudes, reported (all of them) fo Travels through Egypt and Syria, in “ openly to us at and near the mc the years 1783, 1784, and 1785; " ment, authenticated by such for by M. C. F. Volney. " mal and dignified attestations, " and afcending uowards throub VERY circumstance, however " such a scale of witneffes, to such
u minure, concerning Egypt and " a couple of leaders, carry a won. S;rid, is unquestionably, from the 6. derful weight with them. They memory of their ancient splendour " were made by men who were it and independence, an object of ra. " but one, actors in the deed of tional curiosity. We need not there“ murder. They were mide by
bude ho fore hesitate to recommend a work " men, who were attached to Both."
which, like the present, abounds “ well particularly. They were
✓ were with such a variety of new and in" made by men who were all bue teresting matter relating to those « one, affociates in the villainy with countries, in the trongeft manner “ Murray, Morton, and Bothwell.
Boshwell to the attention of the reader. Bee " They were made even by Boch- lides many ingenious and philoso. " well himself. And thev were phical oblervations on the climate 16 even made by Morton himself. and natural productions, and an in. " They were made by all, when teresting account of the customs. " they were awfully standing on the
the manners, laws, genius, and charac« very shore and beach of time,
ter of the people ; it contains a « when they were awfully throwing
fund of valuable information about their eyes across the narrow
the state of their revenues, che na• ocean of death before them. and ture of their military establishment.
of Turkish " when they were penitentially pre. and the general lyttem os paring for their reception in the policy in the government of the or regions of eterniry bevond. They provinces dependent on the Otto" thus form an energy of evidence, man
evidence man empire. It appears to be che - even fuperior. I think, if poflible. principal object of the author to lay so to all the constructive testimonies
before his readers an accurate " of history before. They certain
in and faithful account of the present 56 ly speak to the understanding, in
in naiural and political ftate of these " conjunction with these, in a voice
"countries. With That view he has " of power, and with a tone of
: confined his researches chiefly to " thunder. And the innecence of
of those points; and refers his readers " Mary, and the guilt of Murray,
on the subject of antiquity, which “ Moreton, and Bothwell, now stand " upon a basis as firm as the pillars
ore exhausted, to Norden, Pocock, Nie. " of the earth, and now appear to
buhr, Savary, and other travellers. rc the eye as conspicuous as the arch
There is indeed a full and minute or of heaven."
account of the ruins of Palmyra and the temple of the fun at Balbec, in that part of the work relating to Syria. But he has allotted no more than one short chapter to the co, pious subject of the pyrainids, and to the general de!cription of all the
other remains of antiquity which “ winds which constantly occasion abound in every part of Egypt.-In “ head aches, nor those swarms of the plan and execution of the work, "scorpions, gnars, and especially Mons. Volney has differed from the " flies, which are so numerous, generality of writers of travels. “ that it is impossible to eat with. He has rejected the usual form of " out running the risk of swallow. an itinerary as too prolix, and has "ing them. Besides, no country claffed all his observations under'fe. “ presents such a fameness of as. parate chapters, according to the spect. A boundless naked plain, nature of the subject. He has like. “ an horizon every where flat and wise studiously avoided the imperti. " uniform, date trees with fender nence of personal anecdotes, and “ and bare trunks, or mud-walled professes to have repressed with care "shuts on the causeways, are ail it eyery disposition to exaggeration " offers to the eye, which no where and embellidament. It appears that "beholds that richness of land. he was anticipated in his account of “ scape, that variety of objects, or Egypt by Mons. Savary, from whom " diversity of scenery which truc he differs in many essential points. " tafte finds so delightful. The
The general aspect of the country. “ face of nature there presents no• which Monf. Savary has described “thing but fat herds, fertile fields, as so picturesque and beautiful, will “a muddy river, a sea of fresh present, in the account given by our " water, and villages which rising author, a very different idea to the “ out of it resemble islands. Should imagination of the reader: “ If," says " the eye reach the horizon, we Mons. Volney, " he figures to hin. " are terrified at finding nothing “ self a flic plain, intersected by " but savage desarts. The conor canals, undir water during three " traft of this melancholy scene so « months, marshy and rank with “ near, has given to the cultivated or vegetation for three others, and “ fields of Egypt all their charms."
dusty and parched the remainder The second and third chapters con. se of the year; if he imagines a tain a long discufsion of Monf., Sa. ss number of wretched mud-walled vary's opinion respecting the en. or and brick villages, naked and largement and the rise of the Delta. o sun-burnt peasants, buffaloes, ca- Our author contends that the pros mels, sycamore and date irees gress in the enlargement of the so thinly scattered, lakes, cultivated Delta could not have been so rapid
fields, and vacant grounds of as Monf. Savary had imagined. so considerable extent ; and adds, In the course of his argument, in “ besides, a fun darcing his rays which he displays very acute rea. “ from an azure kky, almost inva. , soning and considerable learning, os riably free froin clouds, and he detects a falle quotation from " winds conttanily blowing, shough Strabo, with which Mons, Savary " not always with the farne force, had supported his fyftem ; and like. " he will form a tolerably juft idea wile gives the true explanation of a " of the natural appearance of this passage in Homer, which the ojher " country, I cannot be reconciled,” had mistaken. He then concludes he continues, " to the peftiferous by observing, " that it would itill $' southern blaft, the north-eaft.“ remain to be explained, why the
"" more, “ shore, which is supposed to have conquerors of Mauritania, and ar" gained eleven leagues from the rived in Egypt at different times, “time of Menelius to Alexander, and under different chiefs; like the " fhould not have gained more former they exercise trades and agri. or chan half a league during the culture, they are nost numerous in "much longer period from the the Said, where they have villages " time of Alexander to the present and even diftinct sovereigns of their ".day." The mistake of Mons. own; the third class is that of the Savary as to the rise of the Delta, Bedouins, or inhabitants of the des was occafioned by his not adverting farts, Pacific in their camp, they to the circumttance of the alterations are every where else in an habitual that have been made in the Nilome- ftate of war; the husbandmen, whom ter. It was not the Nile, Mons. they pillage, hate them; the tra. Volney afferts, but the column and vellers, whom they plunder, speak measures that have varied. -- We ill of them ; and the 'Turks, who must now refer our readers to seve. dread them, endeavour to divide ral extracts from this work, which and corrupt them. It is calculated he will find in different parts of that the different tribes of them this volume ; to the history of Ali might form a body of 30,oco horsea Bey, page 15 (Characters); to an men ; but they are so dispersed and account of the winds in Egypt, and disunited, that they are only contheir plænumena, page 56 (Nato- fidered as robbers and vagabonds. ral History); and to the account of The second race of inhabitants, are the Mamlouks, page 137 (Miscel. the Copts. They are disperfed all Janeous Efrays). We come now to over the country, though greater i he aceount of the inhabitants. numbers are found in the Said. They Egypt affo:ds the fingular spectacle are the descendants of the people of four diftinct races of men, com- who were conquered by the Arabs, pletely separated from each other that is, a mixture of Egyptians, hy religious and political prejo. Persians, and above all Greeks, dices, and continuing to preserve who under the Ptolemies and Contheir original characters perfectly ftantines were so long in possession diftinct and unblended, though liv. of Egypt. They are all Christians, ing in the fame climate, in the Mons. Volney conceives the Arabic fame country, and under the fame word Kobti a Copt, to be an abbregovernment. This part of the viation of the Greek word Ai-goupis work is particularly curious and in- os. Under the name of writers, the teresting. The firit, and most ge Copts are at Cairo the intendants, nerally dispersed of the four races, secretaries, and collectors of governis that of the Arabs; of these there ment. These writers, despised by are three classes ; first, the posterity the Turks, whom they serve, and of the ancient conquerors of the hated by the peasants, whom they country who settled principally in oppress, form a kind of separate the Delta, and are fourd in the pre- class, the head of which is the wri. fent class of Fellaks, or husbandmen ter of the principal Bey.-The third and artizans: the second is that of race are the Turks, who are masters the Africans or Occidentals, who of the country, or at least poffefs are descended from the Arabian that tiile. They are not setiled much among the villages. Indivi- the practicability of forming a juncduals of that race are rarely met with tion between the Mediterranean and except at Cairo, where they exercise the Red Sea, by means of a canal the arts, and occupy the religious cut throngh the isthmus of Suez, and military employments. For- which has been so frequently dif. merly they were also advanced to cussed, could not escape the notice posts under government, but within of so sagacious a traveller as Mons. the last thirty years a tacit revolu. Volney. The utter impracticabi. tion has taken place, which, with-lity of the scheme is clearly shewn ont taking from them the title, has by the following remark, formed deprived them of the reality of power. on his actual observation of the nam This revolution has been effected by ture and situation of the correspondthe fourth and last race, the Mam. ing coafts, as which are of a low and Jouks.—The individuals of this race, " sandy soil, where the waters form all born at the foot of Mount Cau: 66 shoals and morasses, so that vera casus, are distinguished from the " sels cannot approach within a conother inhabitants by the flaxen co. “ siderable distance. It will therelour of their hair, which is entirely " fore be found scarcely possible to different from that of the natives « dig a permanent canal amid these of Egypt. The reader will find a " shifting sands; not to mention full account of this extraordinary so that the fhore is deititute of har. race of men in this volume, page « bours, which must be entirely 137 (Miscellaneous Essays). Dur « the work of art. The country ing five hundred and fifty years that « besides has not a drop of fresh there have been Mamlouks in Egypt, « water; and to supply the inha. not one has left subsisting issue; " bitants, it must be brought as far there does not exist one single fa. " as from the Nile."--Mons. Vol. mily of them in the second gene. ney supposes the number of inhabic, ration; all their children perish in ants in Egypt to be 2,300,000. the first or second descent. Almoft W e come now to the account of the same thing happens to the Turks; Syria, which takes up the remain. and it is observed, that they can der of the first and the whole of the only secure the continuance of their second volume. It is by far the families, by marrying women who best and most accurate account of are natives, which the Mamlouks that conntry, which has appeared in have always disdained. " Let the any modern publication. [For the of naturalist,” exclaims Monf. Vol- natural history of Syria we most reney, “ explain why men well form- fer to page 60 of this volume.] The ^ ed, and married to healthy wo. reader will form a tolerably correct "6 men, are unable to naturalize on notion of the general appearance of " the banks of the Nile, a race this country and of the climate from " born at the foot of Mount Cau. the following extracts. “ Syria « casus! and let it be remembered « may be considered as a country 6 at the same time, that the plants « composed of three long strips of “ of Europe in that country are " land of different qualities : one of