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This special inquiry is, however, not designed to be a special plea for the College of William and Mary, whose claim for reimbursoment for damages suffered at the hands of undisciplined and straggling soldiers has more than once been presented to Congress, and more than once favorably reported by the Committee on Education and Labor, sustained by the opinions of lawyers and Federal officers. The primary ol). jects of the present investigation have been to discover the historical beginnings of the higher education at the South; to trace the causes of the early prosperity of William and Mary College; to show its influence upon Virginia statesmon and the Souther States, its relation to the university ideas of Jefferson and Washington, and its significance to the whole country; to point out the causes of the decline of William and Mary College; to explain the rise of the University of Virginia, and the necessity of popular support for the higher education.
Tho most practical of all results from this historical study of William and Mary College is the suggestion of a possible revival in the city of Washington and throughout the country of the original Virginia idea of political education, which made Williamsburg a school of statesmen who were fitted in the college-capital to prepare the so-called “Virginia plan," from which our present Constitution grew. It is the idea of intimate organic connection between education and government in a munici. pal environment.
The promotion of political education by connection on the one hand with the people, and on the other with the administration of State and Nation, is an idea worthy of consideration in this centennial year of our Constitution, which was founded upon political wisdom and Federal democracy. In December, 1886, it was proposed, at a meeting in Philadelphia of delegates from the various States and Territories in the Union, to create a suitable memorial commemorative of the Constitution. Doctor Adams suggests a civil academy in the city of Washington for the practical training of representative college graduates appointed to government fellowships for two years from Congressional districts. He would combine, at the pational capital, the West Point idea and the Williamsburg idea for the highest political education, and apply the results to the general improvement of civic life throughout the country. This eminent scholar writes with the freedom of one who understands as well as loves his subject; his article will commend itself to the hearty approval of all who are interested in American learning, in the history of our country, and in the faithful record of the first steps in American education.
In view of these facts I recommend the publication of the paper as a circular of information. I have the honor to be, Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
N. H. R. DAWSON,
L. Q. C. LAMAR,
Secretary. Encouraged by the favorable reception of the history of William and Mary College, I urged the author to prepare a similar but more extensive monograph upon Thomas Jefferson and the University of Virginia. Jefferson was the pioneer of university education and of free schools at the South. He advocateıl both as early as 1779, when serv. ing as a visitor or trustee of William and Mary College. It has taken Dearly a century for his noble scheme of public education for the whole people to find practical realization. Doctor Adams has traced the process of educational development in Virginia through various phases, and has discovered in the writings of Thomas Jefferson many early anticipations of what are now thought to be progressive ideas in primary, secondary, and higher education. A review of Jefferson's in ence upon American institutions of learning can not fail to inter American educators in all parts of the country. His influence in t regard was not confined to a single State; it has pervaded the wl land; it is a vital element in modern educational democracy.
In connection with the monograph upon Jefferson and the Univers of Virginia, now in the hands of the Public Printer, sketches la been prepared of all the colleges of Virginia, with pictorial illustratioi This supplementary matter, together with the history of William a Mary College and of Jefferson's larger institution, will make the high educational history of Virginia quite complete. The importance of t State as the original training.ground of many Southern statesmen ar of teachers of every profession clearly justifies the historical attentic bestowed upon it.
From such beginnings I have advanced gradually to the idea of a organized inquiry with regard to the history of American education to be treated in State groups and in the following order:
1. The Southern Atlantic States, embracing Virginia, North and Sout Carolina, and Georgia. The work in this group of States has been alread nearly completed by representatives of those States, working under the editorial direction of Dr. H. B. Adams, who himself elaborated th Virginia report as a model for the rest. These monographs upon thi history of education in the older Southern States will all be ready fo. the Public Printer at an early date, and will be published during the current year. The historical interest discovered in the educational fields of North and South Carolina and Georgia is not surpassed even by Virginia, mother of institutions of learning, as well as of presidents and statesmen.
2. The Northwest.—The rapidly approaching centennial of the settlement of the old Northwest Territory maile proper an immediate extension of these historical inquiries into that rich educational field. Prominent educators in each State in that territory have been engaged to co-operate in the prosecution of an organized inquiry under the general direction of this Bureau. Professor William F. Allen, of the historical department of the University of Wisconsin, bas consented to be responsible for the educational bistory of that State; l'rofessor George W. Knight, a graduate of the University of Michigan, and now professor of history in the State University of Ohio, will group the returns from Michigan, Ohio, and Illinois; and Professor Jas. A. Woodburu, of the State University of Indiana, will write the monograph upon that State. Illustrations will be secured to represent all the leading institutions.
3. The Southwest.-Justly balancing the inquiry into the educational history of the Old Nortliwest, I now propose, for the year 1889, a series of monographs upon the History of Education in the Southwest and Gulf States, embracing Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, Kangas, and Missouri. The successful pros
ecation of this inquiry demands preliminary arrangement during tbe current year. Writers will be engaged and systematic investigations begun promptly tinder competent direction. The resources of this Bureau do not admit of a rapid extension of the work, but they are capable of achieving satisfactory results within limited areas in successive years. The method of handling a great subject, like American educational history, by State groups and State monographs seems to me not only test suited to the economic resources of the Bureau, but also quite in harmony with the State and local spirit of this country. The indi. vidual monographs can be freely distributed throughout all the States, but more especially in the sections most interested. The combined inonographs will form a series of volumes representing handsomely and characteristically the various State groups already described.
4. The New Northwest. After the completion of the work in the Bouthwest the inquiry will be extended into the great Northwest beyond the Mississippi River. This regiou of investigation will embrace Iowa, Minnesota, Dakota, Nebraska, Wyoming, and Montana.
6. The Far West and the Pacific Slope will conclude the pioneer work in American educational history.
6. New England.-Returning eastward, our inquiries will be centred for a time upon the Eastern States, considered as one educational group. Historical investigation in the older fields may well bo undertaken after the pioneer work in the West and South has been completed. The edacational history of New England is already comparatively well known, whereas in other sections of the country very little has been done to: ward the historical treatment of American education. All fair-minded and thoughtful men will rejoice to see work done first where it is most needed; and the older fields of American educational history will acquire fresh interest from the application of the comparative method of treatment.
7. New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and the District of Columbia will form a convenient group for the conclusion of this educational series. Organized inquiry should finally be brought to bear upon the educational history of the city of Washington and upon an historical review of the scientific work of the United States Gorernment, including the work of the Bureau of Education.
REPORT ON THE STUDY OF HISTORY IN AMERICAN COLLEGES AND
Public interest in American educational history has been tested by the Bureau of Education in a broader field than that opened by the mosograph on William and Mary College. Immediately after the publication of the latter, the Bureau issued a larger monograph by the same author upon the Study of History in American Colleges and Universi. ties. This report, while chiefly concerned with the origin and development of historical studies in American institutions of learning, gave
some account of representative American universities, notably of Far. vard and Yale, Columbia and Cornell, the University of Michigan, and the new Johns Hopkins University, together with the principal American colleges for women. The following preliminary letter to you will explain concisely the general scope and purpose of the work:
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR,
BUREAU OF EDUCATION,
Washington, D. C., April 18, 1887. The Honorable THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR,
Washington, D. C. : Sir: The accompanying monograph, prepared at the request of the Bareau of Education by Dr. Herbert B. Adams, of Johns Hopkins University, relates to the methods of studying history in American colleges and universities. The subject is treated from an historical point of view, and is a substantial contribution to the history of the higher education in the United States. Doctor Adams' sketch of William and Mary College, Circular of Information No. 1, 1887, with its practical suggestions for reviving political education throughout our country, was preliminary to this larger report, which is designed to promote the study of history as a basis for political science.
In December, 1835, a circular letter was issued from this Office, inquiring into the present condition of historical studies, not only in colleges and universities, but also in high schools, normal schools, institutes, academies, etc. The returns, while extensive, were on the whole unsatisfactory. In a few instances there were encouraging signs of good work in both higher and secondary training, but the general results indicated a serious absence of proper historical instruction in all grades of American education. By my advice the tabulation of statistical returns was restricted to institutes of the college and university grade. The question of secondary education in history demands special treatment and a study of the best methods now in use in the German gymnasia, the French lycées, and the English public schools.
From the unsatisfactory nature of the great mass of statistical returns, Doctor Adams was driven to another method of treating his subject-to a descriptive statement of the best experience of a few representative institutions in different parts of the country, based upon an original and independent study of documents, official reports, and catalogues. Harvard, Yale, Columbia, and Cornell were selected to represent the best Eastern and Northern experience in the teaching of history; the University of Michigan worthily stands for the great West; while the young Johns Hopkins University represents the historical spirit of the New South. At this latter institution studies are in preparation upon Jefferson and the University of Virginia, and the History of Higher Education in North and South Carolina and Georgia.
The best colleges for women have been included in the present monograph, namely, Vassar, Wellesley, Smith, and Bryn Mawr.
Many other institutions are brought into rapid review by means of the statistical tables appended to this report, and representing returns actually made to this Office. Other colleges are mentioned in a special inquiry into the subject of American History in our Schools and Colleges, contributed to this report, at the request of Doctor Adams, by Dr. Francis N. Thorpe, Fellow of the University of Pennsylvania. An account of the Study of History and Political Science in the Washington High School, by Dr. E. R. L. Gould, formerly Follow of Johns Hopkins University, concludes the report. Doctor Gould's account shows what can be done for the development of secondary education in history and economics, and what actually has been done in the Federal capital under the auspices of the Government.
In this monograph, prepared by Doctor Adams, theoretical and ideal views of historical training have been carefully avoided. The writer bas deliberately confined his attention to select chapters of actual American experience, and to things done or
attempted by particular institutions and individuals, whose work he has studied from authentic records. He has thus opened up a new line of inquiry, namely, the history of academic departments.
History is simply the record of human experience, whether in plıysics, politics, ecoDomics, ethics, or education. History has been called philosophy teaching by example; or, as teachers say, by object-lessons. Doctor Adams has applied the historical method to the discovery of the nost approved methods of teaching bistory and of organizing historical departments in our American schools and colleges.
One of the most suggestive and noticeable featnros of his work is the attempt to illastrate by photo-engravings and diagrams the actual onvironment or library surroundings of certain schools of history and politics. In theso modern days the college or university library has been brought into close rapport with department work by means of an ingenious system of seminary or class libraries in the very rooin where students meet. This suggested the introduction of the laboratory method for the study of history and other moral sciences. The growing value of historical and political studies, and the importance of promoting them throughout the country as a meaus of strengthening good governmout and good citizenship, I need not emphasize.
I beg leave to recommend the publication and illustration of this report on The
N. H. R. Dawson,
H. L. MULDROW,
Acting Secretary OPINIONS OF THE RECENT WORK OF THE BUREAU. In commendation of these contributions to American educational history many letters and acknowledgments have been received by the Bu. reau of Education from competent specialists and educators in the Old World, as well as in the United States and Canada. Our publications have been gratefully acknowledged, not only by American libraries and institutions of learning, but by the universities and learned academies of all the leading countries of Europe. It is impossible in this connection to present this mass of letters of acknowledgment; but the following selections from American critical journals and popular newspapers will serve to show how the recent work of the Bureau has been received.
"The Study of History in American Colleges and Universities. By Herbert B. Adams, Ph. D. Washington, Government. 8o.
“The Study of History in England and Scotland. By Paul Fredericq. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University. 8°.
"By a pleasant coincidence these two volumes reach us together, and they have a great and reciprocal interest. When Dr. Adams comes to look over the present series of his Studies, we believe that he will find it the most interesting, and perhaps the most valuable, of all.
"Dr. Adams's paper on the study of history in American colleges and universities is quite as painstaking and far more comprehensive a study than that of Professor Fredericq. The substance of some of the chapters has previously appeared as articles in Edncation, but they are now reproduced with many additions. Dr. Adams traces the study of history at Harvard from its foundation up to the preparation of