Imagens das páginas

Antipholus of Ephesus advances :
Ant. E. 'I came from Corinth, my most gracious lord.

Dromio of Ephesus adds :
Dro. E. And I 'with him.

Adriana has been, in perplexity, scanning the twin Merchants : Adr. Which of you two did 'dine with me to-day?

Antipholus of Syracuse replies :
Ant. S. I, gentle mistress.

And are not you my husband?

Antipholus of Ephesus advances :
Ant. E. No; 'I say nay to 'that.

Antipholus of Syracuse adds :
Ant. S. And so do 'I; yet did she 'call me so;

And this fair gentlewoman, her sister here,
Did call me 'brother.— What I told you 'then,
I hope I shall have leisure to make good;
If this be not a 'dream I see and bear.

The Abbess says:
Abb. Renownéd Duke, vouchsafe to take the pains

with us into the Abbey here,
And hear at large discoursings 'all our fortunes ;
And all that are assembled in this place,
That, by this sympathized one day's “Error,"
Have suffered wrong,-go keep us company,
And we shall make full satisfaction.

Dromio of Syracuse advances to his brother of Ephesus: Dro. S. ... There is a fat friend at your master's house,

That kitchened 'me, for 'you, to-day at dinner:

She now shall be my 'sister, not my wife!
Dro. E. Methinks, you are my 'glass, and not my 'brother:

I see by you I am a 'sweet-faced youth.
We came 'into the world like brother and brother:
And now ... let 's 'go hand in hand, -not one before

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*0, R, discourséd.

“ Love's Labour 's Lost," supposed to have been written in 1594, is one of the earliest of Shakespeare's comedies : it is the third on Meres' List of 1598, (see page 6,) being preceded by “ The Two Gentlemen of Verona,” and “The Comedy of Errors.” There is no record of its first performance; but it is known to have been presented before Queen Elizabeth, at Christmas, 1597. There must have been an earlier version; for the first known publication" (in 1598) makes a distinct reference to it, but no such copy has hitherto been discovered. The text of the folio edition (of 1623) shows very little alteration from that of the first quarto.

One of the chief objects of the young author (then about twentyfive years of age, and an actor, as well as joint proprietor, in the Black Friars Theatre) was to satirize Euphuism-a kind of courtly and collegiate affectation of speech,-lately introduced by John Lyly, (a pedantic writer of the reign of Elizabeth,) who produced some works, that, becoming fashionable, had great influence over the authors of that period—especially “ Euphues, the Anatomy of Wit," (1580 ;) and “Euphues and his England” (1581). In these books, every variety of affectation in literature and speech, in love and in logic, is presented with scholarly sarcasm and serious drollery. Shakespeare, in the same style, plays and sports with the dainty affectations of the Euphuists; but, in the end, he upholds the doctrine of Roger Ascham, (Queen Elizabeth's noted instructor)—"to speak as the common people do, and to think as wise men do." "In the Comedy "the descent is rapid, from the heights of rhetoric to “plain kersey yea and nay”—from the “firenew words " of the stilted Spanish courtier, to “greasy Joan" and Marian's “roasted crabs.”

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The following are the Characters introduced :
FERDINAND, King of Navarre." COSTARD, a Clown.
Lords attending

Moth, Page to Armado.

HIEMS, or Winter.
on the King.

Lords attending on ROSALINE,
the Princess of

Ladies attending on MERCADET,


the Princess.


JAQUENETTA, a Country Wench. fantastical Spaniard.

VER, 0r Spring. SIR' NATHANIEL, a Curate. HOLOFERNES, a Schoolmaster. Officers and other Attendants of DULL, a Constable.

the King and Princess. Scene-Navarre.b

* The following is a copy of the original title-page:-“A pleasant conceited Comedie, called Loues Labors Lost, as it was presented before her Highness this last Christmas. Newly corrected and augmented by W. Shakespere, 1598 "

ba province of Spain, bounded on the north east by France. In the first quarto, this name is printed Berowne. In Act 4, Sc. 3, Biron is made to rhyme with moon. The old pronunciation, therefore, was probably Be-roon; the modern is Be-rón, with the accent on the second syllable. Throughout this Condensation the name is printed Birón.

a collegiate tịtle given to a clerical B. Ą. in certain Universities,

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The Scene displays a beautiful Park containing an elegant Palace. The leaders of the small syndicate of woman-haters are at once introduced. The first in point of rank is the founder himself, Ferdinand King of “ Navarre ”—which must be considered a royal euphuism for “ Nowhere,” as History commemorates no such King and no such Kingdom. He is a handsome young philosopher, who, for the love of study, withdraws from society, to live in retirement,accompanied by a few companions, willing, like himself, to undergo a severe course of seclusion; because, during three years, no woman is to be admitted within the palace; no female society is to be permitted, and all personal gratifications are to be avoided. With the King are three companions-all, for the time being, professed misogamists, but highly educated and refined; desirous to prove themselves, in conduct and speech, superior to the vulgar bucolic or warlike Navarrese :- Lord Longaville, an accomplished soldier; Lord Dumain, a fascinating courtier; and Lord Biron, the wit and humourist of the aristocratic group. The King speaks : King. Let Fame, that all hunt-after in their 'lives,

Live registered upon our brazen 'tombs,
And then grace 'us in the 'dis-grace of 'Death,
And make us heirs of all 'eternity.
Therefore, brave conquerors,—for so you are,-
(That war against your own affections,
And the huge army of the 'world's desires,)
Our late edíct shall strongly stand in force :-
Navarre shall be the wonder of the world ;
Our Court shall be a little Academe,'

Still, and contemplative in living art.
You three, Birón, Dumain, and Longaville,

sworn, for three years' term, to live 'with me-
My fellow-scholars—and to keep those statutes
That are recorded in this schedule here: [presenting
Your 'oaths are passed; and now subscribe your 'names,
That his 'own hand may strike his honour down
That 'violates the smallest branch herein:
If you are armed to 'do as 'sworn to do,
Subscribe to your deep oaths, and 'keep them too.

Lord Longaville is the first to sign the paper :
Long. 'I am resolved. 'Tis but a 'three years' 'fast:
The 'mind shall banquet, though the 'body pine:

paunches have lean 'pates; and dainty bits Make rich the 'ribs, but bankrupta quite the 'wits.




Lord Dumain is the next : Dum. My loving lord, Dumain is 'mortified: a It was an old custom to embellish graves with figures and inscriptions on plates b the anglicized nam: of the grove (Akademia) in which Plato taught.

esubdued to discipline.

of brass.

0. R. it.

do, R. bankerout.

Pointing to the King and his companions.

The 'grosser manner of these world's 'delights,
He throws upon the gross world's baser 'slaves :
To love, to wealth, to pomp, I pine and die ;
'With all these living in 'philosophy. [

Lord Birón merrily, but rather reluctantly, advances :
Biron. 'I can but say 'their protestation over:

That is, To live, and study here, three years.
But there are 'other strict observances :
As, Not to see a 'woman in that term,-
(Which, I hope well, is 'not enrolléd there :)
And, One day in a week, to touch no food;
And but 'one meal on every day beside, –
(The which, I hope, is not enrolléd there ;)
And then, To sleep but three hours in the night,
And not be seen to 'wink in all the 'day,–
O, these are 'barren tasks, too hard to keep,-

Not to see ladies,-study,-fast,-not sleep!
King. Your oath is 'passed, to pass-away from these.
Biron. Let me say “No," my liege, an if you please :

'I only swore, To 'study with your grace,

And stay here in your Court, for three years' space. Long. You swore to 'that, Birón, and to the rest. Biron. By yea and nay, sir, then I swore in 'jest.-

What is the 'end of study ? let me know. King. Why, 'that to know, which else we should 'not know. Biron. Things hid and barred, you mean, from common

Ring. Ay; that is study's god-like recompense.
Biron. Come on, then ; I will swear to study 'so,-

To 'know the thing I am 'forbid to know:
As thus,-To study where I well may 'dine,
When I to 'feast expressly am forbid;
Or, (having sworn too hard-a-'keeping oath,)
Study to 'break it, and not break my troth :-

Swear me to 'this, and I will ne'er say no.
King. These be the stops that 'hinder study quite,

And train our intellects to 'vain delight.
Biron. Why, 'all delights are vain ; but that 'most vain,

Which, with 'pain purchased, doth 'inherit pain.
Study is like the heaven's glorious 'sun,

That will not be deep-searched with 'saucy loo?

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Small have continual plodders ever won,

(Save bare authority,) from others' books.
These earthly godfathers of heaven's lights,

That give a name to every fixéd star,
Have no more 'profit of their shining nights,

Than those that 'walk, and 'wot" not what they are.
Too 'much to know, is—to know nought but 'fame;o

And 'every godfather can give a 'name. King. Birón is like an envious nippinga frost,

That bites the first-born infants of the Spring.
Biron. Well, say I'am: why should proud Summer boast,

'Before the birds have any cause to sing ?
At Christmas I no more desire a 'rose,
Than wish a 'snow in 'May's new-fangled shows;
So 'you,- to study 'now it is too late,

Climb o'er the 'house to unlock the little 'gate."
King. Well, sit 'you 'out: Go home, Birón !—Adieu!
Biron. No, my good lord; I have 'sworn—to stay with you:

And, though I have for 'Barbarism spoke more

Than for that angel 'Knowledge 'you can say,
Yet, confident, I'll keep what I have swore,

And bide the penance of each three years' day.-
Give me the paper: let me 'read the same,
And to the 'strict'st decrees I'll write my name.
[Reachecome the] Item, That no woman shall come within a
mile of my Court on pain of losing her tongue.A
dangerous law against garrulity!" (Reads.) Item, If any
man be seen to talk with a woman within the term
of three years, he shall endure such public shame as the
rest of the Court shall possibly devise.”—
'This article, my liege, 'yourself must break;

For, well you know, here comes in embassy
The French King's daughter, with 'yourself to speak,-

A maid of grace and complete majesty,-
About surrender-up of Aquitain

To her decrepit, sick, and bed-rid father:
Therefore, 'this article is made in vain,-

Or 'vainly comes the admiréd Princess hither.
King. What say 'you, my lords? why, this was quite 'forgot!

* the old astronomers, who gave names to the stars, planets, and constellations. bknow. oto attain reputation (a high name) only.

10. R. sneaping. °0. R. That were to clymbe ore the house to unlocke the gate (i.e., take great trouble with little advantage).

foutside (i. e., you are not to be included). (0, R. fit.) & ignorance, want of knowledge. h O. R. gentility. i an old province of Gaul

(France), between the river Garonne and the Pyreneau mountains,


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