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is doub:ful, but which is extreme. vators, and the wandering or pale “ ly fertile; the other, which is toral tribes. The former he suhdi. . " the frontier to this, is a mountain vides into three principal claffes ; "ous and rugged soil, enjoying a firit, the poiterity of the people con. " more salubrious teniperature ; the quered by the Arabs, that is, the

third, which lies beyond the Greeks of the lower empire ; se. « mountains in the east, combines cordly, the posterity of the Arabian " the dryness of the latter with the conquerors; and thirdly, the pre" warmth of the former. By a sent ruling people, the Ottoman happy combination of the pro. Turks.-The pastoral tribes he di. “ perties of climate and foil, this vides into three classes, the Turko. “ province unites in a finall com- mans, the Curds, and the Bedouin

pass the advantages and produc- Arabs. It is remarkable that Sy" tions of different zones, insomuch ria has not refused, like Egypt, to " rhai nature seems to have designed adopt the foreign races, but that they ir it for one of the most agreeable are all equally naturalized to the “ habitations of this continent. Sy. country. Of these different races, " ria unites different climates under the Druzes, descendants of the Arabi" the same sky; and collects within an conquerors, will most excite the at. "a narrow compass pleasure and tention of the reader. Though ccm. “ productions which nature has elle. pletely insulated by despotism, they "s where dispersed at great distances. have maintained amidst the moun. of times and places. With us, for tains of Lebanon (their country) a o inítance, seifons are separated by species of freedom and indepen" months ; there we may say they dance unknown to the inhabitants of " are only separated by hours. If the neighbouring plains. The con“ in Said or Tripoli we are incom, fciousness of this fuperiority in their e moded by the heats of July, in condition, has given an energy to s six hours we are in the neigh their character, which diftinguishes

bouring mountains in the tempe- them from the other people of Syria " rature of March ; or, on the other in an eminent degree. They are " hand, if chilled by the froits of considered throughout the Levant " December, at Besharrai, a day's as restless, enterprising, hardy, and journey brings us back to the brave even to temerity, Only three " coast, amid the flowers of May.-- hundred of them have been seen 19 * The Arabian poets have there. enter Damascus in open day, and “ fore said that the Sannin bears spread around them terror and car" Winter on his head, Spring on nage. No persons are more nice " his shoulders, and Autumn on his than they in the point of honour; "s bosom, while Summer lies sleep. any çffence of that kind, or open “ ing at his feet.”- The limits of insult, is instantly punished by blows our present undertaking will not of the kandjar or the musquet, while allow us to enter fo fully into the among the inhabitants of the towns hiitory of the inhabitants of Syria, it only excites abusive retorts. It as the fubjcct deserves.--Monf, Vol- i's worthy obsesvation, that the Div. ney divides the different races of zes, and other inhabitants of Lebamen into two grand divisions ; the non, are the only subjects of the ema ledentary inhabitants or the culti. pire who possess a real property

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They are for that reason fo attached “ted absolute and arbitrary to all to their eftates, that it is rare to hear " his subdelegates. It is certain, to of an alienation of lands among “ use the expression of the Turks, them. “ Their peasants fear not " that the fabre of the Sultan de" that the Aga, the Kaimacham, or “ scends not on the dust, but this fa" the Pacha, should send his Djen- " bre he entrusts to the hand of his “ dis to pillage their houses, carry - Vizir, who delivers it to the Pacha, " off their families, or give them “ from whom it passes to the Motselor the baftinado." Such oppressions " lam, to the Aga, and even to the are unknown in the mountains. It " lowest Delibashe ; so that it is, in is this security which has been the " faci, within the reach of the vilest original cause of the population of " retainer to office, and its destructheir country, and which has given " tive edge descends even on the to the mountains of Lebanon, by“ meinest heads."-The total ponature sterile, all their fertility.--- pulation of Syria Mons. Volney elti. The government of this fingular mates at 2,305,000 fouis. The repeople is a well-proportioned mix- venues he calculares at 5.1,281,250 ture of monarchy, aristocracy, and sterling ; not including the profics democracy.-- The fituation of the of the sub-farms, such as the coun. other subjects of the empire is tries of the Druzes, the Maronites, truly deplorable. Mons. Volney the Anfarians, &c. &c. The mi. compares the empire to a planta- litary establishment is by no means tion in one of our Sugar Tana's, proportionable to what in Europe “ where a multitude of llaves labour we thould expect from such a rere" to supply the luxury of one great nue. All the troops of the Pachas s proprietor, under the inspection of united cannot amount to more than " a few servants, who take good 5,700 men, both cavalry and in. " care of themselves. There is no fantry. The detail respecting the “ difference, except that the domi- division of Syria into Pachalics is

nions of the Sultan being too vast particularly curious and interesting; " for a single administration, he is the limits of our present plan will s obliged to divide them into smal- not however allow us to enter into " ler plantations and separate go it. We must now conclode with

vernments, administered in the the author's opinion respecting the " fame mode as the united empire. political strength of these countries. " Such are the provinces under the Syria and Egypt, compared Pachas. These provinces, again, “ with respect to the facility with “ being too extensive, the Pachas “ which they may be attacked or so have had recourse to further sub- “ defended, differ almost in every " division, and hence that series of " point. Egypt is protected from a • subalterns that step by step de- “ foreign enemy on the land side " scends to the loweit employment. “ by her defarts, and on that of the “ In this gradation of authority, the “ sea by her dangerous cualt. Sy“ object in view being invariably “ria, on the contrary, is open on " the same, the means employed "the lide of the continent by the “ never change their nature. Thus,“ Diarbekar, and exposed also on “ power, being absolute and arbi- “ that of the Mediterranean by a Si trary in the monarch, is transmit- “ coast every where accesible. It is

« eafy • easy to make a descent in Syria, « other. The reason is, that E. « but very difficult to land in E- “ gypt being a country of plains, "I gypt: Egypt once invaded is " the invader there makes a rapid & conquered; Syria may refift: " progress; every moment brings “ Egypt when conquered is ex. “ on a battle, and every battle is & tremely difficult to keep, and easi- « decisive; Syria, on the contrary, “ ly lost; Syria is so easily de- " being a mountainous country, & fended, it is impossible it should " war there must be a war of poits, « be loft. Less skill is necessary to " and every loss may be repair. $ conquer' one than to preserve the " ed."

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Media:ion of France and Pruffia in the affairs of Holland. Reasons for

doubting the success of that mediation confirmed by the event. Negociations
carried on at Nimeguen and the Hague. Conditions laid down by the States of
Holland as the basis of an accommodation with the Stadtholder. Causes which
rendered these propositions inadmissible .M. de Rayneval suddenly breaks off
the negociation and returns to Paris. Count de Goertz receives a letter of recal,
and returns to Berlin. Violent anim-fity and mutual recrimination of the con-
tending parties on the failure of the negociation. Tne new form of government,
established in the city of Utrecht, considered as a model of perfection by the de-
mocratical party in other places. Difficult situation and temporizing conduct of
the States of Holland, with respext to the prevalent democratic Spirit. Sud.
den and unaccountable changes in the political conduct and principles of the party
în opposition to the Stadtholder displayed in various places. States of Friesland
firf waver, and then, from being among the foremost in opposition, appear de-
cidedly in favour of the Prince. M. de Rendorp changes fides in Amsterdam,
and carries over a majority of the senate along with bim. Immediate consequences

ef his change; great alarm spread by it among the republican party. · Mians pursued by the leaders 10 remed; the defection of Amsierdam. Procure addrejes from several 10wns, with a view of gaining thereby a decided mujority of votes in the allembly of provincial fiaies. Failing in this attempt, they propoje in the a trembly a rellurion 10 fufpend the Prince of Orange from bis remaining high offices of liadibolder and admiral-general. Foiled likewise in this, they endea. vour to increase the number of voies in the provincial assembly, by affording a right of representation to several new towns; in which they are also defeated, Eftimate of the comparative slrength and numbers of the contending parties. Reo trofpeel of ihe measures purjued by Holla, d, for supporting the city of Utrecht ir. its contumacious oppofition to the fates of the province. Unexpecled revolution in the assembly of ihe Starcs cf Holland, uho, following the example of Ampierdam, acope measures evidently favourable 10 the Sladiholder's interests. General conformation and critical fituarion of obe republican party. Defeated in all ibeir late attempts; with now a great majority of the prorinces, and a greater of the people decidediy against them. Bold and hazardous measures become cEts of prudence. Obliged 10 throw ibemselves upon the democratical party for fupport, and 10 call in the armed burghers 10 new model and feetle the state and confiitution. Theje furround the fenaie bouses of Amfieridam and Rotterdam, purge them of ihoje meinbers who were adverse 10 their designs, place all pou er in the hunds of iheir oun parti', and cliablish a crermined majority in the states of Holland. These prepare 10 alif Utrechi by force of arms against the Provitcial States. Stares general, who had hiinerio prefera d a strict neutrality, now take a decided part in opposing the design of Holland to support Uır cbt by force of arms. Council of siate illuce an order firietly forbidding ibe officers in the ser. cvice of Holland from marching their troops into the territories of any other province. Probibinon confirmed by the States general. Repli from ibe States of Holland. First blood drawn in a skirmish at Futshaas, a village near Utrecbi.. States of Holland order troops to the fuccour of Utrecht. Propose a test 10 their officers. si great majority rejuje obe tet; are fufpended and new ones appointed, Sujpended officers taken into the protection of The States general, and their pay continued. Manifefto published by the Stadiholder, announting nearly to a decla. ration of war against the ruling party in the pros ince of Holland. Riots at Amferdam. Stares general issue an order 10 general Van Refil, to break up the cordon or line of troops formed on the frontiers of Holland. Counter orders from ibe liures of Holland. Colonel Balneavis carries of the regiment wbicb be lately commanded himsell, with a battalion of another, from the forirejs of Ouderater 10 the Sludibulder. This example causes a general revoli in the froops of Holland.

CH A P. II.

Arrest of the princess of Orange near Schoonhaven. Observations on the conduce

and principles on which the ruling party in Holland ačied in that measure; with an accout of ihe circumstances aiicriding it. Consequences of that event, which change ike u hole face of public affuirs in the republic, and intermingle foreiga interests and connections with their domestic coniesis. Princess returns 10 Nimeguen. Strong memorial from the king of Praia, demanding immediate and ample satisfaction, with due punishment to the authors of the outrage offered to the princess. Answer from the States of Holland decnied by ibe king unsatisfactory

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