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program was a very necessary addition to as a social science. Textbooks are used the secondary school work, called in the as a basis for the work, but a vital part is Director of Manual Arts as the logical the field trips to view occupations first person in the system to co-ordinate the hand. The valuable material on about work. Together they went over various forty-eight of the most common occupapossibilities. The outcome was that it
was that it tions, collected and organized in the senior was determined to use as many of the high school, is used as supplementary mateachers as possible to begin the work at terial in these classes. the beginning by first building a back Throughout the manual arts courses in ground through study of occupations, and the junior high schools, the giving of occuto provide the second step, conferences, at pational information, including vocational the most needed points in the system. and educational guidance, is planned for
as one of the four principal aims of the STUDY OF OCCUPATIONS
work. This includes not only the occupaTwenty-two senior high school teachers
tions represented in each shop, but also were asked to name all of the occupations
occupations allied with it. Similar guidin which they had had experiences or with
ance is carried on as part of the homewhich they had contacts. It was decided then to give study of occupations in the making course, and to a slightly lesser de
gree in agricultural and commercial high school through a series of forty-eight courses, which latter includes salesmantalks on occupations. These are informal in nature and are followed by questions keeping, etc.
ship, commercial law, advertising, bookand discussion. This work is a require
In the junior high school counseling ment for graduation. The large number classes in occupations, personal counsel is of pupils in the freshman and sophomore given at the close, when freshman proclasses who come from rural and parochial grams are worked out. In the senior high schools are required to attend eighteen talks. Here the aim is to broaden ex- junior school and all other newcomers are
school all freshmen not coming from the tensively their occupational horizon.
personally advised in planning their high Seniors are required to attend twelve,
school programs according to one of five and their selection must show some
groups of courses offered. continuity of purpose, as along indus
A separate record card in manual arts trial, agricultural, commercial, home- follows all boys through the junior and making, or professional lines. Some of senior schools. Among other things, dethe talks are for boys, some for girls, and
cidedly positive or negative qualities are some for both. For more minute details
noted. of occupations studied, administration,
All freshmen fill out a vocational guidmethods employed in securing general and
ance card, telling of their ambitions, best local data, organization of material, etc., liked studies, etc. On the reverse side I refer you to pages 97 and 114 of the
parents indicate their plans, if any, for Yearbook. A large number of teachers their children's future occupation and eduis not a necessity. With an industrial, cation. Space is also provided for placing, home-making, commercial, agricultural,
I. Q.'s and other pertinent records. science, and one or two academic teachers,
Personal conferences are held with all and a principal, it would be quite possible seniors before graduation. The chief to make a good start.
counselor and pupil talk over the pupil's In the junior high school a semester in the study of occupations,
plans first, and together select a teacher. coupled with educational guidance, was
and sometimes an outsider, for a thorough instituted. Boys and girls are segregated. personal conference. The manual arts recThe classes meet daily and are given credit ord card and vocational and educational
guidance card just mentioned are often on a small scale of a placement office. used, together with the student's perma In conclusion, let me emphasize that nent school record.
our chief aim throughout our guidance
program is to teach boys and girls proper FUTURE PLANS
methods of helping themselves in studying When more time is made available for and analyzing their own aptitudes, and the our guidance work through a part-time occupations in which these aptitudes will counsellor, we plan four additional phases successfully and happily function; and to of work: first, counseling with all stu use reasonable methods of determining the dents once each year; second, counseling proper kind of training or education with all who fall below passing in any sub- needed. From the records of 250 graduject; third, counseling with all who must ates of our high school we are assured that leave school; and fourth, the organization we are going in the proper direction.
HOW CAN PUPILS BE SELECTED
HE bases in use for selecting pupils retarded mentally, educationally, or sofor grouping take into consideration cially.
various phases of a child's develop It is hardly necessary, then, to point ment. They are (1) chronological age or out the inadequacy of selecting pupils for the age in years, months, and days; (2) grouping on the basis of mental tests physiological age, which indicates the alone. By so doing, the extent of mental stages of physical growth and stages of maturity only is considered. One shortphysical maturity; (3) mental age, which coming of the method is its failure to take is indicative of the growth of certain into account the relative degrees of mental traits, capacities, interests, and brightness or the intelligence quotients abilities; (4) social age or the growth of (I.Q.’s) of the pupils. For example, two social attitudes and the ability to make, pupils receiving the same mental age on adapt, and control social adjustments; an intelligence test, may have different and (5) educational age, which indicates chronological ages. Evidently the the rate and position in school progress. younger of the two pupils is the brighter, The pupil's general ability in school sub or the more mentally alert. jects may be determined by the teacher's For similar reasons a method of groupjudgment or by means of a composite ing based on the chronological ages of educational age determined by standard- pupils would not be adequate. Pupils ized tests.
with the same age in years may have No one of these bases is adequate for widely varying mental ages; consequently the grouping of school children. All five they will vary accordingly in degree of ages are present at any chronological age brightness or in the I.Q.'s. of a child's development, but their rate of Perhaps an ideal method would be to growth may not be the same. A child may select pupils on the basis of all developbe accelerated in one or more of the four mental ages, namely, chronological, physages, other than the chronological, and iological, mental, social, and educational. yet be normal or retarded in the other Baldwin lays down the following general ages. For example, a boy or girl may
Reprinted by permission from the School Bulletin, have normal physical development and be Minneapolis Public Schools.
principles for grade or group enrichment very rare, a more specialized psychoor acceleration :
educational study must be made. 1. Acceleration upwards through the Gifted or superior children may be school grades, by utilizing the methods forced in school to unusual accomplishalready outlined, should be the principal ment by any of the methods outlined way of advancing superior or gifted chil above, regardless of their welfare. Any dren who are physiologically accelerated flexible modern school system should be (those children who are relatively large able to adapt its administration and infor their age, sex, race, and social status). struction to these three fundamental This is particularly advisable for those methods of selecting and training suchildren who are mentally and socially perior or gifted children. mature for their chronological age. These In Minneapolis, pupils in the junior children may safely be accelerated two, high schools are selected and classified three, or more grades if thoroughness and into five ability groups on the basis of accomplishment also considered. their chronological and mental ages. Such children will complete the course Following is the procedure used for classiat an early chronological age with su- fying into ability groups the 6A pupils perior knowledge and training on account who enter junior high schools. of their superior ability and advanced The grouping is based upon the pupil's stages of maturity.
chronological age and his mental age, as 2. For superior or gifted children who determined by the Haggerty Intelligence are not especially advanced in physio- Examination, Delta II. In order that the logical age, but of different I.Q.'s, the ac- procedure throughout the city may be the celeration should be accomplished in a same, the pupil's chronological age is horizontal direction, by means of some taken as the number of years old the type of grade sectioning on the basis of pupil was on his last birthday . The I. Q.’s. For some of these pupils accelera- mental age can be found by using the tion should be by means of an X, Y, Z following table: division within the grade, while for others
TABLE FOR FINDING MENTAL AGES FROM INTELLIGENCE additional subjects should be provided,
Test SCORES ON HAGGERTY DELTA II such as an elective course in special fields, Age in special training in physical education or other forms of supplementary work and
50-53 54-57 excursions—the latter especially where the
73-75 home environment is limited or where the pupil tends to be a “narrow gauge” type,
113-115 mentally and socially. These children will complete an enriched school course at the average age.
EXAMPLE: Pupil A scored 97 on the intelligence 3. For the glib, clever, bright children test Locate 97 in the table. It will be found in the of the superficial type, training in ac
line opposite the number 13 in the first column, or
the mental age in years. It is also in the months curacy and thoroughness should be the column headed by the number 3. Pupil A's mental principal objective in all of the grades and
age is therefore 13 years, 3 months. all of the groups through means of utiliz Pupil B scored 122. Find 121-2 in the ing their predominant interests. These table. The mental age is 15 years, 6 children are the most difficult to train in months. school, and they frequently dissipate their When the chronological and mental energies and those of others after they ages have been obtained, the pupil's leave school.
ability group can be found in the follow4. For the genius or prodigy, who is ing table:
0 to 2.9
9 to 11.9
110-112 118-120 120-121 127
128-129 133-134 135
58-60 70-72 82-84 94-96
67-69 79-81 91-93 102-104
123-124 130-131 136
ABILITY GROUPING OF 6A PUPILS BASED ON MENTAL AND CHRONOLOGICAL AGES
EXAMPLE: Pupil A has a chronological age of 11 fied into five groups, but only superficially years and a mental age of 13 years, 3 months. Locate with respect to the extent of variation or 11 in the chronological age column. Locate in the table and opposite chronological age 11 the column in which progress in any one school subject. the mental age 13 years 3 months is included. Pupil A Since the mental examination assumes falls in ability group C.
an important part in the Minneapolis Pupil B’s chronological'age is 13, mental plan of grouping, it should be pointed out age 15 years, 6 months. Locate 13 in the that a mental test takes into consideration chronological age column. Locate in the few distinctions of the relative values of table and opposite chronlogical age 13, the special traits in the specific individual the column in which the mental age 15
under examination. Little or no recogniyears, 6 months is included. Pupil B tion is made of the child's development in ability group B.
and emotional drive, of the will to sucThe foregoing plan takes into account, ceed in school work, the desire to create, also, the intelligence quotients of the the ability to lead, or the willingness to pupils. Thus, the pupils in any one group co-operate with others. These are factors are fairly homogeneous with respect to of vital significance to the teacher, since chronological age, mental maturity, and they determine the use the pupil makes of degree of brightness. Other methods of his innate powers. Wherever it is apselection and grouping might be worked parent that a pupil is not meeting the out which would be superior to the education requirements of his ability Minneapolis plan. The latter does not group, a careful educational diagnosis take into consideration physiological age
should be made to discover the causes of and social age. This would be very the difficulty. In some cases it will be difficult to accomplish, since adequate necessary to make shifts in the grouping. procedures are not available. The plan A pupil may be placed in either a higher considers educational age to the extent or lower group according to the need of that pupils of the same grade are classi the particular case concerned.
FROM MUD PIES TO PLASTICINE
By MARJORIE BELLE SHEPHARD BRIGGS, Student, University of Chicago
S WE turn the pages of history, we Unfortunately, because of modern ideas find that in every age man has of cleanliness, there are few mothers who
formed objects from plastic sub- permit their little ones to make mud pies stances. Is it, then, a matter of wonder- and cakes with which to feed their hungry ment that this tendency is so strongly de- doll families. This is particularly true veloped in the children of the present day? of the city child, who, but for a brief sum
mer outing on the sandy beach of a lake the course of lessons are evolved from or at the seashore, would be utterly de- Froebel's gifts. Observing in the kinderprived of this amusement which is so garten of one of these schools, I found the natural to childhood.
teacher starting with the sphere, the symSand, however, has not the educational bol of unity. She endeavored to give her advantages of mud, as its lack of coher- children training in form-expressions and ence and excessive friability limit the life-expressions. Each child was given a forms capable of reproduction. Neither piece of clay, which he tried to make
does sand bring into play the delicate round so that it would roll like the colnerves of touch, lying in the tips of the ored wool ball with which he had played fingers, to as great an extent as does mud, in his gift lesson. for the very nature of sand induces size Turning to me, the teacher said, “You rather than delicacy.
cannot imagine how delighted the children It is thus clear that for immemorial are when they are able to use a ball which ages mud has furnished the natural ma- they have made for themselves !” terial by which the child has gained and “Tomorrow," she continued, “I shall increased his sensibility of touch and ap- select six of the balls and paint them for preciation of form. To offset ultra-civil- the children so as to represent those in the ized conditions and thus give to the child gift bax.” at least some of the training which he has "What will be your next step?” I asked. formerly acquired naturally and uncon “To train the children in the estimation sciously, clay modeling has been intro- of size," my friend responded. "We shall duced into the kindergarten-primary cur- make large balls and small ones. They riculum.
may be called apples. I shall follow this The methods employed, however, by the up by another lesson in which each child conservative and by the progressive schools will make two balls of the same size, and are in marked contrast. In the former from these four balls of equal size. Then