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Vol. IV. General correspondence during the year 1715, apparently of less importance than the last: Letters from many private correspondents.
Vol. V. Letters from the Earl of Stair, but chiefly letters to him from Secretary Stanhope, P. Methuen, &c.
Vol. VI. Letters to Lord Stair from—
Vol. VIT. General correspondence for 1716, and letters to Lord Stair. (1) From Earl of Sutherland about the state of the clans in Inverness-shire. (2) Copy of another from him to Mr. Cadogan, in French.
Letters from Mr. Rowley. Havre.
Daniel Moore. Calais.
Jas. Dalrymple. Edinburgh,
Unsigned letter, with account of movements in Scotland.
A very miscellaneous series, but all apparently on public events.
Vol. VIII. General correspondence, from September to December 1716.
The collection is very miscellaneous; the writers are of less prominence, but the letters are on public affairs.
Vol. IX. Letter from George I. to the Princess of Conde, 3rd May 1717.
Letters from the Earl of Stair, and his Secretar}', Mr. Thomas Crawford, during 1717.
Letters from Mr. Addison and Secretaries of State at Whitehall.
Mr. Henry Davenant. Genoa.
Mr. Manning. Berne.
Mr. Bubb and Col. Stanhope. Madrid.
Mr. Crawford writes about the movements of the Pretender, and the Earl of Marr, and the Jacobites generally.
Vol. X. contains letters from—
Vol. XT. General correspondence, from January to July 1717.
Vol. XII. Ditto, from August to December, both very miscellaneous.
Vol. XIII. A. Copies of letters from the Earl of Stair, 1718.
Letters from the Secretaries of State at Whitehall (Craggs and Stanhope) during this year.
Copy letter from Earls Stair and Stanhope to Sir George Byng, 21st January 1718.
Letter, Earl Stanhope to Byng.
Earl Stair to Byng, from Paris, about his expedition, and generally on the affairs of Europe. Earl Stair to the Abbe d'Bois.
Earl Stair to Earl Stanhope, 5th October 1718,—par. ticulier.
Draft letter, Earl Stair to Col. Stanhope.
Ditto, Earl Stair to M. de Saphorin.
Letter, Earl Stair to Col. Stanhope.
[The copies seem often to be the original drafts.]
Vol. XIII. B. Letters from the Secretaries of Stato at Whitehall to Lord Stair during 1718.
Copy letter by Sir D. Dalrymple, Bart., to the Duke of Hamilton (29th November 1711;, about the objections to the introduction of Scots Peers by writ, stating that they were not shared in by the Commissioners appointed to treat of the Union. A long letter founded on tho articles of Union. [This last letter is in Vol. I.]
Vol. XIV. Letters (1718), from—
Vol. XV. Instructions and additional instructions to Sir George Byng, Knight and Baronet, Admiral and Commander-in-Chief of tho Fleet in the Mediterranean. May and July 1718. and orders by Sir George to the Captains of H.M. Ships.
Letters from Sir Geo. Byng to Lord Stair, dated chiefly from Naples.
Many letters from M. d'Avenant. Genoa.
Col. Stanhope. Madrid.
Copies of letters from Col. Stanhope to Secretary Craggs. Madrid.
Vol. XVI. General correspondence, from January to April 1718.
Copy letter, Cardinal Alberoni to the Marquis de Nanere (1719).
Cameron of Lochiel to his brother, Major Donald Cameron, 25th March 1718. Turin.
'* C," 27th March 1718. London.
A political letter: "The division of the Whig strength "tho' it is not so considerable as it was, and begins "to grow together in some measure among ye little "people, tho' not among ye great, occasions very great "difficulty to tho administration, and those likewise "have been multiplied, ye court as well as ye party "having draun two ways."
Vol. XVTI. General correspondence, from May to August 1718.
R. Arbuthnot. London.
Vol. XVIII. General correspondence, from September to December 1718. The letters are written to Lord Stair from various places, principally on the Continent.
Vol. XIX. Letters during 1719.
From Charles Electeur Palatine (26th March).
Letters from the Secretaries of State, I. Craggs, Ch. Delafaye. London.
Letters to and from M. L'Abbe du Bois.
Copy letter. Lord Stair to Lord Stanhope, 27th May. "Private." Paris.
Ditto, ditto, 20th July. Paris.
Letter, Lord Stanhope to Lord Stair, 5th December 1719.
Letters dated " Cockpit," 10th March 1719, unsigned, on politics. "Good Ld. Cadogan, tho' he has made the "utmost professions of friendship and deference to "other folks measures, has certainly blown the coals; "he has a notion of being premier ministre, which I "believe you will with me think a very Irish one."
"Tho King will be very peevish, and I wish he does "not fall sick if he cannot goe to Hanover. Let me *' tell you that Sunder]. and Stanh. are very sincerely "your friends."
Vol. XIX.B. Letters from tho Secretaries of State, 1719. Whitehall.
Long detailed answers from Secretary Craggs to letters from Lord Stair, as to French and Spanish politics. On 9th March he writes that he has been hindered from writing by home politics, and "the "nature of your dispatches has been such that it was "impossible for me to return you any answer till I had "received His Majesty's special and particular direc"tions upon them; and they contained matters of such "nicety that His Majesty has been willing to take time "and advice from his other ministers before he direoted "me to reply to them."
A good many of Secretary Craggs's letters are "pri"vate " and unsigned. In one of 2nd July he writes of "The secret of the Courts of Vienna and France, the "nicety of affairs in the North, and the correspondence "with Lord Mar."
In one of October of this year, about Lord Mar, he says, "I have seen letters with my own eyeB, by which I "am convinced he endeavours still to keep well with "tho Pretender."
Lord Stanhope to Lord Stair. Gohre.
Vol. XX, Letters from Earl Stanhope and from Mons. L. Schaub, 1719. Hanover and Au Gohre. Many from Earl Cadogan. The Hague. Mr. Whitworth. Ditto and Berlin. Mr. Dayrolles. The Hague.
Copy of the instructions and very private instructions to Charles Whitworth, Esq., Plenipotentiary to the King of Prussia.
Letters from Mr. Whitworth. Berlin.
Long letters from Earl Stanhope. Hanover.
Extrait de la lettre secrete et particuliere de my Ld. Stanhope a my Ld. Carteret (30th Sept.).
Draft of letter, Lord Stanhope to Lord Carteret, with corrections and additions.
Extracts of letters, my Lord Stanhope to Mons. de Whitworth and Lord Carteret (November).
Letters from C. Whitworth to Lord Stair. Hanover.
Other letters signed by Whitworth and Lord Cadogan.
Extrait d'une lettre de Mons. Weber a Mons. Whitworth, datce de St. Pctersbourg, le 3 Avril.
Copy of my Lord Cadogan's letter to the Earl of Stanhope, 6th June. Hague.
"Private instructions for our trusty and wel-beloved Chas. Whitworth, Esq., whom we have thought fit to send on matters of great importance as our Plenipotentiary to our good brother and son-in-law, the King of Prussia. Given at our Court at St. James's, the 15th April 1719, in the 5th year of our reign."
"Very private and additional instructions for our trusty and wel-beloved Charles Whitworth, Esq., whom we have thought tit to send on matters of great importance as our Plenipotentiary to our good brother and sonin-law, the King of Prussia. Given [as above]."
"Copie d'une relation de Monsr. Whitworth a, my Lord Stanhope au sujet du Traitte avec la Roi Prusse secrette, de Berlm, le de Juiu 1719." (A paper of 29 pages, folio.)
Vol. XXI. General correspondence.
Sir George Byng, and from Mr. Fleetwood, British
Mr. Alex. Cunningham. Venice.
M. St. Saphorin. Vienna.
Colonel Lascelles. Dunkirk.
Lord Polwarth. Copenhagen.
Vol. XXIII. General correspondence, June to December 1719.
Vol. XXIV. General correspondence, from 1720 to 1732.
Lord Stair to Sir George Byng.
Mons. de Penterridler a l'Abbe Landi.
Earl of Cadogan and others. The Hague.
Mr. Alex. Cunningham. Venice.
Lord Crichtoun to the Countess Dowager.
Earl of Roseberie. Secretary Craggs's letter of 18th February 1719 tells the Earl that the King has consented to his request to be recalled.
The Earl had complained to Craggs that his private letters were shown, which the latter denied. Writing on 10th March, Craggs says, " The fact is that you are "recalled, that as,you observed very justly upon ye
"terms you were at that Court, you cd. not doe the "King such good service as heretofore. Whether it "has been by Lord Stanhope's fault, by yours, mine, or "any other person's, is very little material to ye public, "but it is very material in ye circumstances yr. Lord"ship suspects and represents to look out very sharp "for this purpose, as you'l see by my publick letter. "Lord Stanhope is making his second trip to Paris. "Sir Robt. Sutton follows him in a few days. His "Lop will come to your house and inform you very "exactly of what he has to doe, and he will settle with "you how long you shd. stay till Sir Robt. iB a little "instructed in the carte du Paris. I hope during his "Lordship's stay in France you'l keep up the decent "appearances at least which are necessary between the "servants of the same master. I believe if you are "willing you may be also very good friends, but if you "have not a mind to it, why, patience, there is no fence "against a flail.
"Your account of Mr. Law is very curious in your "private letter to me. If yr. intelligence is good, "surely whatever ill designs he may have he will not "be very able to execute them. He is a comet that "has lately appeared in ye world; whither he will set "it on fire or disappear 1 camiot tell; but if his design "is to ruin us, I am not yet convinced he will succeed "in it, or whether he will subvert France, nor can I "hope, being very clear of opinion that we have nothing "to doe but wait ye event, using all reasonable and "possible means to take care of our selfes, and looking "out as sharp as we can for the intentions of the French "and Spanish Courts. Our S. Sea business will goe, "but were you to see with what cabals, factions, and "difficultys you wd. be convinoed 'tis a much easier "thing to say what wd. be right than to put it in "execution."
Vol. XXV. General correspondence, from the year 1733 to the year 1737 inclusive.
There are letters from—
Hailes. John Whitefoord. Earl of Breadalbane. Duchess of Marlborough.
Vol. XXVI. General correspondence, from 1738 to 1742.
Among others are letters from—
Alex. Ross. Balkaill. Sir Jas. Erskine.
Lord Chesterfield. London Lord Shaftesbury, and Tunbridge. Duke of Montrose.
Copy letter, Prince William of Hesse to Lord Harrington. A Hanau, 7th January 1742.
Copy, ditto to ditto. 30th January 1742.
Extract, Lord Carteret's letter to Mr. Trevor. 26th February 1742.
Copy, Lord Carteret's letter to Prince William of Hesse. 2nd March 1742.
Traitte entre l'Empereur et le Roy de Suede, conclu a Francfort. 2 March 1742.
Extract, Lord Carteret's letter to Mr. Trevor. 12th March 1742.
Ditto ditto. 16th November 1742.
Copy of the Earl of Stair's credentials to the States General. 20th March 1742.
Instructions (superscribed by George II.) to John Earl of Stair, Field Marshal of our forces, to be our Ambassador Extraordinary to the States General of the United Provinces. 23rd March 1742.
Secret instructions to the Earl. 23rd March 1742.
Additional secret instructions by the King to the Earl. 23rd March 1742.
Further additional instructions by the King. 23rd March 1742.
Separate and most secret instructions by the King. 23rd March 1742.
Order by the King to the Earl of Stair to take the several regiments sent to Flanders under his comnjand21st April 1742,
Vol. XXVII. General correspondence, from August 1742 to 1746, including letters from—
Lord Chesterfield. London. Earl of Hartford. Earl of Marchmont. Letter of revocation by the King of Lord Stair from the Embassy, dated Worms, 3rd September 1743.
Warrant for Field Marshal the Earl of Stair to take upon him the command of His Majesty's forces in South Britain. 24th February 1744.
Andrew Stone. Whitehall.
Duko of Queensberry.
Plan of the situation of the British troops at tho battle of Dettingen, according to the returns given in by tho officers who commanded regiments on that day.
Vol. XXVIII. contains principally inventories and list«. One is a list of Lord Stair's books at his death in 1747, old accounts, &c.
A separate volume is entitled " Letters to Sir Patrick "Hamilton, of Little Preston, Knight and various "accounts of the Viscount Oxfuird and his Lady, and "of the Laird of Little Preston." Among othors are letters from—
The Earl of Airly. 1652-54.
The Countess of do. 1654.
Sir John Cockburn of Ormiston. 1668-71.
J. Colquhoun, of Luss. 1649.
Magdalene Carnegy. 1640-49.
Sir Jas. Crichton.
Earl of Dunfermline. 1616.
Earls of Haddington. 1652-70
Earl and Countess of Hartfell.
Sir Ja. Makgill.
Earl of Panmure. 1653.
Earl of Perth. 1688.
Various accounts of clothiers and shoemakers, with bills for lodging of Bobert Lord Viscount Oxfuird and Patrick Hamilton, of Little Preston. Discharges by the latter to the former, 1666-1667.
Lady Oxfuird's account to George Stirling, apothecarie. 1667.
Account, the Laird of Little Preston to Thomas Kinkaid, apothecarie, beginning 1669 and ending 1676.
Another volume in 4to has one old document, a writ signed by the-Duke of Albany, 148—; the rest of the volume being occupied with Peers' letters soliciting votes at elections. 1742-4, &c.
The " Stair Papers " contain many documents of great value for understanding the politics of Europe during the period over which they extend, as well as tho state of parties in England.
It is impossible within the compass of a report to do more than indicate their extent and general character, or to specify how many of them may have been alreadyprinted in the historical collections of the period. It seems plain that many of the documents are new to history, and I cannot doubt that calendars of these would be of great service to the historical student.
There are a few letters addressed to Sir Patrick Hamilton in the Preston volume, of which, from the allusions and subjects, brief notes should be made.
The Papers And Manuscripts Op The Bight Honourable The Earl or Eosslyn, At Dysart House.
The ancient paperB of the family were destroyed in an accidental fire at Dysart House which occurred in May 1722, with the exception of a very few which happened not to be in the Charter Boom at the time; but an inventory of the whole has been preserved.
Of those which escaped destruction are the following :—
Charter by Bichard Moreville, Constable of Scotland, granted to Henry St. Clair, of the lands of Herdmanstoun and others, for the service of the fourth part of a soldier. [Circ. 1160.]
Charter by the said Bichard Moreville, granting to the said Henry St. Clair, for three marks, Edmund and Gillemichel, two brothers, and their offspring, on condition that, if they should leave Henry's service with his consent, they should not serve any other master than the said Bichard.
A Norse deed on parchment, described in an old Inventory of Orkney Writs in the Charter Boom as "berand all the lands that Zopyn Segarsone airit be "his wif Johne Scottis dochter, and alsua the landis "quhilkis ho wan fra Thome Inglis, that he clamit of "Andro Scot at wes his wiffis faider bruder, and tho "said Zopyn said it to Schir Danid Sinclair, Inprimis "in Linga, in Quhalisay sound, x merkis & viii d."
"Ane letter in Northin beand aue Charter made be "Olave Mavnusone of xxii merkis landis of Hoole in "Ovnst, to Schir Dauid Sinclair and his aris."
Another is entitled " Letter in Northin of the King "of Norwayis—is of the Scottis [Skatts] of Orkney, "umriuhill givin to Bishop William Tullauch for his "lyvo tyme, and eftir him gevin to Sir David Sinkler "for his lyvo tyme—part is in Inglis."
Skatt was a tax on all odal land, payable to the King of Norway, for the support of the Crown and tho expense of Government, and William Tulloch, Bishop of Orkney, was receiver for the Crown. Ho continued to administer the Earldom of Orkney after it was ceded to the Scottish King in 1471, and, according to some accounts, he laid the foundation of those measures which afterwards led to tho overthrow of tho tenure and privileges of the Odallcrs, and to the introduction into Orkney of the feudal tenure with its many exactions.
Of the miscellaneous papers of early date, the following are worthy of notice :—
"Obligation by William Maitland, younger, of Le"dinton, Secretar to our Soverang Lady, touching "the sale to him by Henry, Master of Sinkler, of the "lands of Bolbagy and others, and also ane hundreth "merks yeirly off all and haill the Colheuche off "Dysart, and also ane Hous callit Tile Hermitagk, "within the Bruch of Dysart, which he obliges himself "to resign on the completion of the marriage agreed "on between James, the eldest son of tho said Henry "Sinkler, with Marien Maitland, the oldest daughter "of the said William Maitland. Dated at Edinburgh, "20 March 1564, before witnesses, David, Earl of "Crawford, Bichard Maitland, of Lethiugton, Master "Bobert Maitland, Vicar of Kinnarny, Master John "Gothre, and Cuthbert Henderson, Notar Public."
The Houso, thus called "The Hermitage," in the town of Dysart, is associated with St. Servanus, or St. Serf, the great Saint of Fife, who is believed to have flourished down to the beginning of tho fifth century, when he died at his monastery of Culros on tho Forth, a spot on which a Cistercian Abbey was erected in later times.
At Culros St. Serf presided over one of tho monastic "families" of the Celtic Church, from thence evangelizing the country around, and founding churches in many parts of Fife, which own him as their patron saint; while it was under St. Serf that Kentigern received his training to bo the apostle of the Cumbrian Britons.
We learn from an early life of St. Serf that he was wont to retire to cells and caves for purposes of devotion, and that, while in one of the latter, "in Deserto," he was assaulted by the Devil, who wished to engage him in a religious disputation. This cave was situated in a rock on the sea-shore not far from the town of Dysart, and, although its surface is much disintegrated through the effect of damp, there may still be seen marks of artificial cutting, which probably resembled the remarkable figures cut on the walls of tho adjoining caves at Wemyss and Caiplie, where St. Adrian and his "company " occasionally resided on their mission among'the Picts of Fife.
Such retreats were known in early ecclesiastical language as "Deserta," and both in Scotland and Ireland the memory of their primitive occupants is kept up by the term "Discrt," or " Dysart," which has been affixed to them.
It thus happens that the territory of Dysart owes its name to the Hermitage of St. Serf, which was doubtless a prominent object of regard when permanent names came to be given; and it would appear that the House, "callit The Hermitage," designed to form part of the dowry of the daughter of Queen Mary's Secretary, had stood in close connexion with the original cave of St. Serf.
Other documents in the Inventory of the papers make reference to the "aikers l)'ing in the Chappclls of "St. Servan," and to "the house and yard lying "immediately beneath the Church of Dysart possest "by Sir Henry Pearson, Chapland of St. Servan's "Cbappell, in Dysart."
The Parish Church was, of course, dedicated to St. Serf. "Sanct Serfs hill " appears in early deeds as a land boundary, and "Sanct Serfs money" was a yearly payment made by the inhabitants of Dysart for purposes connected with his Church.
A Book of Household Expenses, 1564, kept by Eobert Oliphant, and regularly balanced and docqucted by "Henry Sincklar," the Lord of Dysart. It is bound in the leaves of an old Service Book, and the entries are very minute and curious.
Journal of John Patcrson, Archbishop of Glasgow, while in London in the years 1695-6.
This Prelate had been deprived of his see at the time of the Revolution, and was now in London. In his Diary he records his interviews with many of the leading statesmen of the day, whose influence he was soliciting for the royal permission to his return to Scotland. This was, however, denied to him, and he was also prohibited from residing in any of the northern counties of England.
The following is a specimen of the Diary :—
"Jan. 26. Sunday before prayers, Mrs. Strachan "told me that she perceived my Lady Warner had a "great desire that I should niarie her, and said she "had told her she had never seen a person since she "was a widow that she could marie save me only. "She is a most discreet and wise woman, and of an "opulent fortune. I am much obliged to her, but am "in no thoughts of marrying more." "Earl Arran is "still my noble friend, and sent me a bottle of Irish "usquebeau, and six bottles of Burgundy, Hermitage, "and Frontiniage wine."
"Abstract of the account of the Orkneys under the "family of Sinclair, being a rough draft only." 16 pp. fol.
Memoirs of the Insurrection in Scotland in 1715. By John, Master of Sinclair. This volume has been printed for the Abbotsford Club.
Besides these records of early date, there is an extensive collection of letters, ranging in date from 1774 to 1830. They were addressed to the first and second Earls of Rosslyn by some of the most eminent political leaders of the period, and relate to many transactions of public interest and importance.
The earliest portion of these were written to the first Lord Hosslyn, better known by his previous title of Lord Loughborough, Lord High Chancellor of England.
They have only been partially arranged, and are still in their original covers. They consist of:—
1. A scries of letters from Lord Clive, beginning in 1774.
2. Avery extensive collection of letters from Edmund Burke, ranging over the period from 1780 to 1797.
At the commencement their style is formal, but it grows into one of affection, and many of the letters arc long and of great interest. One, dated 13th June 1792, is on the subject of a coalition government, where the writer says, "I think with you almost in "everything."
Writing on 12th December 1794, Burke recommends a literary aspirant, Mr. Wilde, of Edinburgh, and subscribes "your obliged and most unhappy friend." Among the letters is a paper entitled " Some thoughts "on the present state of parties," and addressed to the Lord Chancellor.
3. Another scries of letters from Sir John M'Pherson, 1781-93.
4. Letters from Lord Carlisle, 1781-93.
5. A series of letters from the Duke of Portland, 1792-94.
6. A series of letters from Charles James Fox, only dated by the day of the week.
7. A series from the Bishop of Clonfert, 1783-1804.
8. A series from Lord Lavington in 1792.
9. A series from William Pitt, 1792-1800.
Some of these are long, and a few are marked "private."
10. A series from Lord Thurlow, 1796-97.
11. One from Lord Minto, 1798.
12. One from the Hon. W. Windham, undated.
13. A series from Lady Augusta Murray, 1798.
14. Three letters from Lord Eldon, 1801.
15. A series from the Earl of Carnarvon, 1793-94.
16. A letter from the Duke of Sussex, at Rome, 14th Nov. 1795. signed "Augustus Frederick," requests the Lord Chancellor's aid in getting measures passed for hi3 relief, and about his marriage.
17. A series from Lord Moira, 1796-97.
18. One from the Earl of Tankerville, without date.
19. A series from Lord Suffield, 1796.
20. A packet containing letters from Lieut.-Gen. Whyte, Lord C. Somerset, Lady Lucas, and Dr. Laurence.
Besides these political letters addressed to the Lord Chancellor, there are many miscellaneous papers of his own, such as—
1. Memoranda of law cases and opinions, drafts of Bills, with relative remarks, and correspondence.
2. Papers connected with the union between Groat Britain and Ireland; and on the admission of Roman Catholics to all the privileges of subjects.
3. Papers about the office of Lord High Steward and its precedency, and on other subjects; with notes and interlineations by the Lord Chancellor.
4. Papers, dated in 1778, relative to the state of affairs in America, and on the subject of a treaty.
5. Papers written apparently in the years 1792-3. One of them, in the Lord Chancellor's writing, is on the usefulness of defensive associations.
The letters to the second Earl of Rosslyn are dated from 1806 to 1830.
One large bundle is made up of separate packets, with the following titles:—
1. Despatches Henry Brougham to the Earl of Rosslyn, Oct. 11 to Nov. 17, 1806.
2. Copies, letters, the Earl of Rosslyn to Lord Howe and Mr. Howe, 1806-7.
3. Despatches from the Earl of Rosslyn to Mr. Fox and Lord Grenville.
4. Lord Strangford's letter to the Earl of Rosslyn.
5. Private letters from Mr. Brougham to the Earl of Rosslyn, Sept. 1806 to Jan. 1807.
There are besides, many letters from Mr. Brougham to the Earl, of later dates, on all sorts of subjects, such as the Roman Catholic question, and the King's opinion of it; the position of Mr. Brougham with regard to office, 4c. j with drafts of some of Lord Rosslyn's answers.
"Conversation with Lord Brougham on Grey's retiring."
"Abercromby's letter to Brougham "—speculations as to the Duke of Wellington's intentions with respect to Ireland and Emancipation.
An extensive series of political letters from Earl Grey in the years from 1821 to 1829.
Several letters from the Duke of Wellington, in one of which, dated 28th May 1829, he offers to Lord Rosslyn the office of Privy Seal.
"Protocol of a statement made by Mr. Stephenson to the Duke of Wellington on the 6th of March 1830, by the command of H. R. Highness the Duke of Sussex, about the death of Lady Augusta D'Ameland, at Ramsgato, on Thursday evening March 4."
Besides these two sets of letters, there is a scries dated in 1799 from Lord Nelson, Lord St. Vincent, and Lord Keith to General Sir James St. Clair, Bart., who. on the death of the first Earl of Rosslyn, succeeded to the title in 1805.
There can be no question that Calendars of many of the letters and papers here noted would contribute valuable materials for understanding the history of the period over which they extend; and if they are desired by the Commissioners, Lord Rosslyn is willing that they should be made.
The Paters or The Eight Honourable The Earl Of Cawdor, At Cawdor Castle.
The Charters and other Records at Cawdor Castle have been recently arranged with great care, and can be readily consulted by reference to an Inventory.
The earliest in date is a charter granted by King Robert Bruce in 1310 to William Thano of Calder of tbo Thanngo of Calder for a yearly payment of 12 mcrks, and the rent of the land which Fergus the Dempster was wont to pay in the time of King Alexander III.
We may infer that William was a descendant of those hereditary stewards of the Crown to whom the charge of this part of the Royal demesne lands had been committed, and who now had come to hold them hereditarily for payment of a stated rent, and services. Tho part cf the Thanage originally assigned to the Brehons or Judges for their support, and in reward of the performance of their functions, had also come to be held for a fixed rent, and this rent instead of being paid to the Crown, was assigned to the Thane.
The Thanes of Calder were also hereditary Sheriffs of Nairn, and Constables of tho Royal Castle at the burgh of Nairn.
This Scottish tenure, in no long time, was converted into a regular feudal holding, the Thanage being held in barony of the Crown.
The line of the early Thanes terminated in a female, on the death of William Thano of Calder, in the year 1198. His daughter Muriel, when only twelve years old, was married to Sir John Campbell, a younger son of the Earl of Argyle, and thus the thanage, and other lands, were carried, into another family.
In 1689 Sir Alexander Campbell of Calder married Elizabeth, heiress of Stackpolc Court, Pembrokeshire, and in 1726 his son John was married to Mary daughter of Lewis Pryse of Gogirthen. In 1796, John, the grandson of the last John, was created Baron Cawdor, and in 1827 his son John Frederick, was created Earl of Cawdor and Viscount Emlyn.
The papers at Cawdor illustrate the descent of tho land, and tho condition and relations of the family during this long period. A selection from them has been printed in a volumo contributed to the Spalding Club by the late Earl of Cawdor, and as they may thus be said to have been brought under the notice of the historical student, it is not necessary for me to give any detailed account of their nature in this place. I may remark, however, that the collection is full of instructive illustrations of the condition of the country, and progress of society in the shape of contracts, letters, domestic accounts, inventories of furniture, arms, plate, and the like, with detailed notices of planting and gardening.
In 1454, William of Calder, and Thane of tho same, had a royal license for building and fortifying his castle at Cawdor, and the picturesque square tower which ho erected, still remains, together with additions of subsequent dates, of which tho' history can be traced in the papers. In 1455 the Thane had a warrant from the Crown for razing and destroying tho old insular Castle of Lochindorb, famous for the long siege which it stood under the Countess of Athol in 1336, for whose relief Edward III. made an expedition to the north in that year.
Tho marriage of the heiress of the old Thanes of Calder with Sir John Campbell led to much intercourse with families in Argyllshire. Among other lands which Sir John acquired in that country was the territory of Muckairno on the shores of Loch Etive. This had belonged to the monks of Iona, and it was now conveyed to Sir John Campbell by Ferquhard Bishop of the Isles and Commendator of Iona by a Charter, the narrative of which gives a very unfavourable picture of the native population: "Et quia (nobis ut clarc con"stat) in prouincia praua et perniciosa nostre tcrre "antedicto jacent, de quibus summas et proficua in "prefata carta specificatas, nec nos nec nostri pre"decessores unquam habere potuimus, aut potuerunt, "nec eadem similiter vel verisimiliter apparet et "arbitramur memoratus Johannes aut heredes sui "habere poterit sen poterint."
Sir John, with the view of strengthening his position in Argyllshire, contracted by bonds of manrent alliances with many of the chiefs of the Islands and Western Highlands. One of these dated at Canistak in Dura, 29th September 1520 is a bond of fostering between him and Neyll McNeyll of Geae, by which Sir John " bindis "and oblyes hym for to gif to Neill McNeyll of Geae "in fosteren his secund son callyt Johne, and gif that
"son deyss, the next son or dochter that tho forisaid "Johne hais to gif, to the forsayd Neyll quhen he "desyris any of thame."
His second son John was Prior of Ardchattan and Bishop of tho Isles, and in his last will this prelate constitutes the Laird of Calder, his nephew, to be bis executor, leaving his body " to be bureit in Ecolmkill "gyf God callis me thair, and to be laid with bys"choippe John Campbell in Sanct Michellis crwist "quhilkis I haif mendit and thekit." His principal means consisted of outstanding claims against the " men "of the ylis " and others, who seem to have been bad debtors, and among his legacies is one "to Daniel "McFeye, harper, by [besides] his huudreth pundis "I aucht hym, with the feye, sax lib."
One of the papers connected with Muckcarne (still unprinted) seems worthy of note.
It is a notarial instrument dated 12 March 1541, on the election of Duncan, son of Odo MacDunlewe, clerk of the diocese of Dunkeld, to the parish clerkship of Killespickerrill and Kilmacronack in Muckarne. The election was made by the parishioners assemblod in the Church of Kilmacronack "ad diuina audieuda," and in token thereof, symbolical possession was given to Patrick [Mac] Fiulay, [Mac] Alexander Glass, as procurator lor Duncan " per aque baiulum sine vasculum, "aquam consecratam in se continentem, cum arspers"orio." "Qui quidcro Patricius finlai Alexandri Glass, "secutus est curatum per totam ecclcsiam, atque "ministrauifc missam majorem celebranti procuratoris "nomine dicti Duncani in signum electionis et posses"sionis oiusdem."
The record contains a full list of the names of tho parishioners, and is a good example of the Gaelic system of name-giving, where some forefather, or saint, was selected as a head, and the members of tho family were recognized by their descent from, or relation to, him.
The few trades from which names were derived may be held to show the circumscribed wants of the community, beyond what tho skill of each family could supply. Of these the most prominent was that of fuller; then the blacksmith and tho tailor.
The following is a specimen of the names:—Nigellus Joannis AIcKennich, Dugallus Nigelli, Nigellus Donaldi vie Dunlewe, Dugallus Donaldi Nigelli vie Awlai, Anna dominici Cristini, Gillespik Mac Gillespik vie Achem, pych, Karistina nein a doura, Gillespik Mac Gillemore, Gillefeilan Donaldi Macgillebane, Cristinus Maelmore vie gillelan, Nicolaus Johannis Sartoris, Gillemichel Martini, Joannes Glass Mac Gillemore vie indowra, Dugallus Mac Gillechallum vie Philippi, Efrica dominici vie Caiman, Katerina Vicarii Joannis Patricii vie Achromone, Finlaus Martini vie Gillindach, Joannes McGillespic vie choan, Gillecrist duf Mac Philip, Joannes niger Collini vie Philip, Finlaus fullo, Joannes Duncani nigri fabri, Katerina Columbi vie Gillcbridc, Donaldus Sartoris, Duncanus Joannis Duncani Sartoris, Joannes Joannis Duncani vie Torcatall, Duncanus bane mac Rowane, Gillebride mac lucas, Joannes Glass pectoris Mariota fabri, Mora nein a doura, Efl'ririca fullonis, Cristiua fullonis, Finlaus Macheath, Archibaldus Jonis Sartoris, Katerina fabri, &c.
It appears to mo that although tho Records at Cawdor have to a certain extent been made known to tho student, yet calendars of many of those of general historical interest would be found useful, as part of a series suggested in my general report of last year to be made from the miscellanies printed for clubs and families, but not published.
The Papers Of The Right Honourable Lord Forbes, At Castle Forbes.
The ancient family of Forbes derived its name from the territory of Forbes in Aberdeenshire, which has belonged to them since the middlo of tho 14th century, and probably from a much earlier period, although their title can only be proved by records from the date just mentioned.
At an early time three branches blossomed into tho Houses of Pitsligo, Tolquhon, and Brux, the first of which shared with the parent stem the honours of nobility.
The members of the House of Forbes soon assumed a position of public importance. The grandson of tho first clearly ascertained head having served under tho Earl of Buchan in tho beginning of the 15th century in that gallant band of Scots which he led into France,