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SALARIES OF TEACHERS.

[Table 10.1 The average monthly salaries of male teachers have increased in 15 States and Terri: tories, and decreased in 17, out of the 32 in which this change can be determined satisfactorily. As regards the salaries of female teachers, there has been an increase in 17 States and Territories, a decrease in 13, and no change in 2. .

The greatest difference between the salaries of male and female teachers is met with in the North Atlantic and North Central Divisions; the least, in the South Atlantic Division.

The want of uniformity in the methods of computing the average wages of teachers has already been pointed out in previous Reports of the Office; so long as it continues to exist, no reliable comparisons of the wages of teachers in different states can be made. There is one method that is unqualifiedly incorrect, namely, taking the mean between the maximum and minimum salaries of a county or township as the average salary.

The average salary of all the male or female teachers of a State possesses no great degree of significance. The classification should be more in detail, distinguishing city from country teachers, and white from colored, in order to be useful as a guide in determining the remuneration of teachers.

TABLE 10.-SALARIES OF TEACHERS.

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Males. Females.

$422 846

North Atlantic Division:

Maine
New Hampshire..
Vermont
Massachusetts..
Rhode Island
Connecticut..
New York
New Jersey a

Pennsylvania
South Atlantic Division:

Delaware
Maryland.....
District of Columbia
Virginia
West Virginia..
North Carolina..
South Carolina
Georgi

Florida
South Central Division:

Kentucky
Tennessee
Alabama...
Mississippi.
Louisiana
Texas

Arkansas
North Central Division:

Ohio
Indiana
Illinois.
Michigan...
Wisconsin a
Minnesota.
lowa
Missouri
Dakota
Nebraska..

Kansas
Western Division:

Montana...
Wyoming a...

a These statistics are for 1885-86.

34. 29 D...1.13 31. 12 I.......22 159
55.00 L..12.82 85.00 L......30
39.00 D...3.00 32.90 D
75.00 D...5.00 60.00
53.85

53.85
For city schools. c For country schools.

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SCHOOL REVENUE.

[Tables 11, 12, and 12A, Pages 76, 78, and 70.] A consideration of school revenue is chiefly valuable for comparing the relative amounts derived from different sources in the several States.

The value of the results arrived at, however, is considerably vitiated through a want of uniformity in the classification of school revenue. As an instance of this, it may be said that certain revenues of essentially the same character in all the States are classed in some States as income from permanent funds, in others as income from State taxes, and in others still as income from local taxes. Also, taxes imposed by a State law, but retained and distributed in the communities where they were collected, are sometimes reported as State taxes and sometimes as local taxes. These taxes may be called compulsory local taxes, as they differ both from voluntary local taxes and from taxes paid into the State treasury and distributed therefrom on some general basis of population or attendance, which latter are State taxes proper. A more detailed classification would remedy, the misunderstanding in this matter, were there any possibility of its being adopted.

State aid to education. There may be noted a growing sentiment in favor of having Bore of the school revennes collected and apportioned by the State authorities according to population or attendance (see Index under the head of "Revenue”). The design is to equalize the school funds, so that all parts of a State may have a school term of equal length, or nearer equal than at present.

Ten States and Territories, all situated in the North and West, report no State tax Thatever (Table 11, Column 3). In the North Central Division only 9.8 per cent. of all the school revenue (Table 12 A, Column 3) is raised by State taxes, hardly suflicient to give anything like cqual school privileges to all the children in the States composing That division.

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From per

manent
funds and

From
State
taxes.

From
local
taxes.

Total
from
taxes.

Increase
or de-
crease
since pre-
ceding
year.

Total rev- Increase
enue for or de-
the year,

crease
excluding since pre-

money ceding
borrowed. year.

From

other
sources.

Balance
from pre-
vious
year.

From
sale of
bonds.

3

5

7

8

10

11

866, 157

0

0
$10, 829
105, 750

19, 561
153, 781

0
132, 324

$26, 131 $1,054, 340 D..$22, 171
71, 386 622,542 I......5, 070
76, 135 607, 382 D...13, 988
88, 496 7,000, 084
40, 062 784, 560 D...13, 703
84,340 1,793,309 ...130, 350
715, 374 14, 244, 088 I...706, 140
887,511 2, 736,529 I...314, 789

59, 665
2,189, 040
185, 426

State or Territory,

rents.

North Atlantis. Division:

Maine...
New Hampshire.
Vermont.
Massachusetts......
Rhode Island.
Connecticut.........
New York.
New Jersey a.............

Pennsylvania.
South Atlantic Division:

Delaware &.......
Maryland
District of Columbia.
Virginia...
West Virginia..........
North Carolina.
South Carolina..........
Georgia...................

Florida..........
South Central Division:

Kentucky
Tennessee a..............
Alabama.............
Mississippi.
Louisiana ........................................
Texas.......................................................

Arkansas.
North Central Division:

Ohio..............
Indiana..................
Illinois.....................
Michigan....................................................
Wisconsin .......

50, 877

0
36,983

$351, 293 $676, 916 $1,028, 209 D...17, 999 458, 265 92, 891 551, 156 | I......5, 258

0, 520, 418 520, 418 D...16, 896 68,518 6, 810,578 6,909, 097 111,519 613, 417 724, 936 D...23, 433

229, 890 1, 325, 359 1, 555, 249 I...120, 197 3,493, 080 10,035, 634 13,528,715 1...859, 995 1, 424, 244

892, 447 2, 316, 691 1....27,546
1,000,000

60, 607 185, 994 246, 601
512, 215 1,023,506 1,535, 722 1.... 22, 992
6295, 112 295, 112 590, 225 | 1....24, 846
775, 488 641, 420 1, 416, 908 1...184, 648
339, 483 402, 690 742, 173
519,556 1,803 521, 359 D...26, 436
276, 429 114, 474 390, 904
491, 185 278, 109 769, 294 | I.... 68, 616

114,025 295,000 409, 025
1,058, 703 c 665, 874c1,724,577 1...150, 957
d 139, 107 799, 233 938, 360

230,000 136, 896 866, 896
300,000 612, 000 912,000 1...111, 224

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1,754, 107 | 1...152, 231
138, 791 1,077, 151
246
6600,000

3,421
972, 878 1...106, 102

$ 493, 289
185, 256 897, 626 I.....26, 051

21, 694
372, 686 9,739, 284 1....64,116 3,798, 399 | $491,011
885, 624 4,995, 302 D...53, 406
341, 243 10, 396, 312 I...148, 501 2,269,885 419, 225
711, 398 4,960, 9991...328, 007 1,028, 923
9334, 233 93, 471, 612 | 1...382, 122 721, 350

250, 179 462, 191 712, 370 1,678,561 7, 445, 399 9, 123, 961 I..... 29, 874 1, 443, 177 2,509, 141 3,952, 318D..377,748 1,000,000 8, 420, 658 9, 420, 658 ...181, 616

3,583, 904 3,583, 904 I...207, 448 0 2,614, 859 2,644,859 | 1...106, 723

242, 637
637, 361
634, 411
665, 697
192,520

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Revenue per capita of popu- Revenue per capita of average lation 6 to 14.

attendance.

5

7

8

$0

0 20 36

$3.39 8.94

0 .23 2.35 2.18 3.94 G. 30

. 23

$6.54 1.81 9.55 23.56 12.95 12.58 11.33 3.95

$0.25 1.89 1.39 .30 .84

.26

$0 $10.62

0 .40 .60 8. 42 1.95 2.91

0 5.58 .98 10.59

$2.15 11.38 26.05 18.80 16.78 16.04 6.64

$1.65 1.66

.34 1.23 1.07 1.14 2.88

1. 46

0 .58

.80 .81

1.71

26

0 10

0 .82

0 03

2.09 2. 61 68.14 2.13 2.15 1.44 1.12 1.28 1. 45

6.42 5. 23 8.14 1.76 2.55 ..003 .46 . 72 3.75

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TALLE 12.--SCHOOL REVENUES, REDUCED TO A PER CAPITA BASIS.

State or Territory.

North Atlantic Division :

Maine.
New Hampshire.
Vermont....
Massachusetts *
Rhode Island.
Connecticut
New York
New Jersey a..

Pennsylvania.
South Atlantic Division:

Delaware a...........
Maryland......
District of Columbia
Virginia .....
West Virginia
North Carolina..
South Carolina
Georgia..

Florida
South Central Division:

Kentucky.......
Tennessee a....
Alabama
Mississippi.
Louisiana
Texas

Arkansas*
North Central Division:

Ohio..
Indiana
Illinois....
Michigan*
Wisconsin ..............
Minnesota
Iowa....
Missouri
Dakota..
Nebraska.

Kansas..
Western Division :

Montana
Wyoming
Colorado g.
New Mexico...
Arizona.
Utah a....
Nevada..
Idaho.
Washington
Oregon..

California..
Alaska

STOMARY. North Atlantic Dirision.. South Atlantic Division.. South Central Division.. North Central Division... Western Division....

United States i... • Average attendance estimnted. a These statistics are for 1885-86. United States appropriation. cIncluding subscriptions, d State

apportionment. & Including loans.

1.24 h.08 h. 18 h1.20 h. 88

h.64

2.67 211.90

h.84 13.58 h16.61 11.20 1.83 1.75

3,27 3. 13
h1.18 h1.60 h. 23 h. 36 h2.13 h2.88
hl.86 h10,29 h1.03 11.57 ht.78 113.46 h1.37
-h5.78 111.55 h1.89 h1.18 17.76 1.52 11.87
hl. 90 h7.42 h. 75 h. 95 12.75 M10.92 21.12

sIncluding fines, estrays, and licenses.
For the 10 months ending June 30, 1887.
hOnly the States furnishing the necessary data are

included in this summary.
(Excluding Alaska.

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