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in consequence of speaking a strange tised, save in “ buildings having the exlanguage, has continued to lean on the terior form of a temple.” This is the parent country, imbibing quite too more remarkable when it is remembermuch of the apathy and inertia which ed, that for three centuries the Roman has so long governed its destiny. Catholic form of worship has held un

Since the revolution of 1822 she disputed sway, and that no other faith has, however, made much progress to- has sought admittance to the Brazilian wards casting off her dependence; and mind ; " and yet,” says Mr. Kidder, her present condition in regard to re- “it is my firm conviction that there is ligion, shows the effect produced on her not a Roman Catholic country on the population by the new position which globe where there prevails a greater she has assumed. Having taken an degree of toleration, or a greater liberhonorable post among the nations, she ality of feeling towards Protestants." cherishes à praiseworthy ambition to The truth of this proposition was be their equal ; she desires improve- abundantly established by Mr. Kidment; she directs an inquiring eye to- der's experience. He travelled openly wards other nations ; she compares in the character of a Protestant mistheir state with her own, and is willing sionary; distributed tracts, Testato profit as far as possible by their ments and Bibles in the Portuguese knowledge and experience.

language; made known his errand to She has already discovered that a statesmen, Church dignitaries and the religion ingrafted on the state is ex- lower grades of priests; and yet, though ceedingly defective, and that the lives he thus openly visited every province, of its chief apostles and teachers but except the three mining provinces of poorly correspond with the sacredness the interior, he is not sure that a maof their profession. In consequence jority of the priesthood did not maniof this state of public feeling, religion is fest towards him and his work both fagradually yielding to infidelity; churches vor and friendship. are falling into ruin ; parishes are de Some of the Bibles which he disserted by their spiritual guides ; eccle- tributed from the mission-house at Rio siastics are turning into politicians, and he afterwards met with at San Paulo, monasticism is wearing out, while there 300 miles distant; and during his visit is nothing better to take its place. to that province, he, a Protestant mis

In Para nearly all the churches are sionary in a Catholic country, was engoing to ruin ;-out of 96 parishes only tertained by one of its most distinguish37 are supplied with priests. In Mar- ed ecclesiastics with marked hospitality, anham 25 churches had been adver- and invited to leave with his host cotised as open for applications, without pies of books for distribution, with the securing a single candidate. In the view of counteracting the manifest tendiocese of Cayaba not a single church dency of the people towards infidelity. is provided with a settled curate ; and Another evidence, equally striking, in the rich bishoprick of Rio, embracing that the Brazilian mind is becoming four provinces, only five or six priests loosened froin the shackles of that suare ordained annually. President perstition which has so long bound it, Caelho declares that the clergy are ig- may be found in the fact that a proponorant, depraved in their habits, cor sition to annul the order prohibiting the rupt in their morals, involved in the marriage of the clergy was discussed concerns of the world, and totally for- and received with marked favor in the getful of their heavenly mission. A House of Deputies at Rio. distinguished ecclesiastic assured Mr. This last movement was headed by Kidder that Brazil was in darkness, and no less a personage than Feijo, at one altogether behind the age. Feijo, Re- time Regent of the Empire, and one gent during a portion of the Emperor's of the most remarkable men of his minority, himselt a priest, asserted that time. He was educated to the priestthere was scarcely a priest in the pro- hood, but laid aside his “ holy garvince of San Paulo who did his duty ments” for the more exciting theatre of as the Church prescribed it.

political life. He had been a member The constitution of Brazil provides of the Cortez of Lisbon, from which that the Roman Catholic religion shall body he withdrew in disgust at the inbe the religion of the state, while it dignities cast on the Brazilian members; allows all modes of worship to be prac- and having published a solemn protest

against the conduct of Portugal, re- one; Ceará four ; Piauhy one ; Marturned to America. After the estab- anham two; Para one ; Minas Geraes lishment of the independent govern- ten ; Goyaz one, and Matto Grosso ment he became a prominent member one. of the House of Deputies, where he These senators are representatives made his masterly report in favor of of provinces, but it is not required that clerical marriages. Such a report, they should be residents of the procoming from an ecclesiastic of high vinces so represented. When a senastanding, excited a great deal of atten- tor is to be made, the people choose a tion. But that it was not prejudicial certain number of persons who are to his standing or popularity is evident styled electors. These electors prefrom the fact, that he was afterwards sent to the Emperor three free-holders, appointed Minister of State, Regent of either of whom they are willing to acthe Empire, and Senator for life. He cept as their senator, and the Emperor was, moreover, elected by the imperial selects one of them, who being regugovernment Bishop of Moriana, a dig- larly installed, holds his office for life. nity which he saw fit to decline. He Every citizen having a revenue of $250 died in 1843.

is qualified to vote for senatorial elecThe government of Brazil is a mon- tors, deputies and members of the proarchy, limited in its powers by the pro- vincial assemblies, and is also qualified visions of a written constitution. The to be a senatorial elector. empire is divided into eighteen pro It is a gratifying circumstance in the vinces, each of which has a separate recent history of Brazil, that every local government. The governor or change which has been made in the president of each province is appointed government has tended towards a more by the Emperor, and holds his office at enlarged liberty. Since the commencehis pleasure. Each province has a ment of the present century Brazil legislative assembly consisting of one has passed from a state of abject colohouse only, the members of which nial dependence to be the centre of are elected by the people, and which is Portuguese power and the residence authorized to pass such internal local of the royal court. Then, abandoned laws and regulations as the wants of the by her sovereign, she assumed her poprovince may require.

sition as an independent empire, and The legislative power of the empire adopted a constitution which secured is vested in a Senate and House of to her citizens a liberal share in the Deputies, which hold their sessions at conduct of their government. But this Rio de Janeiro. The deputies are the constitution, since its first adoption, representatives of the several provinces, has also undergone several changes, and their number is graduated by the all of which have been in favor of popupopulation. They hold their seats for lar liberty. Formerly the deputies four years unless dissolved by imperial were elected for an indefinite period, authority. It is not, however, neces and the house continued, as in England, sary for a deputy to be a resident of the till it was dissolved by the Emperor; province which he represents, but he but by a recent change the term has may be chosen from his own or any been fixed to four years, by which other province. The House of Depu- means the representative is made reties, as at present constituted, consists sponsible to the people, rather than to of one hundred and three members. Its the sovereign, and is bound by his popresiding officer is elected from its own sition to advocate the rights and liberbody.

ties of his constituents. The Senate is a more aristocratic We may, perhaps, safely say, that body, the members holding their ap- for the last twenty-five years Brazil pointment during life. It consists, as has made as rapid advances as any naat present organized, of forty-nine mem tion on the globe. Much, however, bers, distributed according to popula- still remains to be done; and we trust tion as follows :-Rio Grand do Sul that she may continue to go on, acquirsends one ; Santa Catharina one ; San ing additional strength, and light, and Paulo four ; Rio de Janeiro four ; Es- vigor, and that her statesmen may seek pirito Santo one ; Bahia six ; Seregipe the glory of the Empire-not in givone ; Alagoas two ; Pernambuco six ; ing - all possible splendor" to the cereParahiba two; Rio Grande do Norte monies of religion, or the insignia of

power—but in diffusing intelligence, provinces be united together by ties enterprise and happiness among the stronger than “ hooks of steel,” and people, and in securing to them the she will take her place among the full advantage of a free and unfettered richest and most powerful nations on condition. Then will her different the globe.


The great Earth swung in air,

A floating speck in space;
Fierce storms were crowding there,

And Spirits left their place.


First the chill Death-spirit woke,
And out the curling darkness broke ;
Loudly through mad whirls of smoke
In ringing accents it outspoke :

“ I hold the world in my hand,

And all of stirring breath;
Man, brute, and stream and land,

Are all the heirs of Death."

Away fast fled earth's bloom
'Neath shadow-clouds of gloom ;
Mankind had heard its doom,
The end-all is the tomb !

Then the Life-spirit descends,
And through rainbow sparkles wends ;
Softly in mystic love it bends,
And cheerly radiant good hope lends :-

" I hold the world in my hand,

And all of peace or strife ;
Man, brute, and stream and land,

Are all the heirs of Life."

Pale death loud shrieked and fled,
And through deep storm-glooms sped;
Ita last doom had been read,
E'en Death is to be dead!

There is life in the sablest death,

Not soulless sleeps the clod-
“ The bier is the cradle of he
The grave the bosom of God.

T. S. D.

# Jean Paul



We do not recollect to have seen any tion. They step from year to year, as notice of this work, which has now been if there were no foot-prints but those before the public some eighteen months. which they leave behind. They write, There may be reasons for this inatten as it were, from balloons, whence they tion, which have no reference to the discern only the largest objects. All merits of the letters. Such a form of the rest is dim or lost to view. literature is not popular. Letters pre What history does not perform, is atsent no story: they have no connected tempted by other ways. We have alnarrative; they certainly have no pre- luded to historical novels. They do tensions of that kind, any more than a much, especially in such hands as Walconversational remark has to be a set ter Scott's. In other hands they have speech. Both have their appropriate done more harm than good. There are place and value. These letters do not doubtless many minds, even at this late profess to give a history of anything; day, which have never corrected the they are merely commentaries on the misapprehensions left on them by Miss Revolution. As such, they have much Porter's Wallace and Thaddeus of Warvalue. We do not speak of their lite

But the best of historical novels rary execution—that has no part in the have too much imagination about them. estimate we put upon them. Letters They lack reality. The fiction spreads of this kind, to be truly valuable, must a varnish over the whole work, and we have all the marks of unpremeditated know not whether it be an imitation or expression. There must be an assur- the true mahogany which wears such a ance on the face of them that they glaze. Letters, actually written during were off-hand, written currente calamo. the times they refer to, are without Such characteristics belong to these these objections. They bring up the letters.

arrearages of history more satisfactorily We are apt to think that history is than any other form of literature. all we want of our Revolution. This There is no invention about them. We is a mistaken thought. We want his- have no doubt concerning them, provitory, as it is generally understood, but ded we are assured that they are genunot that alone. The histories we have ine. Once satisfied of this fact, we thus far had of our Revolution have read them as we would listen to a conbeen large outlines, which have left versation. There is no question of vemuch to be filled up. They compass racity as to statements. The statesea and land, and necessarily limit ments they contain may be wrong, but, themselves to prominent political and if they are given as the impressions of military events; otherwise their bulk the moment, nothing more is required. would be enormous. Then, if history History is read with a constant dishas her province, we must look beyond trust of its accuracy. What is unquesher, or outside of her, for other infor- tioned to-day, may be questioned to-mormation connected with her main inci- row. A fact settled this year, becomes dents which that province excludes. It unsettled the next. Even the determiis considered that Scott's historical no- nations of one century are often reversvels fill up many a hiatus in the British ed the next. This is unavoidable : no histories. His details as much belong one complains of it, any more than one to the scene as their more prominent complains of the imperfection of man's

And yet, they could not have senses, and the limits of his powers. been introduced into those histories. Doubts hang over the details of every Historians confine themselves mostly battle, until a generation arises that to cabinets and fields. The court and cares not which way they are settled. the camp give them sufficient occupa- And weli may this be. A street-fight be


* CORRESPONDENCE OF MR. RALPH IZARD, of South Carolina, from the year 1774 to 1804, with a short Memoir. Vol. 1, New-York: Chas. S. Francis & Co., 252 Broadway. 1844. pp. 390.

tween two persons, with half a dozen hatcheling and carding, will be usefully spectators, has never yet been descri- worked up into the web of history. bed by two of those spectators alike. The collections, of course, embrace They did not see alike, they did not much surplus matter. The selectors feel alike, and therefore they do not de- at the foreign archives are something scribe alike. How much less may a like the mineralogist at the quarry, battle be described by two persons who carries home to his laboratory a alike. The eye that pretends to have great deal of refuse stone in connexion seen distinctly even that which passed with bis specimens. He has not the within the sphere of its vision, will time there to make the separation, nor hardly be believed; and when it pre- is he certain that he can inake it juditends to have seen that which smoke, ciously. The question is not, whether distance, and interposing obstacles ne- these collections are valuable, but cessarily obscured, or shut out of sight, whether they be, as is too often it will not, of course, be believed at all. thought, the only collections that are

Letters of the kind before us profess so. If a portion of the means and no more than to relate events, and time which have been applied to this sketch characters as they appeared at archive-hunting had been applied to the moment of writing. There will be searches after private correspondence, indistinctness, there may be error. This carried on contemporaneously with we expect, and therefore find no fault prominent events—after private letters with it. When Mr. Izard gives the which were written in the heat of the first rumors of the battle of Bunker- moment, in the presence of those who hill, as they were heard in London, we were buckling on the armor, or putare pleased somewhat in proportion to ting it off—the search had not probably the blunders into which those rumors been without much fruit. We have lead him. The slowness with which the official accounts of the fall of the tidings reached Great Britain in those few men at Lexington, whose blood, days, when there was no steam,—when shed just at the dawn of the day, so there were no packets,—when the appropriately bedewed the dawn of Atlantic had been abridged by none of the Revolution; and of the running the modern facilities which have redu- fight from Concord which ensued, and ced it to a broad ferry, shows itself in which, as it were by intuition, was throughout this correspondence. We shown how an unorganized and hastare not surprised that the first impres- ily raised force, –a sudden gathering sion should have been, that Quebec had from the farm-houses, the anvil, the been taken by Montgomery. All these work-bench, &c.,-could be best and evidences of the state of the times give efficiently used. These accounts are the letters a peculiar zest. We seem to gratifying, and belong to the page of be taken back to those times. History history, and can never be effaced from brings the past down to the days of the it. But there may be other accounts historian. Such letters as these take of the same day, which, though not the reader back to the days of the properly belonging to that page, may writer. Besides, there is the assur well be placed on 'other pages. The ance that they were not written for the gleanings of Ruth have even a highpublic. We do not mean the assur er interest than the reapings of ance of the writer : we might not believe Boaz. There may have been members that ; the letters themselves prove that of families within the whirl of that they were written for no public use. day's vortex, who wrote letters while This diminishes the responsibility their heads were yet giddy with the under which they were written, while scene. Many a warm record of this it gives them a freedom of expression kind may have been made of the viciswhich no other compositions can have. situdes of the morning, the mid-day,

We would not undervalue the labors and the evening, of this memorable first of those who visit the archives of day of the Revolution. Such records, Europe. They doubtless all return, even if they were hastily made, and bringing their sheaves with them. having nothing of an historical characThere is now collected in this country, ter, would be highly valued. We well in the appropriate state societies, a vast know how the militia assembled, and deal of raw material, which, after much blocked up the high-way where the

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