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peated cases of it every year. The animal is observed to be stiff and staring in his coat, eats little, and, as the disease advances, retires from the rest of the herd. When taken up, his skin along the back will be found adhering to the flesh, and if pressed on the spine he will nearly crouch to the ground. If a hold is taken of the skinwhich is very difficult to accomplish—and it is lifted from the flesh, when let go it will give a crack similar to the sound that follows when you give a knock to the common corn-basket. This is a never-failing symptom. I treat the complaint very successfully with doses of salts and sulphur. If the animal is taken up in the early stages of the disease, the skin may only be adhering to a part behind the shoulder-blade ; but in a day or two the adhesion will be found to extend along the whole of the spine ; or, vice versa, it may begin across the kidneys and go forward to the shoulderblade. I regard indigestion as the cause, and some cattle take it in particular fields worse than others. · Diseases of the tongue are rare; I have had some halfdozen cases. A cure is utterly hopeless, and the animal should be sent to the butcher without delay. When examined, the root of the tongue, or one side of it, will be found very much inflamed, and warts will also generally be observed. The animal will be found frothing at the mouth in the field; and if in the stall, a great deal of frothy matter will be seen before him. I never knew one recover, and I have attempted all sorts of treatment.
Foul in the foot is very serious when it gets into a lot of heavy feeding cattle in winter; the loss it entails is sometimes very heavy. It assumes several phases. If there be but a crack between the claws without swelling, it is easily managed. The old plan of taking a hair-rope and drawing it several times through is very good practice, and with a little caustic applied, a cure is soon effected. There is another form of the disease more difficult to treat: there is the great swelling
between the claws; it becomes a hard substance and very painful; the animal gets feverish and is scarcely able to rise, and if got up holds out the afflicted leg. He is off his food, and sinks rapidly in condition; and the pain is excruciating. I apply a succession of poultices, and when the lump breaks the danger is over: tow and tar are then applied to the sore, a cotton bandage put on between the claws of sufficient length to secure the application, and the ends made fast by a woollen garter cut from an old stocking. If the disease is neglected the consequences may be fatal. It is worst in winter when cattle are at the feeding-stall. I regard it as infectious. If it get into a byre of weighty fat cattle the loss will be heavy. I have seen a bullock drop in value £3, £4, or even £5; and several animals lost by carelessness. I had a bullock out upon turnips, which had been neglected, and was pronounced by my veterinary surgeon incurable.
As to Foot-and-mouth disease, it is a light matter among stirks and lean cattle—they will be little if any the worse of it; but it is very serious amongst heavy feeding cattle and milch cows. If fat cattle are attacked, they should have their turnips sliced, with crushed oilcake and meal. There is no treatment of any avail in the fever stages. When the fever is gone, there will be a beast or two out of a lot whose feet will require attention. The horn of the hoof gets loosened from the flesh. The animal may require to be thrown and the dead horn cut away. It must be remembered that it will never attach itself again. The veterinary surgeon should generally perform the operation, unless the owner is skilful himself. Cows require great attention. The disease seats itself in their udders, and unless they are most carefully milked out they may be rendered useless as milkers—losing one, two, or even all the quarters of the udder. The foot-and-mouth disease is very infectious. I recollect having carried it home from a neighbouring farm, by merely handling a bull which was down with the disease. I came straight home and handled the first beast opposite the door in one of my own byres : in three days he was seized with the complaint; and in two or three days thereafter nearly every beast through the steading was down with it. Out of forty fat cattle thirty-eight had it, only two escaping. Upon inquiry I found that one of them had had it before. I lost from £4 to £5 of condition on an average off every one of the thirty-eight. From the same farm and at the same time a veterinary surgeon had been called in. He went straight to another farmi six miles distant, and in a few days every animal there was seized with the same complaint. It is the general belief that an animal will not take the foot-and-mouth disease twice. This is a mistake. I have a cow that took it twice, but there were seven years between the attacks.
I have had the Lung disease on two farms; all known treatment is unsatisfactory. I believe, if the attack be violent, no treatment will save the animal. It is sometimes difficult to know it at first. There will generally be a cough, but it is not the clear cough of the animal in health. It is compressed, and the animal coughs unwillingly and with evident pain. The particular cough cannot be mistaken, and the grunt is a neverfailing symptom. There is generally one lung more affected than the other. The ear being applied to the chest will discover the impeded circulation. Many cattle take the disease so slightly that it is never discovered. Some have little if any cough, and the pile continues soft and healthy. I recollect a milking cow which I was suspicious had the disease. I made her be run out: there was no acceleration of breathing; her coat was fine, and there was no diminution of the milk; but she gave a grunt which confirmed me in my opinion that she had a slight touch of the complaint. The grieve, a most intelligent man, was satisfied that the cow was healthy. I fattened her, and for my own in
formation had her slaughtered at home. It was three months after, and the post-mortem examination showed one of the lungs, to the extent of about the size of a crown-piece, adhering to the ribs—a sufficient proof that my conjecture was correct. Many take the disease that are never suspected. I had a bullock showing some symptoms of the disease in a byre amongst ten. The others were, to all appearance, in perfect health. I sent them immediately to London. My salesman was instructed to inspect the carcasses after they were slaughtered, and to report. He did so carefully, and there was not one of the number but had its lungs more or less affected. Mr Collie, Ardgay, Morayshire, had a byre of cattle slaughtered under the same circumstances, and with the very same result. Pleuro-pneumonia is not so infectious as foot-and-mouth disease, but if it get into a farm-steading it is most difficult to get clear of. I have known cattle infected in three days. I had bought a lot of cattle from a farm in Morayshire where the disease has never been up to this hour. It was in the month of April. There were two or three of the lot that I did not think profitable to graze. I tied them in a byre where infected cattle had stood. They were only to be kept a week or two, and I had no idea of danger. One of them took the disease very badly in three days after he was tied up. I have known it lie dormant in the system (as to any visible appearance) for three months and a half. I found the general period of incubation from five to six weeks. I have taken the greatest pains with the byres where the infected cattle stood, having the wood-work taken out, the roofs and greeps carefully scraped and washed with soap and warm water, lime-water, and afterwards with chloride of lime; and yet, after all this labour, I have seen the disease break out again and again. After repeated outbreaks, I not only removed the wood-work, but the whole of the stones in the stalls and greeps, and buried them. I had the roofs and stone mangers, &c., carefully scraped, and washed with soap and warm water, and afterwards with chloride of lime. They were then closely painted, and lastly coal-tarred; but it was only after five or six months' perseverance that I got clear of it. Having heard a report that a cow belonging to my cousin, Mr M.Combie, editor of the * Free Press,' was labouring under pleuro-pneumonia, I went to see her. Mr Sorely, veterinary surgeon, was in attendance. As there had been no disease in the neighbourhood for five years, I was unwilling to credit the report. But a more marked case I have never witnessed; and the post-mortem examination showed all the symptoms of the fell disease. Mr Sorely, Mr M'Combie's overseer, and I, all agreed that as a wood dividing-partition had been allowed to remain since the time of the previous infection, and the cow was seen chewing pieces of the wood that had got rotted at the base, the wood had retained the poison, and the cow had been infected from the chewing of it. The breath is the cause of the infection when cattle are housed together and the disease introduced. It generally attacks the animals standing at the walls first. The breath is driven by different currents through the building to the walls, where it is stopped; it rebounds, and hence the beasts at the walls generally fall the first victims—so, at least, I have found it in my experience. I had forty beasts divided by a stone-and-lime mid-wall to the level of the side-walls; up to the roof there was a strong and close division of wood. Unfortunately there had been a small aperture about two feet square left open. I made an observation to the cattleman that I should not be at all surprised if the disease came from the infected byre through the opening to the byre where the cattle were sound. The first or second day thereafter the animal standing below the aperture was seized, and got down in the disease. In treatment I have no confidence, having tried