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Grouping, How Can Pupils Be Selected for? Re William H. Johnson, January, pp. 172-176.
printed from the School Bulletin. February, pp. Junior High School, Reconstruction of Curriculum in
Los Angeles. By Susan M. Dorsey. September,
Junior High School. By A. L. Threlkeld. April, Junior High School, Shall Stenography Be Taught in
the? By Gertrude J. Hardt. May, pp. 333-335.
October, p. 62.
Hatfield, Wilbur W. English in the Junior High Kindergarten and First Grade, Supervised Handwork
Period in. By Louise Farwell. April, pp. 304-307.
Hinkle, E. C. Arithmetic in the Junior High School.
Leisure, Education for. By William H. Johnson.
February, pp. 204-207.
Lovett, Marjorie. Tests and Testing : A Fairy Tale.
History Course, Fifth Grade, Material for. By G. A.
Lowden, Samuel Marion. Teaching Poetry in the High
Schools. April, pp. 301-304.
The Principal. November, pp.
McEnroe, Irene. Errors in Speech. December, pp.
Differences? By Robert H. Rodgers. February,
Mental Measurement in the Kindergarten. By Edna
Everett. November, pp. 96-98.
a Small City. By John F. Friese. February, pp.
149-150; 188-192; 231-232; 273-274; 311-313; 348-
Monotone, The Problem of the. By Henry W. Fair-
Individual Differences, How Can Vocational Schools
Movie Lessons, Fatigue Point in. By Frank A. Fucik.
North Central Association on Junior High Schools.
By Howard L. Briggs. April, pp.
March, pp. 247-250.
Objectives, Educational, Why? By B. H. Bode. No-
vember, pp. 86-92.
Objectives, Guiding, In the Making of Curricula in the
Junior High School. By A. L. Threlkeld. April,
the Junior High School. January, pp. 172-176.
Percentage Symbols, From Decimal Point to. By
tional Guidance in the High Schools. October, pp.
Periodicals. Pp. 30-35; 74-77; 110-117; 150-155; 193-
197; 232-235; 274-277; 314-316; 352-355; 392-393.
Physical Education in the Junior High School. By
March, pp. 241-246.
Pierce, Paul R. The Clean-up Campaign. May, pp.
Thomas W. Gosling. September, pp. 7-9.
Shephard Briggs. February, pp. 217-224.
Playgrounds, School, Chicago's. By Ruth H. Larson.
Georgia E. Veatch. May, pp. 335-336.
Poetry, Teaching of, in the High Schools. By Samuel
Principal, The. By William McAndrew. November,
Problem of the Monotone, The. By Henry W. Fair-
Projects in English Composition, Two. By Elvira D.
Cabell. December, pp. 132-134.
Schools. By Howard L. Briggs. April, pp. 235-290.
Rhythm, Effect of, on Handwriting. By Margaret M.
Feeney. November, pp. 99-101.
February, pp. 201-203.
Schoolroom, Technique in the. By Josephine L. Quinn.
October, pp. 51-53.
tember, pp. 22-24.
Slosson. October, pp. 41-46.
October, pp. 53-59.
Shine, Joseph B. Chicago and the Historical Inquiry.
March, pp. 263-265.
Slosson, Edwin E. Science Teaching in a Democracy.
October, pp. 41-46.
I. S. T. A. April, pp. 307-308.
Spelling in the Chicago Schools. By E. E. Keener. April,
Strayer, George D. Recent Achievements and Next
Forward Steps in American Education: What
High School. By William H. Johnson. October,
Grade. By Louise Farwell. April, pp. 304-307.
Ray Latimer. June, pp. 369-374.
Teder, J. E. General Science in the Secondary Schools.
Teacher. By Arthur 0. Rape. September, pp. 18-19.
Junior High School Curricula. April, pp. 281-284.
Value of School Assemblies, The. By Frank A. Fucik.
September, pp. 19-21.
Veatch, Georgia E. Physical Education in the Junior
High School. May, pp. 335-336.
By Arthur W. Walz. January, pp. 161-167.
High School. By William H. Johnson. October,
Vocational Guidance, How the Problems of, Are Met
in a Small City. By John F. Friese. February,
tional Guidance Bureau. January, pp. 161-167.
Weck, Frederick W. The Elimination of Waste in
Education. December, pp. 126-131; January, pp.
Work and Working Conditions for the Child Fourteen
or Fifteen Years of Age. By Anne S. Davis. Decem-
RECONSTRUCTION OF THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL CURRICULUM
IN LOS ANGELES
By SUSAN M. DORSEY, Superintendent of Schools N ORDER to understand the difficulties schools who had carried only very partial and the comparatively slow progress in senior high school courses, having en
curriculum reconstruction in the jun- tered with an overbalance of credit in the ior high schools of Los Angeles, a brief ac less mature subjects of the junior hig! count of their inception and history is nec- school. essary. Twelve years ago, about the time Perhaps the mistake made in Los of their organization, there was much Angeles was less regretable than the more loose talk concerning the great waste of common one of simply combining the forstudent time in the elementary schools, mer seventh and eighth elementary grades and of the possibility of saving one year or and their single track of study with the more through a type of intermediate ninth year of the senior high school; for school that would admit of departmental at least it resulted in an ambitious if misschedules and eliminate the single track taken attempt to justify the new type of of elementary studies. Naturally enough, school as a time saver, which was not altothose who organized the new school looked gether futile, even though it greatly reto the high schools for their departmental tarded the reorganization of the curricupattern and conceived the idea of moving lum in a way to deal fairly with the child the high school program of studies, to and with the general school system. gether with its elective opportunities, down At any rate, the first great task of the into the seventh and eighth grades, there- present administration of the public by creating a junior high school. Not schools of Los Angeles was to convince until three years ago was elective privilege both junior and senior high school faculin Los Angeles removed from the seventi ties that the function of the junior high grade. Prior to that time, modern lan- school was not on the one hand to accelguages, Latin, and such commercial sub- erate pupils, nor on the other to prepare jects as bookkeeping and stenography pupils for the senior high school, but to were freely selected by the wholly inex- organize and conduct a school which perienced graduates of the sixth grade should meet the needs of students of the without educational guidance, all with the seventh, eighth and ninth year age, that thought that thereby the prospective high would develop those abilities, attitudes, school student was being hurried on to and habits that would find these children graduation. One most unfortunate result at the end of the junior high school years of this elective procedure, coupled with at that point in their general development the impelling idea that a chief function of where children of that age should be. the junior high school was to accelerate In justice to Los Angeles it should be the pupil, was the heaping up of junior said that prior to the very recent effort in high school credits which it was incum- curriculum reorganization, junior high bent upon the high schools to accept and high school people, through the blundering count as credits toward final graduation method of trial and error, had reached In the course of time, it became apparent some conclusions for themselves. One of to all that an end must be had to the those conclusions was that geography graduation of students from senior high could not be omitted altogether from
the curriculum of these grades. Until needs of children of that age. Finding it three years ago, in pursuance of the aim to quite impossible for anyone of the supermake this intermediate school like a high intendent's office to give the close and conschool and to save time, this highly im- stant attention to this work that seemed portant social subject had been relegatea necessary if results were to be had, it was entirely to the elementary schools. A determined to add to our corps of workers second decision was that valuable time Dr. Franklin K. Bobbitt, whose studies in was being wasted in the seventh and curriculum making had deservedly reeighth years in the study of stenography, ceived nation-wide attention. Dr. Boba purely vocational subject. A third con bitt does not figure as a specialist in the clusion reached was that there must be a junior high school realm, but the undermuch wider and more varied program of lying principles of curriculum making manual work than the conventional wood are universal and should apply fairly well shop of the old elementary seventh and to any consecutive group of grades. eighth grades and the conventional home
All must agree that the one thing needeconomics for girls of those same grades. ful for successful curriculum making in Consequently, Los Angeles some three the junior high school is to determine years ago began to build and equip in first what this type of school should stand every junior high school shops which offer for. Doubtless all agree likewise that the quite a variety of elementary manual in- junior high school should function as a struction. This is all being done in a most transition unit in the school system coconservative and cautious way. For some ordinating with the elementary on the one the work is prevocational and for others hand and with the high school on the it is merely general training. Owing to a 'other, partaking to some extent in content, tremendous expansion in school popula- method, and atmosphere of both types of tion, Los Angeles cannot afford the ele- schools; and second, that it should have gance of some junior high school plants. an atmosphere and purpose of its own, In all shop buildings the simplicity of real should, in fact, function distinctively as shop conditions is emulated so far as pos- that school in which, through a more libsible, always giving due attention to health eralizing training, the transition may be requirements. In a few instances shops made effectively from the "self-centered are being enlarged and adjusted to meet mind of childhood to the socialized mind the needs of over-age, over-grown boys of adulthood.” If on the one hand atsent on from the elementary schools be tention is to be given primarily to preparcause they have exhausted the possibilities ing the students for high school, this must of the elementary school and can profit curtail the enrichment of the curriculum most by extended and more advanced in socializing studies and
and activities manual training combined with academic adapted to the needs of junior schools; it instruction of a different type from that must also curtail attempts to discover given in the one track course of the ele- through trial and observation the aptimentary school.
tudes of the individual student. If on the The reconstruction process has been other hand its place as a link in the pubslow. While there has existed for years lic school system is to be ignored, the juncommittees of teachers who had co-op ior high school will drift into self-centered erated more or less intermittently with the and vain vagaries. superintendent's staff in the preparing and The keynote of Dr. Bobbitt's curricurevising of courses of study, it became evi lum making is the search for the general dent that a thorough-going revision was objectives of education for each type of necessary, which should eventuate in a school, and an effort to discover the curriculum more consonant with modern special abilities to be developed through educational thought and with the actual the study of each subject.
the study of each subject. Accepting cer
tain abilities as those to be developed, the curriculum must suggest the educative (e) Supplying the money required material and pupil experience necessary
for providing the necessary mato attain those abilities.
terial facilities. Great numbers of teachers working on 3. The ability and disposition to use general and subject committees made pa general principles in dealing with tient inquiry as to what they had a right economic, political and other social to expect from junior high school train. problems. ing. To give one instance of the thor 4. The ability and the disposition to oughness of the investigation, which is use, and the habit of using facts as illustrative of a host of others, I read from as the sine qua non of thought and à certain pamphlet the following general decision relative to social matters. ity: “All seem to agree that courses in 5. Ability, disposition and habit of the social sciences in the junior high abundant and greatly diversified school should have as their main purpose reading as a means of enjoyable and the making of good citizens out of the pu fruitful indirect observation of men, pils." Let us see how Dr. Bobbitt would things and affairs, and of vicarious analyze and give pith, content, and actual participation in those affairs. meaning to the purpose of social studies. 6. Ability to act in those sympathetic,
The following are some of the funda tactful, and human ways that are mental educational objectives listed by both most agreeable and also effectDr. Bobbitt as those to be aimed at in ive in the conduct of one's relations social studies:
with one's associates. 1. Ability to think, feel, act and react From this one illustration may be seen
as an efficient, intelligent, sympa- the stimulating and exhaustive character thetic and loyal member of the en- of the investigation carried on to discover tire social group.
what should be the aims in the teaching of 2. The ability of the citizen to do his any subject. Still much remains to be
individual share in performing those done in the reorganization of the junior social functions for which all citizens high school course of study. The commitare equally responsible in the sup- tees are hard at work in gathering maport, protection, and oversight of the terials and outlining student activities specialized groups and agencies into which pupils of this age should attain. which society is differentiated for ef Effort is concentrated this year on defectiveness of action. The student veloping the social studies of the curricuis to acquire that ability which, lum and the pre-vocational shop courses. when adulthood is reached, will en- Distinct progress is being made in both. able him to perform the following To speak first of the social studies and things in connection with the several some of the differences of opinion and difspecialized social agencies:
ficulties attending the writing of this par(a) Setting up in public opinion and ticular monograph: School law in Cali
and maintaining standards of fornia prescribes that civics and United results to be achieved by the States history shall be taught in the service agency (i. e. What ought upper elementary grades. There has, howwe expect from a city council, ever, developed a very general movement
police department, etc.). toward the use of community civics for (b) Keeping informed relative to the the ninth year instead of Ancient History,
labors of the service agency by or at least as an alternative. Now, it so ways of noting whether it is aim- happens that one impelling reason for the ing at the standards of achieve- organization of the junior high school was ment sanctioned by public opin- the fact of so much repetition of subject