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I would, however, recommend that neither hay nor straw be given to animals labouring under the disease. I lost a valuable bull, after he was recovering, from this cause. He was allowed to eat too freely of hay, which he could not masticate; and when opened after death, an ordinary bucketful of hay was found in his stomach, as dry as when it was eaten. I have come to the conclusion that no animal should be allowed hay or straw while unable properly to masticate its food. It is well ascertained that when the poison is lying dormant in an animal, it will infect the other cattle before it is visible in itself. As a confirmation of this fact, I had a sale of breeding stock after the Dumfries show, on Thursday, 30th August 1860. The cattle seemed to be in perfect health on the day of the sale; about three-fourths of them were removed on Friday. The day following—viz., Saturday—a cow was taken ill. I entertained fears that it might turn out pleuropneumonia ; and circulars were sent to the parties who had removed their cattle. The buyers isolated the cattle bought at the sale from their own stock. Two of the beasts that had been removed died, other two took the complaint and recovered; but fortunately it did not spread amongst the buyers' other stock. The cow first taken ill recovered, and another that was left over took the disease and recovered. But, further, a bull was withdrawn from the sale and sent home to Tillyfour from Dorsell the night of the sale, to all appearance in perfect health, though he afterwards died of the disease. He was watered at a watering-place on the roadside, where a crofter's cattle watered daily. The crofter's cattle went down in the disease, and one of them died. Many were the weary days and restless nights I endured when the disease got fairly developed through two of my largest steadings. It is in such cases that the value of a clear-headed veterinary surgeon is appreciated. I would not be well away from one steading, when a messenger would meet me with

142 HINTS ON THE BREEDING AND CARE OF CATTLE.

intelligence of some disaster at the other. I had many beasts being fed on other farms as well as those on my own—not fewer than 400 one way or other. I have said how much I am indebted in such emergencies to the advice and counsel of a clear-headed veterinary surgeon. The disease was in the midst of my breeding stock, and two or three had succumbed to it. Mr Sorely and I were brooding over this state of matters, when I asked him whether he could do anything to save the herd. He said, “I will think over it till tomorrow." He came on the morrow, and seven successive evenings, and administered to each animal a drench, and he would trust no one but himself to do it. I believe there were three changes of medicine; not one animal which got the medicine took the disease, althougb they had been standing in the midst of it. There was one worthless old milk cow amongst the others, that I did not think worth the trouble of giving the. medicine to; she took the disease, and was fed with gruel for fourteen days, and recovered, while the others continued in perfect health.

I have related the diseases that are of a local character, as they have come under my own notice, without any desire to set myself up as an authority. My experience has led me to differ in many respects from eminent authorities. I have merely stated my own experiences during a lifetime that has been devoted to the management of cattle; they are written with no view of superseding the valuable assistance of the veterinary surgeon; but every farmer ought to know and be able to treat the local diseases incident in his neighbourhood which are not of a dangerous character. When they are dangerous, the owner ought to be able to distinguish them at once; and in that case not a moment should be lost in calling in the aid of a veterinary surgeon.

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VII.—PREMIUMS GAINED BY TILLYFOUR

CATTLE FROM 1832 TO 1874.

I.—BY THE VALE OF ALFORD AGRICUL

TURAL ASSOCIATION.

1832.-.For the best bull from three to five years old. 1837. For the second best two-year-old quey, merit.

1838.-For the best pair of four-year-old stots. For four four-year-old stots (extra stock). For the best quey. For the best cow.

1839.—For the best pair of fat oxen.
1844.—For the best cow, Aberdeenshire breed.

1845.–For the best bull, the honorary silver medal. For the fifth best cow, Aberdeenshire breed. For the best cross quey, one year old. For the second best do., merit. For the best quey, Aberdeenshire breed, two years old. Do., one year old.

1846. For the best Aberdeenshire bull, aged two years and upwards. For the third best Aberdeenshire cow. For the best two-year-old cross quey, after a shorthorned bull. For the second best do., merit. For the best quey, Aberdeenshire breed, not above one year and eight months old. For the second best do., merit. For the third best do., merit. For the first pair of stots, Aberdeenshire breed, bred by exhibitor.

1848.-For the best pair of two-year-old stots, Aberdeenshire breed, bred by exhibitor. For the second do., merit. For the best pair of one-year-old stots, do.

1849.—For the best polled Aberdeenshire bull. For the best cow, Aberdeenshire breed. For the best two-year-old quey, do. For the best one-year old quey, do. For the second best do., merit. For the best pair of stots, two years old, do., bred by exhibitor.

1850.-For the best polled Aberdeenshire bull, of any age. For the best cow, Aberdeenshire breed. For the best twoyear-old quey, do. For the best one-year-old quey, do. For the third best one-year-old quey, do., merit.

1851.-For the best polled bull, Aberdeenshire breed, one year old. For the third best cow, Aberdeenshire breed. For the fourth best cow, do., merit.

1857.-For the best polled Aberdeenshire bull, of any age, merit.

1858.–For the best cow, Aberdeenshire breed.

1859. For the best Aberdeenshire cow. For the best quey, Aberdeensire breed, two years old. Do., one year old.

1861.–For the best cow, Aberdeenshire breed. For the best quey, do., two years old. Do., one year old.

1863. For the best Aberdeenshire polled one-year-old stot. For the second best do. For the third best do.

1864.-For the best bull, any age. For the best two-yearold polled Angus quey. For the best one-year-old quey.

1868.—For the best Aberdeenshire bull, any age. For the best cow. For the best two-year-old quey. For the best quey, one year old.

1869.—For the best bull, one year old. For the best cow. For the best quey, two years old, and Highland Society's medal.

1872. For the best cow. For the best one-year-old quey. For the second best do.

1873.-For the best two-year-old quey, and Highland Society's premium.

II.-BY THE HIGHLAND AND AGRICUL

TURAL SOCIETY.

1.-PREMIUMS AWARDED AT GENERAL SHOWS.

ABERDEEN Show—1840. £10 for best ox, calved after 1st January 1836, Aberdeen horned breed. Commended : two four-year-old oxen, Aberdeenshire breed.

ABERDEEN SHow—1847. £10 for best polled bull, calved after 1st January 1846. Silver medal for third best polled cow, of any age. £5 for best pair of polled heifers, calved after 1st January 1846. Silver medal for third best polled ox, calved after 1st January 1844. £7 for best polled ox, calved after 1st January 1845. £4 for second best do., do. £4 for second best three-year-old Aberdeenshire horned ox.

EDINBURGH SHOW—1848. £15 for second best polled bull, of any age. £10 for best polled cow. £10 for best pair of polled heifers, two years old. £10 for best pair of three-year-old polled oxen.

GLASGOW Show—1850. £10 for best pair of two-year-old polled heifers. £5 for second best do. £4 for second best pair of one-year-old polled heifers. £8 for best pair of polled oxen, three years old.

PERTH Show—1852. £8 for second best polled bull, two years old. £8 for best polled cow, of any age. £6 for best polled heifer, two years old. £3 for second best two-year-old polled heifer. Medium gold medal for best pair of polled oxen, calved after 1st January 1849.

BERWICK SHOW—1854. £5 for second best two-year-old polled bull. £10 for best

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