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that, in letters, a copyist is, as a general rule, by no means necessarily unoriginal, except at the exact points of the copy. Mr. Simms is, beyond doubt, one of our most original writers.

Some have dark and drooping wings,

Children all of sorrow;
Some are as gay, as if to day

Could see no cloudy morrow-
And yet, like light and shade, they each

Must from the other borrow.

an

It is really difficult to conceive what One by one they come to me

On their destined mission; must have been the morbidity of the German intellect, or taste, when it not

One by one I see them fade

With no hopeless visiononly tolerated but truly admired and

For they've led me on a step enthusiastically applauded such

To their home Elysian. affair as “ The Sorrows of Werter." The German approbation was, clearly, There is, here, a great deal of natural in good faith :-as for our own, or that fancy-I mean to say that the images of the English, it was the quintessence are such as would naturally arise in the of affectation. Yet we did our best, as mind of an imaginative and educated in duty bound, to work ourselves up man, seeking to describe his thoughts." into the fitting mood. The title, by the But the main charm of the poem is the way, is mistranslated :-Lieden does nice, and at the same time, bold art of not mean Sorrows but Sufferings. its rhythm. Here is no merely nega

tive merit, but much of originality-or, The works of Christopher Pease if not precisely that, at least much of Cranch are slightly tinged with the freshness and spirit. The opening spirit of mixed Puritanism, utilitarian- line, barring an error to be presently ism, and transcendentalism, which

mentioned, is very skilful-and, to me, seems to form the poetical atmosphere the result is not less novel than happy. of Massachusetts—but, dismissing this

The general idea is merely a succession one sin, are among the truest of Ameri

of trochees (for the long syllable, or can poetry. I know nothing finer of cæsura proper, at the end of each odd its kind (and that kind is a most com

line, is a trochee's equivalent) but, in prehensive one) than one of his shorter

lieu of a trochee, at the commencement pieces entitled,

of the opening verse, we have a trochee and a pyrrhic_(forming the compound foot called, in Latin, Pæon primus, and

in Greek, ao podoyos.) Here is a very Many are the thoughts that come to me

bold excess of two short syllables—and In my lonely musing;

the result would be highly pleasurable And they drift so strange and swift if the reader were prepared for it—if

There's no time for choosing he were prepared, my monotone, to Which to follow-for to leave

expect variation. As it is, he is at fault Any seems a losing.

in a first attempt at perusal, and it is

only on a second or third trial, that he When they come, they come in flocks,

appreciates the effect. To be sure, he As, on glancing feather, Startled birds rise, one by one,

then wonders why he did not at first

catch the intention :--but the mischief In autumnal weather,

has been committed. The fact is that Waking one another up From the sheltering heather.

the line, which would have been singu

larly beautiful in the body of the poem, Some so merry that I laugh ;

is in its present position, a blemish. Some are grave and serious ;

Mr. Cranch has violated a vital law of Some so trite, their last approach rhythmical art, in not permitting his Is enough to weary us :

rhythm to determine itself, instantaneOthers flit like midnight ghosts, Shrouded and mysterious.

ously, by his opening foot. A trochaic

rhythm, for example, should invariably There are thoughts that o'er me steal,

commence with a trochee. I speak Like the day when dawning;

thus at length on this apparently trival Great thoughts winged with melody,

point, because I have been much inCommon utterance scorning;

terested in the phenomenon of a marked Moving in an inward tune

common-place-ness of defect, involving And an inward morning.

as marked an originality of merit.

MY THOUGHTS.

BRAZIL..

(Concluded.) But Don Pedro VII., although pro- ing their origin in the disposition of the claimed with the highest enthusiasm, regal power during the minority of the never fixed himself firmly in the affec- heir to the throne. Several changes tions of his people. He continued to were made in the regency, and disposireign about ten years, during which tions to cast off the imperial yoke were time the country was prosperous, and manifested in different parts of the advanced rapidly in the path of im- empire. One party succeeded another provement. His war against Monte- in the administration with great rapidvideo was, however, unsuccessful ; and, ity, but none of them had the good forwhile it checked the prosperity of Bra- tune long to satisfy the expectations of zil, resulted in the loss of a province the people. to the empire. There were also sev The constitution provided that the eral insurrectionary movements in the minority of the Emperor should termindistant provinces during his reign. But ate when he had attained the age of it was, probably, his continual interfer- eighteen. He was now fifteen, but a ence in the affairs of Portugal, and his motion was made by the opposition in partiality to native Portuguese in the the House of Deputies, in favor of aboldistribution of his public favors, that ishing the regency, and vesting him at most excited against him the prejudices once with the imperial sovereignty of of a people, whose success in rebellion Brazil. This movement was highly had made them at once bold and res- satisfactory to the populace ; and the tive.

constitutional objections to it, though A variety of popular agitations suc- urged with great power and eloquence, ceeded each other, widening the breach were urged in vain. The people were between the emperor and the patriots, seized with the idea—the popular extill the latter, in a tumultuous assembly, citement became intense--the deputies demanded the dismissal of the minis- yielded to the clamor of the multitudetry. This demand brought the affairs the regency was declared to be at an of the empire to a crisis. The Empe- end, and young Pedro, in defiance of ror, after a variety of subterfuges, finally the fundamental law of the empire, declared that he would suffer death ra was brought before the deputies, took ther than consent to the dictates of a the oath of office, and acceded to the mob, and gave utterance to the offensive full exercise of his prerogatives as remark, that "he was willing to do Emperor. . He was crowned on the everything for the people, but nothing 18th of July, 1841, with great cere. by the people.” As soon as this answer mony, parade and splendor. was made known at the Campo where Since this event, there have been the multitude had assembled, the most several changes in the ministry, and the seditious cries were raised, and the affairs of the empire do not appear to troops of the Emperor deserted his have been more stable than before. cause and went over to the populace. There have been disturbances in Rio Pedro, at length, finding that all was Grand do Sul, San Paulo, Minas Geraes lost, and that he must either yield to and Ceara ; but for some time past the the people or abandon the crown, chose country has been more quiet. In 1842 the latter alternative, and abdicated in the Emperor was married to the Prinfavor of his son, Don Pedro II., then a cess Donna Theresa, sister to the king lad of six years old; and immediately of the Two Sicilies. In the fol took his departure for Portugal. lowing year, 1843, the Emperor's sis

These events took place in April, ter, Donna Francesca, was married to 1831, and the next nine years were the Prince de Joinville, son of Louis signalized by violent party contests, hav- Philippe, king of France. In 1844,

* SKETCHES OF RESIDENCE AND TRAVELS IN BRAZIL ; Embracing Historical and Geographical Notices of the Empire and its several Provinces. By Rev. Daniel P. Kidder, A. M. In two volumes, with illustrations. Philadelphia: Sorin & Ball. London: Wiley & Putuam. 1815. VOL. XIX.NO. XCVII.

3

“No one,"

can

another sister, Donna Januaria, Impe- nishes so bountifully to their hands, rial Princess and heir to the Brazilian they could not avoid being rich. If enthrone, was married to the Count of terprising cultivation were added to Aquilla, of Naples, brother to the Em- that degree of industry, there is no press. These alliances are regarded limit to the vegetable wealth which as giving strength and respectability to might be drawn from this treasury of the Brazilian throne, and have given nature.” much gaiety to the court scenes at Rio, Although wheat may be grown in though they have not materially im- the southern provinces, yet no attenproved the finances, or relieved the tion is paid to its cultivation. Large treasury.

quantities of four are imported from says

Mr. Kidder,“ the United States, and bread is used reflect upon the history of these chil- for food in the cities and towns along dren, the descendants of the Braganzas, the coast; but in the interior there are without emotion. Never was parental thousands of people who have never solicitude more intense than has been tasted, or even seen, what in this coun. the unwavering anxiety of the Brazil- try is regarded as the staff of life. Mr. ian nation in their behalf. Thrown upon Kidder relates an anecdote of a Matuits protection in a state of virtual aban- to from the far Sartao, who, in one of donment and orphanage, they were his visits to the coast, resolved to gracherished as the fondest objects of the tify his curiosity, and test for himself. nation's hopes," and during the eight the qualities of that bread of which he years of the Emperor's minority, had heard so much. He accordingly “ amid all the political agitations and went to a baker and purchased a hatparty intrigues of so long a period, full of rolls. He then seated himself neither individuals nor factions presum- under the shade of an out-spreading ed to question the prerogatives of the tree, and commenced paring them as he youthful monarch,” but all bore towards would have done an orange or banana. him the "warmest affections and the But even at that, the taste did not please most enthusiastic reverence."

him, and he threw them away as unThe Palace of Boa Vista, occupied by fit to be eaten. the young Emperor and his bride at Rio, In some parts of Brazil melaneia, or is a building of considerable size and water-melons, grow to a large size, splendor, located in a suburb about four and are produced in such unwonted or five miles from the denser portion of profusion, as to be sold at 18 or 20 cents the city. It was originally a private per hundred. The inhabitants, esperesidence, and was presented by its cially the Indians and mixed races, use generous owner to Don John VI. It them as a principal article of food.has been gradually enlarged and im- But a better and more usual substitute proved, and rendered very suitable to for the bread of the north is mandioc, the purposes to which it is devot- the principal farinaceous substance of ed. The Emperor and his sister here Brazil

. It is an indigenous plant, and received their education, under the di was known to the Indians long before rection of a tutor appointed by the go- the discovery of the country by Eurovernment.

peans. The Portuguese, on taking There is probably no country in the possession of the country, soon acworld where a subsistence is so easily quired the habit of using it

, and by approcured as in Brazil. Mr. Kidder ob- plying to its cultivation and preparation serves, " that the stern voice of neces the arts of a more advanced condition, sity-work or die-never disturbs the greatly improved it, and brought it into day-dreams of the Brazilian as he very general use as food. It is now to yawns in his hammock during the be found on every Brazilian table, formbright hours of sunshine. The great ing a great variety of healthy and palmass of the lower classes live as they atable dishes. list. Their wants are few and simple, The striking peculiarity of this valuand to a great degree confined to the able plant is the union, in its fibrous spontaneous productions of nature.” structure, of a deadly poison with a This circumstance is undoubtedly the substance highly nutricious and healthchief bar to the advancement of the ful. The root is the part used. It is country. “ If the people were only in- ground into a pulp, then subjected to dustrious in collecting what nature fur- high pressure, by which means the

greater portion of the poisonous juice hand, and is immediately ready for use. is expelled, then placed over a fire or It is poured over moulds of clay, to in a heated oven, where it is stirred which a thin coating adheres, which is continually till all the poisonous moist- exposed to fumes of smoke, rendering ure is evaporated, when its appear- it harder and giving it a deeper color. ance is white and beautiful, though its Coatings are thus added until the shoe particles are rather coarse. From the or bottle has attained the desirable fine substance deposited by the juice of thickness. The export of shoes only the mandioc is made the tapioca of amount to some three or four hundred commerce, a substance in general use thousand pairs annually. among us, and which is becoming an The mineral region lies deep in the article of considerable export from interior, being confined to the provinces Brazil.

of Matto Grosso, Goyaz and Minas The accounts with which we have Geraes. Goyaz and Matto Grosso long been familiar, respecting the rich- abound in gold, diamonds and precious ness of the soil and the luxuriance of stones; but their distance from the seathe vegetation, have not, according to shore, and the lack of suitable means of Mr. Kidder's observations, been exag- communication, are great obstacles to gerated. On the borders of the Ama- the full development of their resources. zon the forests appear in their greatest The few inhabitants with which they strength and beauty. Some of the are peopled have been lured thither in trees are decked from top to bottom their pursuit of gain. The gold was with the most splendid flowers, and formerly procured with such great faothers are interlaced with innumerable cility, that each slave was required to parasites, or creeping vines, which return three or four ounces per day ; twist around the trunks, and climbing and so greedy were the adventurers in to their tops, drop again to the ground, their eagerness to secure the golden where they take root, spring up again, harvest, that they braved the dangers and crossing from bough to bough and of a desolating pestilence, and even from tree to tree, spread themselves, neglected the ordinary provisions of till the whole woods are hung with comfort and subsistence. They soon their garlanding. In great pro found, however, that food was more vince of Para, along the waters of the precious than gold, and that mountains Amazon, thousands, and perhaps mil- of this precious metal could not purlions, of acres of the most fertile land chase exemption from disease or death. in the world lie as wild and almost as A pound of gold was often given in exuseless as the sandy deserts of Africa. change for a bushel of corn, and an

It is in this region that the caout ounce and a half was at one time the chouc, or gum-elastic, flourishes. The price for a pound of meat. The disuse of this plant was learned from the coverer of all this vast wealth fell a Omaguas, a tribe of Brazilian Indians. prey to his avarice, and with many The improvements in its manufacture others, laid his bones in the wilderness, have, however, vastly extended its use, cut off prematurely by privation and and made it essential to the health and disease. comfort of the whole enlightened world. Villa Bella, one of the principal It now enters largely into the com towns of Matto Grosso, is in a direct merce of the country.

line from the city of Para, at the mouth The tree from which this valuable of the Amazon, about one thousand gum is produced, grows to the height of miles. But so difficult is it of access, eighty or a hundred feet, being quite that not less than two thousand five straight, and without branches for half hundred miles must be traversed in that distance. Its top is spreading, making the usual passage by water. and ornamented with thick and glossy The Amazon and Madeira are navigfoliage. On the slightest incision the able in this direction for 1500 miles, to gum exudes, having at first the con the Falls of St. Anthony, above which sistence and appearance of thick, yel- there is a succession of falls and rapids low cream. The trees are tapped in for two hundred miles, around which the morning, and about a gill of the the canoes and their burthens must be fluid flows from each incision during carried with immense labor by gangs the day. It is caught in small cups of of Indians or slaves. This portion of clay, moulded for the purpose with the the route is seldom passed in less than

four months. For the remainder of Asiatic cholera have never desolated
the distance (700 miles) the navigation Brazil, and that although many causes
along the Mamora and Guapore is un exist in its cities to favor pestilential
interrupted. But the ascent through diseases, yet the general salubrity of
the whole distance is slow and toilsome the air and its equable temperature have
on account of the strong flowing cur- proved a steady protection.
rent.

Brazil is not well advanced in the The trade is carried on by companies, arts and improvements of modern and vast numbers of Indians and ne times. Even in its large cities cargroes are required as oarsmen and riages are but little in vogue, and the bearers of burdens.

roads are not constructed for their use. The first printing-press in this pro- Maranham, Mr. Kidder thinks, is betvince was established in 1838 by the ter built than any other city of Brazil, government. The state of education, yet the rise and descent of the streets both in Goyaz and Matto Grosso, may are very abrupt, and there is but one be inferred from the fact, that in the good carriage road in the place. Lalatter country there are only eight dies in going about the city are usually primary schools, and in the former carried by slaves in a rede or hammoc. eighteen, two of which are for girls. Even at Rio a horse and dray are very

But these are the most neglected unusual, most of the drudgery being portions of the empire. The other performed by gangs of negroes. Docks mining province, Minas Geraes, is are also wanting, and the loading and much nearer the coast, and much uploading of vessels is a work of double more cultivated. Its name signifies labor, performed by the intervention of the general or universal mines, which small boats, which ply between the very well designates its inexhaust- shore and the ship. Rail-roads, stageible mineral wealth. Gold, silver, coaches, and all other vehicles for pubcopper and iron are all found within its lic conveyance, are entirely unknown, borders, besides a great variety of pre- and all who do not walk must be concious stones. The most valuable of veyed on horses or mules, and have these mines are wrought by an English their baggage transported by the same company; and the improvements which means. they have introduced, and the enter The religious state of Brazil, as preprise and intelligence which they have sented by Mr. Kidder, is well worthy diffused through this portion of the to be studied by the Christian philanempire, have shed new lustre on the thropist, and demands the attention of Anglo-Saxon race. This province the whole Christian world. That the takes the lead in education as well as religion of a country has a deep influin other improvements. There are

ence on its prosperity and well-being, about one hundred primary schools for no intelligent man can doubt. When boys, fifteen for girls, and twenty-six the mind is fettered by superstition Latin schools, with enrolled pupils and bound up in the chains of religious amounting to about eight thousand, in- bigotry, it is not to be expected that it dependent of those schools which have should act with the directness and enbeen established by private enterprise. ergy which it manifests when freed

Notwithstanding the great extent of from such embarrassing restraints, and Brazil

, the temperature of the different left to the full swing of its inherent portions appears to be pretty uniform. powers. In the city of Para, at the mouth of The religion of Brazil was introduce the Amazon, and nearly under the ed contemporaneously with the settleequator, the thermometer ranges from ment of the country, several centuries 75 to 93. At Bahia, 13 degrees south, ago. Portugal and Spain, which were the changes of temperature are still then among the most enlightened and less, the extremes being 74 and 86. At enterprising nations on the globe, have Rio de Janeiro, which is located near since that time fallen into a state of the tropic of Capricorn, the temperature degrading apathy, and have suffered in the course of the year varies from the meanest of their neighbors to out54 to 108. If we except the far inte- strip them in the race of improvement. rior, the whole country must be regard- Brazil, bound up in colonial chains, ed as remarkable for its salubrity. Mr. and since her emancipation, shut off Kidder observes, that the plague and as it were from the rest of the world,

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