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value and to love: our pursuits would, in many respects, have been similar; and our great objects, in more: our love of truth would have led us in the same direction; and it would have been cheering, in the duties of my pro. fession, to have had his co-opera""Iton. But it should be stated, that he was not the official organ of the Lewiu's-Mead Society in their different communications with lire. He took, indeed, an active share in the business of the congregation at that period, far beyond what the state of his mind fully authorized; and he composed the letter of invitation to me, (in which he says, "our city has been designated by an emineut writer, as the nursery and hot-bed
of English fanaticism; and the particular sentiments which distinguish us as a religious community have to encounter a proportionate degree of misrepresentation and obloquy:") but I was little acquainted with his share in those proceedings till after his change; and I had no direct communication with hiai whatever.
1 regret that change; and believing that it was from truth to error, I regret it on his own account. If, however, in its immediate or remote influence, it should be the means of bending his heart and life, more and more, to the obedience and imitation of Christ, then it must be well with him.
all the fulness of the Godhead"—that dares to wrest those scriptures which speak o/ him as a propitiatory sacrifice, a ransom, a surety, dying the Just for the unjust and redeeming sinners by his blood, and in the face of such authority, would place the death of the Redeemer upon an equality with thai of any martyr suffering patientlv in the cause of truth—that denies the personality of the Holy Spirit and calls all supernatural influence in the present day only the enthusiasm of fools and visionaries, thereby bereaving believers of all other assistance in working out their own Salvation than what they derive from the exertions nf their own corrupt and enfeebled natures —that denies the perpetuity of future punishment, and the existence of such a being in the universe as the Devil! Considered in itself, the Unitarian system teems with impiety and blasphemy; and viewed in its unhappy abettors, it exhibits a set uf men sinking into the very dregs of worldly conformity, apostatizing from truths in defence of which their forefathers would have died, and retaining nothing of religion but the exterior.
Such is modern Unitarianism—it is (in the language of an eminent writer, whose name we need not quote to Dr. Carpenter) " it is an hypothesis which staggers all speculation. It is contrary to every maxim of historical evidence; and if pursued to its obvious consequences, involves the overthrow of Christianity, and renders every record of every age suspicious and uncertain. It cuts to the root of all that is distinguishing in the gospel—destroys the necessity and importance of a miraculous interposition, and gives the infidel too much reason to exclaim, that all that was extraordinary was superfluous—and that the apparatus was too expensive nnd too splendid for the purpose to which it was applied."
Should Dr. Carpenter or any of his associates, who may be differently minded from us on the subject, think these animadversions deserving of a reply, the press is fairly open to them and they are at full liberty to proceed. We must however entreat them, under these circumstances, not to content themselves with carping at trifles, nor to disregard the texts of scripture by which our sentiments are supported throughout these Notes. It is doing nothing to waste their time in quibbling about w»rds—let them attend to the principles on which the controversy turns, and if they can defend their own and refute ours, let them do so. We seek no dispute with any man, much less with Dr. C. whom, for »ld acquaintance sake we would gladly have spared; but we cannot forget who hath said, " Earnestly contend for the faith which was once delivered to the saints." Elated by his translation from Liverpool to Exeter, and from Exeter " to the See of Bristol," it was very natural for him to wish to give his new constituents a proof of his zeal and of his talents, and had he contented himself v. ith confining his " Remarks" to his Okn immediate circle, he should have fouud no opponent in us; but his claim to have tbeln conveyed to our readers through the medium of our Magazine, was actually throwing down the gauntlet, and he has no pretence to blame us, if in our own defence we have takea *' «)»• Editor.
SOME ACCOUNT OF MR. HUTCHINSON AND HIS WRITINGS.
John Hutchinson, the founder of Hutchintonianism, was born at the village of Spennytborn in Yorkshire, in the year 1C74. His father possessed a small estate of forty pounds a year, and, intending to qualify his son for the office of Steward to some Gentleman or Nobleman, he gave him the best education which the neighbourhood afforded, purposing to put him, at a proper age, under the finishing hand of some abler master. In the mean time, however, a favourable opportunity offered for his further improvement at home, by the assistance of a gentleman who came to board at his father's house, and who, on being made acquainted with his intentions concerning his son, offered to instruct hint in every branch of learning proper for the station he was designed to fill, on condition the father would entertain him in his house, during his stay in those parts; which he promised not to leave until he had perfected his son's education. These conditions were accepted, and the Gcntloman punctually fulfilled his engagements. Young Hutchinson was initiated in such branches of the mathematics as were more immediately connected with his destined employment, with a competent knowledge also of the most celebrated writings of antiquity. It is a remarkable circumstance, that it does not appear to have been ever known to Mr. Hutchinson's family, who the Gentleman was, to whom the subject of this Memoir was indebted for his education: he industriously concealed every incident relative to his own history, and so effectually, that no discovery could be made; for having fulfilled his engagement he retired from the neighbourhood, and does not appear to have been heard of more. At the age of uincteeu, young
Hutchinson became steward to a gentleman in Yorkshire, and when he quitted that station he visited the Earl of Scarborough who would gladly have retained him in his employ; but his determination to serve the Duke of Somerset prevented his compliance, and he accordingly removed soon after into his Grace's household, where he distinguished himself in suck a manner as to obtain the chief stewardship, and the particular favour of that nobleman.
About the year 1700, Mr. Hutchinson visited London, atui during his residence in town, formed an acquaintance with Dr. Woodward, author of the" Natural History of the Earth." This publication seems to have attracted the particular attention of Mr. H. and to have directed his thoughts towards the study of natural history. His situation calling him into different parts of England and Wales, he began to make useful observations in his journeys—to collect fossils, &c. and soon after published a small pamphlet entitled " Observations made by J. H. mostly in the year 170(>." Pursuing his researches, he in a course of years had formed a Collection of fossils, which he committed to the care of Dr. Woodward, intending them as materials for a work the object of which was to prove the truth of the Mosaic account of the first formation of the earth at the creation, and the reformation of it after the deluge, to secular demonstration. Dr. Woodward had engaged to draw up and publish a treatise on this subject, partly from our author's materials and partly from his own; but neglecting to perform his. promise, Mr. H. began to suspect that he did not seriously intend to fulfil it, and therefore formed the resolution of trusting to his own pen for effecting what he in vain expected from the pen of another, lie consequently prepared for the undertaking; and that be might be more at leisure to prosecute bis studies he begged permission to quit the service of the Duke of Somerset. The request at first piqued the pride of that nobleman; but when he understood that Mr. H. did not intend to serve any other master and was informed of the reasons of his request, he not only complied with it, but made him bis Riding Purveyor, his Grace being at that time Master of the Horse to King George I. As this place is a sinecure with a fixed Salary of £200 a year, and a good house in the little Mews attached to it, the appointment was extremely agreeable to our author, who, from this time gave himself up to a studious and sedantary life.
The first fruits of his retirement were presented to the public in 1724, in a work entitled " Moses's Principia," in which he ridiculed Dr. Woodward's Natural History of the Earth—and daringly adventured to oppose the principle of gravitation espoused by Sir Isaac Newton. In 1727, the second part of this work appeared, and in it may be found the sum and substance of what he calls the Scripture philosophy. From this time he continued publishing a volume ■ every year or every other year, till his death, which happened on the 28th of August 1737, in his sixty third year.
That he was a person of a very singular turn of mind is sufficiently -evident from the following condensed view of his tenets which are collected from the twelve octavo volumes of his printed works. He seems to have wanted neither parts nor learning; but it may well be questioned whether he did not want judgment to apply them properly. His talents, however, were not confined to the subjects of which he chiefly treated in his writings; he was curious and inquisitive in other matters,
especially in Mechanics, for which he had a particular genius. But whatever may have been his sagacity or penetration, his temper seems to have unfitted him for the office of investigating trtrth. A furious vindictive spirit is conspicuous in roost of his productions, where it breaks out in indecent language, and betrays a strong propensity towards persecution. See Dr. Towers's Brit. Biug. Vol. ix. p. 67. et seq.
According to the Hutchinsonian system, the Father of Lights has given in" the Hebrew Scriptures, all true philosophy as well as theology; that it is, therefore, necessary to examine into the radical idea of the words he has employed; that, in order to this, we must discard the vowel points, which are a modern, if not a diabolical device, to conceal, rather than convey, the contents of the Bible; that when the Mosaic history is understood, it confutes all other systems of the universe, not excepting the Newtonian, with its doctrines of gravity, attraction, and repulsion; that the world is a machine of limited extent, of which the sun is the main-spring, at the centre, the most dense state of air forming a wall at the extremity, and all the planets revolving upon mechanical principles; that the deluge was an exhibition of the Creator's power to reci ice the earth to its first principles, and form it again; that the visible creation was intended to be an image of the Creator, his attributes and relations towards his creatures; that the heavens, or celestial fluid, composed of fire, light, and air, are designed to teach the Trinity of Father, Son, and Spirit; that the Deity imparted a knowledge of all these mysteries to the first parents of the human race, who were placed, not in the paradise of Epicurus, but in a kind of observatory, or school of philosophy; that, after the fall, visible repre
tinguished scholars, and cherished by some of the most devout believers in Revelation, as an antidote to what they deem the atheistic tendency of the Newtonian philosophy. It has, indeed, been rendered ridiculous by some injudicious friends, among whom may be ranked Mr. Romaine; but the pious manner of bishop Home will insinuate its principles into the devout, the erudition of Parkhurst recommend it to the studious, and the cultivated taste of Mr. Jones may procure it admirers among the lovers of elegant learning.
See Bogue and Bennet's History of Dissenters, Vol. IV. p. 44, 45. Note.
REMARKS ON 1 COR. xiv. 30.
"If any thing be revealed to another that sitteth by, let the first hold his peace." &c.
The forwardness of the Corinthian church to display the extraordinary gift of teaching, which they had received, under the pretext of being impelled by the Spirit of God, produced confusion in their assemblies. Instead of considering the revelations, which they received in the church, as subject to their discretion, in regard to the time of delivering them, one began to speak before the preceding speaker had finished his discourse; the consequence was-, indecency, disorder, and confusion.
To correct this, the apostle tells them that if any thing should be revealed to him who was sitting by, he should let the first speaker finish his discourse, before he proceeded; for, (as if he had said,) there is time and opportunity for you all to prophecy, not two or three at
* To give the reader a single specimen of the whimsical things contained in the "writings of this philosopher, take the following. Dr. Hoadly, Bishop of Winchester, was one of his cotcinporaries and being the leader of the low charch party at that period lie became the but of Mr. Hutchinson's malignity, which he vented by turning Ms name into Hebrew [Utters which sounded Hodli—this term he found was used in the Bible to denote a naughty or vain person, or some reproachful epithet, and thus bishop Iloadli) tc«j condemned by revelation ! .'
sentations of the Trinity in unity were given in the cherubim, on the east of Eden, placed in a tabernacle, similar to that of Moses, where our fallen parents worshipped, being taught the rite of sacrificing, circumcision, and other symbolic ceremonies; lhat, from thence, a revelation may be said to have been given to the whole human race, without which, man could know nothing of God or religion: that the idolatry of the heathen was only an apostacy from the true philosophy, by worshipping the works, instead of learning from them the author of nature; that to recover the true philosophico-theology, the Mosaic economy was given, representing in its tabernacle and utensils, the structure of the universe, as well as pre figuring a Saviour, who should be the Creator tabernacling among his own works, to make expiation for sin by a sacrifice of which all nations have retained the aboriginal tradition; that the temple of Solomon was a figure of Christ's humanity, as the Saviour himself declared, in which, as a temple, dwelt all the fulness of the godhead bodily, while it was also a grand monument to the creative honours of the Deity; and finally, that the figurative language of Scripture is not mere allusion or embellishment, but an application of the material world to its true design of teaching spiritual and divine doctrine.* If this sketch of Hutchinsonianism, hasty and compendious as it is, be thought disproportionably protracted, let it be remembered that the system has founded a school in religion and philosophy, has been warmly espoused by bishops and their clergy, taught by the most dis
once, but one by one, that al! may learn, instead of being confused, and comforted, instead of being distracted. God is not the author of confusion, by inspiring his prophets in such an irresistible manner, as to cause them abruptly to deliver their discourses without regard to decency or order; He is the author of peace in all the churches of the saints, by inspiring the prophets in such a manner, as that their spirits, endowed with revelations from above, were, respecting the time of delivering them, in some degree subject to themselves. The scope and context clearly shew, that the apostle, by the phrase, " Let the first hold his peace," does not mean that the first speaker should discontinue his discourse that another might proceed; but that they who had any thhig revealed to them should not commence their discourses before others had held their peace. To enforce this more strongly, he exhorts them to, " Let all things be done decently and in order."
To the Editor of the New Evangelical
Permit me, through the medium of your valuable Miscellany, to thank your Reviewer for his excellent and judicious remarks on Mr. Cowan's Reasons for leaving the Established Church; ami to correct an assertion which, I suppose, to be indirectly levelled at Dr. Crisp. It runs thus—" Mr. Cowan also objects to the Baptists of Bristol, their considering the Moral Law as the rule of life to believers—an objection as old, we believe, as the days of Dr. Crisp, but of which it has always confounded us to make out the grounds and reasons." This objection was, I believe, Sir, never made by Dr. Crisp; and I think that a suspicion so repugnant to truth, should not, by any of your
readers, be thought applicable to that eminent servant of Christ. Thus he speaks—" Indeed, the words immediately following give no little intimation that he understands seed thtis; for it is the seed to whom the promise, to wit of justification and life by Christ was made; which cannot be understood of Christ personally, but of his mystical members: so then the law continues for a rule, and to point out the wrath due for transgressions; for so long as Christ hath any seed upon earth, the law is to hunt men into Christ, their rock of safety; and, another end is, for a rule to order their conversation in him.
"Some, it may be, will object, that all this while it seems that Christ hath not freed us from being under the law, whereas the apostle saith, ye are not under the law, but under grace. I answer, 1st. That in respect of the rules of righteousness, or the matter of obedience, we are under the law still; or else we are lawless, to live every man as seems good in his own eyes, which I know no true Christian dares so much as think; forChrist hath given nonew law divers from this, to order our conversation aright by; besides, we are under the law, to know what is transgression, and what is the desert of it." See Dr. Crisp's Sermon "On the Use of the Law," Vol. II. p. 630. 4th. edition. Nov. 17,1817. Caroline.
We are obliged ,to Caroline for the favour of her letter, because it gives us the opportunity of explaining an ambiguous paragraph, and of doing justice to an author whom we had neither the wish nor the intention to misrepresent. It is nearly forty years since we read Dr. Crisp's Sermons, and it would therefore be absurd in us to profess to have a distinct recollection of his sentiments upon the point in question. In penning the re