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and evalve. Answer from the States General, in which they disapprove the
conduct and obstinacy of the States of Holland, and leave them to abide the con-
sequences, highly acceptable to the king. Court of Versailles condemn the conduct
of Holland, and jutify, ibe king in his demand of satisfaction. Second
memorial from the court of Berlin, strongly exprelli ve of the king's surprize and
indignation at the answer and conduct of the States of Holland. M. de Thule-
meyer presents a paper containing the form and terms of the fatisfaction which
tbe king insists on. States of Holland, inslead of compliance, order every thing
to be in readiness for inundating the country in case of invasion. Preparations
for war on the side of Pruília. Sadtholder takes the rowns of Wick Duerliede,
and Harderwycke. Province of Zealand declares for him. ineffective attempis
on his camp by the Rhingrave of Salm. Scandalous inveétive against ihe prince
of Orange, in the form of a perition 10 the States of Halland. Licentiousness of
che rabble; deplorable situation and depopulation of the country ; States endea.
vour in vain to prevent emigration. Proclamation issued by the States General,
prohibiting the influx of French officers and soldiers daily arriving. Remonstrate
with the court of Versailles on that subject. Duke of Brunswick, at the bead of
a Prussian army, enters the territories of the republic. Takes Gorcum. Attempo
made by the commission of defence, 10 inundate the country fails of eff?7. Shame-
ful flight of the garrison and armed burghers from Utrecht, uithout waiting the
sight of un eneny. Universal panic. The Prussian forces, in a few days, over.
run and subdue the greatest part of South Holland; most of the cities and fortrelles
falling into their hands without resistance. Duke of Brunswick and general
Kalkreuth approach the strong poils of Amstelveen and Ouderkerp, within a few
miles of Amsterdam. Revoluiion at the Hague. Siales of Holland refcind all
their former resolutions against the Stadtholder, and invite him to return and lake
pofleffion of the government. Prince of Orange, and afterwards the princess,
arrive at the Hague, Short truce, to give time for a deputation from Amsterdam
to propose terms of accommodation Terms deemed inadmissible. Strong defences,
and inaccessible situation of Ainterdam, seemed 10 render it impregnable. Truce
being expired, duke of Brunswick gives orders for a general attack on all the
enemy's out-posts at five o'clock in ihe morning, Admirable difpofitions made by
the duke. Important post of Half Wegen taken, which opens the way to Anies-
dam on the western fide. Amstelveen taken after a long and brave réfifiance.
The approaches to the city being now secured, the Pruffian troops are called off
from the other attacks. Admirable temper, and great moderation, displayed by
the duke of Brunswick, under various circumstances which occurred previous 10
the capitulation of Amjterdam, and the surrender of the Legden gate to the
Prusians.

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CHA P. III.

Unaisturbed tranquillity of Great Britain during the recess of parliament. Treaty

of commerce with France, signed 29th September 1786. State of political
parties. Creation of Peers. King's speech at the opening of the lenon,
Addresses voted unanimously. Remarks by Mr. Fox upon the principles of the
commercial treaty. Mr. Pitt's reply. Morion for taking the ireary into consi.
deration ; ohjeeted 10 as too hafty. Motion for delay debated, and rejetiéd.
Motion by Mr. Fux relative 10 the state of the negociation with Portugal;
rejected without a division. Petition from the chamber of commerce for furiber
time to consider the tendency of the treary, House in a committce upon the creary;

Mr.

Mr. Piti's Speech on that occafion; confiders the treaty in three points of view,
commercial, financial, and political. Comparative view of the produce,
manufactures, and population of the two countries ; conclusions in favour of
Great Britain. Answers to the objections of the chamber of commerce.
Remarks on the treaty of Utrecht. Tendency of the treaty with respect to
revenue; the advantage in favour of Great Britain. Political tendency
of the treaty. Absurd prejudices answered. Causes of the change that bad
taken place in the political views of France. --Mr. Fox replies to Mr. Pitt;
contends for the importance of the political tendency of the treaty beyond any
other consideration. Relative political situation of the two countries. Grounds
of the natural enmity subsisting between them. Improbability of any change in
the designs of France; her hostile views in the present treaty. Defends
the resolutions of the chamber of commerce. Answers Mr. Pitt's arguments
relative to the revenue. Moves that the chairman report a progress; fup-
ported by Mr. Francis. Different lines of conduct of Lord Chatham and
Mr. Pitt. Effects of the treaty upon the navy. Opinion of Mr. Powys;
of Mr. Baring. Mr. Fox's motion rejected by a large majority. Refolu-
tion moved by Mr. Pitt agreed 10. Committee sits again. Resolution moved
to lower the duties on French wines. Able Speech against the treaty by
Mr. Flood; answered by Mr. Wilberforce. Principles laid down by Mr.
Wilberforce strongly condemned by Mr. Fox and Mr. Powys. Opinion of Mr.
Alderman Watson. Treaty defended by Mr. H. Dundas. Amendment moved
by Mr. Fox, respecting the duties on Portugal wines, rejected. Last effort of
Mr. Fox in favour of the Methuen treaty; acquiefces in Mr. Pitt's declaration
on that subject. Duty on brandy, on beer, on cottons, on glass; and debates
thereupon. Report of the committee. Conversation respecting the omission of
Ireland. Resolutions agreed to. Motion for an address to the king upon ibe
creaty; strongly opposed. Extraordinary display of eloquence by Mr. Grey.
Capiain Macbride's opinion. Mr. Burke, upon the political tendency of ibe
treaty, and its remote effets. Treary defended by Mr. Grenville, Lord More
nington, and Mr. Pulteney. New objection to the address from Mr. W. Ellis;
antwered and overruled by a majority of 236 to 160. Address agreed to, and
communicated to the lords. Decision of the house of lords upon a motion by Lord
Stormont, respecting such of the hxteen peers as should be created peers of Great
Britain. Motion opposed by the lord chancellor ; defended by lord Lough.
borough, and carried by a majority of 5: t0 38. Debates in the house of lords
upon the commercial treaty. Altercation between the duke of Richmond and the
marquis of Lansdown. Address of both houses to the king.

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CH A P. IV.

Consolidation of the duties of custom and excise. The Speech of the chancellor of

ihe exchequer upon that subject; fiates the origin of the duties of tonnage and
pourtdage; the nature and inconvenienses of those duties; the methods bitherra
adopted for remedying them; their insufficiency. Explanation of the new plan of
consolidating the duties of cujlom, and of excise. Provisions to be made for the
security of the public creditors. Upwards of three thousand resolutions to be
moved. General concurrence of the bouse in this measure. Mr. Burke's speech
on the occasion. Sir Grey Cooper mentions the progress made in it during the
administration of Lord North. Bill brought in for the consolidation of duties.
Provisions relative to the French treaty included therein; objected to on that

account.

account. Motion for separating the latter from the former, rejected. Motion to
the same effect, by Mr. Bastard, rejected. Warm debate, and motions on the
fame subject rejected in the house of lords. Bill receives the royal assent. Inno-
vation in the mutiny bill again carried, after much debate. Penfion of Sir Fohre
Skynner; Mr. Burke's Speech on that business. Motion in the upper house, by lord
Rawdon, relative to the Spanish convention, and the evacuation of the Mosquito
Bore; Speeches of lord Carmarthen and the lord chancellor on the same subject.
Motion by Mr. Beaufoy, for taking the corporation and test aets into consideration;
endeavours to prove that the latter was never designed to include protestant
disenters, and ibat the reasons for the former bad ceased ; 'that no man ought to
be punifhed for opinions; that disqualifications are punishments; that the disqua-
lifications were not defensible by any state necesity. Dillenters vindicated from
the charge of republicanism, and of aiming at the revenues of the church; tefs,
that would remain after the repeal, suficient. Obje&tion answered relative to
The union. Remark on the impiety of a facramental test. Mr. Beaufoy answered
by Lord North, and by Mr. Pitt; supported by Mr. Fox; bis remarks on the late
conduct of the diflenters. Mr. Beaufoy's motion rejected by 178 80 100. Budget;
flourishing state of the finance; controverted by Mr. Sheridan. Notice given by
Mr. Alderman Newnbam, of a motion relative to the embarrassed state of the af-
fairs of the Prince of Wales. Retrospext of various matters relative to that affair;
first establisoment of the Prince's boufbold; difference of opinions on the allow-
ance to be made him; debt contracted ; meritorious conduct of the Prince of Wales.
Application to the king for allistance rejected. Reduction of all his establishments
and savings appropriated for payment of the debt. Misunderstanding berween.
the King and ihe Prince. Generous offer of the duke of Orleans. Application to
parliament. Conversation on the subject in the house of commons; numerous
appearance of the Prince's friends. Mr. Pitt's declaration, that he bould have
to disclose circumstances of an unpleasant nature. Mr. Rolle's menace, to bring
forward an enquiry concerning the connećtion between the Prince and Mrs.
Fitzherbert. Prince of Wales demands to have the whole of his conduct enquired
into; authorizes Mr. Fox to explain certain parts thereof. Mr. Rolle's beha-
viour warmly censured, and defended by Mr. Pitt. General disposition in favour

of the Prince. The maiter privately accommodated with the Prince the day

before Mr. Newnham's motion was to be made. Message from the King ; ftate

of the Prince's debts; address to the King for their payment.

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and Mr. Pitt; rejected without a division. Motion in the house of lords, rela. tive to the votes of the dukes of Queensberry and Gordon, in the election of the fixteen peers; opposed by the chancellor ; supported by lord Kinnaird; opinions of lord Douglas, earl of Moreton, and duke of Richmond; motion carried. Motion in the house of commons, relative to the right of the fons of Scotch peers to represent Scotch boroughs or counties ; opinions of Sir Fobn Sinclair, Mr. Dundas, Sir James Johnstone, and Sir Adam Ferguson, in the negative ; of lords Beauchamp, Maitland, and Elcho, in the affirmative; carried for the negative. [131

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Accusation of Mr. Hastings. Celebrated Speech of Mr. Sheridan on the third

charge, refpeting the Begums of Oude; its remarkable effets; house ad. journ iberion; debate resumed ; opinion of Mr. Pitt respecting the mailer of the charge-voted by a large majority. . Mr. Burke proposes to come direally to the question of impeachment ; opposed by Mr. Pitt. Conversation relative to the evidence and prosecution of Sir Elijah Impey. Fourth charge, relative to the Nabob of Farruckabad, opened by Mr. T. Pelham. Reasons of Mr. Dundas for voting for the charge. · Speech by lord Hood in favour of Mr. Hastings; answered by Mr. Pitt. Difficulties under which the accusers of Mr. Hostings laboured. Fifth charge, relative to contracts and salaries, opened by Sir James Erskine. Mr. Pire objects to a great part of the charge ; moves to have it confined to three points. Mr. Burke moves, that two orbers Should be addid. Mr. Burke's amendment carried. Altercation between Mr. Francis and Mr. Pitt. Sixth charge, refpe&ting Fyzoola Khân, opened by Mr. Wyndham. Criminal parts of the charge fated by Mr. Dundas. Explanation by Mr. Burke, Proposal of Mr. Pitt for bringing forward the question of impeachment; acceded to by Mr. Burke. Seventh charge, relative to bribes and presents, opened by Mr. Sheridan ; supported by Lord Mulgrave and Mr. Grenville. Report from the committee on the charges read a first time. Conversation reSpecting the mode of proceeding. 'Opinion of Mr. -Fox-of Mr. Pitt-of Mr. Burke. Motion to read the report a second time, objected to by Major Scott. Paper read containing the sentiments of Mr. Hastings respecting the profecution. Committee to prepare articles of impeachment. Eighth charge, respecting the revenues of Bengal, opened by Mr. Francis ; be vindicates bimself from fufpicions of personal enmity 10 Mr. Hastings. Mr. Pitt's obfervations on the eighth charge. Conversation between Mr. Barwell and Mr. Burke, respecting bis impeaching the former. Articles of impeachment read a first time ; motion for reading them a second time opposed by Lord Hood, Mr. Wilkes, Mr. Smith, lord advocate for Scotland, and Mr. Alderman Townsbend-supported by Mr. Pitt-carried by a great majority. Question of impeachment opposed by Mr. Sumner-carried witbout a divifion. Mr. Montagu moves, that Mr. Burke do impeach Mr. Hastings at the bar of the House of Lords--ordered. Motion for taking Mr. Hastings into custody opposed by Mr. Nichollsordered. Lords acquainted ihere with. Mr. Hasiings delivered 10 the Black Rod brought to the bar ; articles read; ad. mitted to bail; ordered to give in his answer the second day of the next meeting of parliament. Speaker's address to the King. King's Speech. Parliament prorogued.

CHAP.

CH A P. VII.

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France. Various causes, conducing to that revolution which has taken place in the

political sentiments and public opinions of that nation. How far the American war and its consequences might be supposed to operate in producing that revolurion. Unequalled expences and heavy debis produced by that war, added to the previous enormous burihens of the state, clog and embarrass all the movements of government, and involve the financial system in inextricable disorder. Financier fucceeds financier without effect. Patriotic and generous endeavours of the king to relieve the difresses of the people, by curtailing in an unexampled degree the expences of his court and household, prove equally fruitless. The monarch, disap. pointed in all the hopes held out by his ministers, finds it necessary to throw himself for council and affifiance upon the representarives of the nation. Difficulty of rea Storing the ancient assemblies of the siates, through the manner of their election, their number, and the form of their proceedings being totally forgotten. Allembly of notables convened. King meets them in great state. Proceedings. M. de Calonne finds himself obliged to resign the administration of public affairs, and to retire to England. Convention of noiables dissolved, without their having an. fwered all the hopes of the court. Oppoßtion of the parliament of Paris to the new taxes laid on by the crown. Celebrated reinonftrance by that body. King, by the exertion of his authority in a bed of justice, obliges them to register the land-tax and fampduty edifts. Extraordinary protest, which renders them of no effect. Par. diament banised 10 Troyes. Greai discontents. Turbulence of the Parisians occasions a frong armed force to enter that city. Flame' of liberty bursting forth in different parts of the kingdom. Parliament recalled. Combination of circumstances whicb nearly compelled France to submit to the measures pursued by England and Prufia with respext to Holland. Convention with England for mutually difarming. King meets the parliament with two edicts for a new loan, amounting so about 19 millions of English money. King firs nine hours to hear ihe debates; and at length, departing basiilt, orders .be edifts to be registered. Duke of Ori leans thereupon protests against the whole proceedings of the day as invalid. Protcft confirmed by tbe parliament. Duke of Orleans banished to one of his country fears, and two members of tbe parliament to remote prisons. Strong and repeated remonftrances. Some relaxation obtained with respect to the imprisoned magiftraies.

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Causes of the discontents in the Austrian Netherlands. Ecclefiaftical reforms filently

acquiefced in, un:il they were involved with invasions of the civil rigörs and , political establishments of the provinces. Two imperial ordinances publisbed on The first day of the year 1787, which went in their immediate effeći to the fub. verhon of the established tribunals of justice, and rended more indirectly to the overthrow of the ancient conftitution. Sketch of the constitution of Brabant, and of ibe established lyfiem of jurisprudence. Council of Brabant suppressed by the new edięts. Great feal iransferred from the hands of the chancellor to the imperial minister. Low Countries divided into nine circles, and intendants and commissaries, wirb arbitrary and undefined powers, appointed to rule obese circles. Standing camVol. XXIX.

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