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show. Often there are questions about the pictures in many of the devices may easily be adapted to other the text. To make sure that they have interpreted the grades. There are eight divisions, as follows: Readpictures correctly, the pupils may turn to the back of ing, Geography, Language, Arithmetic, History and the book, where they will find a list of the pictures Civics, Dictionary, Proverbs, and Sentiments for Inwith the titles.
spiration. The map of the world is built up as the pupils study the book. There are a few simple maps, only two of
The Development of the Professional Education of which contain place names. The maps are superim
Teachers in Pennsylvania. By William S. Taylor. posed on the globe, and directions are well developed. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1924. Pp. 293. There are many exercises, games, and puzzles of appeal Students of the history of education in the United to children, some of which are rather ingenious, States will be delighted with this volume. We are printed in smaller type than the rest of the book. It generally inclined to the opinion that the early educaappears to the reviewer that it would have been better tional efforts in America were practically limited to if the same size type had been used as for the regular New England. No doubt, the diversity in religious bereading material, as small type often conveys the idea liefs in the Middle Colonies was the cause of lack of of minor importance. Any teacher in the lower grades unity in organization, but there was nevertheless a who is teaching about distant lands should obtain a unity in the purpose and aim of the education as copy of this book.
offered by the various religious denominations. Seven Ages of Childhood. By Ella Lyman Cabot.
The author has traced the development of teacherBoston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1922. Pp. 321. $2.75. training in Pennsylvania, noting the successive efforts
of the church, the work of the academies, colleges, An understanding of the child and his point of view and a capacity for interpreting the spirit of childhood helpful to students of education who are seeking
and normal schools. The book will be particularly has given us a different type of child psychology in Mrs. Cabot's book. Here, so to speak, child psychology specific data for a single state rather than the broad
and often indefinite type of information which most is presented from the inside, from the standpoint of
historical textbooks offer. the child, rather than from the angle of the investigator or observer. With charm and simplicity psycho Beginnings in Educational Measurement. By Edlogical facts are given regarding the child from the ward A. Lincoln. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Comtime of his arrival in the dependent age” to the time pany, 1924. Pp. 151. $1.60. of maturity in the age of problems."
In this little volume the classroom teacher who has A much neglected factor of education is touched
had little or no training in educational measurement upon in the following quotation : "I'm awfully disap
will find much of interest and importance. Such topics pointed in Dorothy,” said her mother. "She has no in
as subject-matter tests, intelligence tests, the use and dependence. She does just what the crowd does. Now Harriet is fine. She is absolutely independent. She
misuse of tests, etc., are treated in a very interesting
manner. The reviewer firmly believes that the use of always comes to me about every decision, and then she
educational measurements is no longer limited to the does exactly what I tell her to do."
psychological laboratory. Educational tests have passed Devices and Diversions for Vitalizing Teaching. By through the experimental stage and are ready for the Alhambra G. Deming. Chicago: Beckley-Cardy Com- process of refinement which must come through their pany, 1924. Pp. 213. $1.20.
application in the classroom. Experienced teachers in reading and criticizing educational literature and in hearing speakers on educa
Educational Tests for Use in the Elementary Schools, tional methods often forget the army of recruits enter- Revised. By Charles W. Odell. Circular No. 33 of the ing the ranks each year, many of whom are without Bureau of Educational Research of the University of professional training. For these new teachers this Illinois. Published by the University, Urbana, 1924. book will be a valuable handbook of concrete devices Free. that will lead them to see for themselves that education This is a valuable list of the widely-used standardshould be made interesting to the child. And even the ized tests of intelligence and school achievement, the most experienced teacher will find in the book, no latter arranged by subjects. Publishers and prices are doubt, many devices that are new to them. The book shown, together with some brief comments on each is intended for intermediate and grammar grades, but test. BOOKS RECEIVED DURING THE MONTH EDUCATION
No. 2—Problems of Secondary Education. 75 ExerA Comparative Study of the Mental Capacity of cises. By J. B. Edmondson, 1923. 75 cents. Children of Foreign Parentage. By May Bere. New No. 3.- Problems in Elementary School Instruction. York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1924. 57 Exercises. By Clifford Woody, 1923. 75 cents. Pp. 105.
No. 4Problems of the Administration of a School Early Educational Leadership in the Ohio Valley. System. 83 Exercises. By J. B. Edmonson and Erwin By Allen Oscar Hansen. Edited by B. R. Buckingham. E. Lewis, 1924. 90 cents. Bloomington, Illinois: Public School Publishing Com No. 5-Problems of the High School Teacher. 68 pany, 1923. Pp. 120. Paper cover,
Exercises. By. J. B. Edmonson and Releigh Schorling, The Education of the Consumer-A Study in Cur 1924. 75 cents. riculum. By Henry Harap. New York: The Mac No. 6—Problems of the Rural Teacher. 74 Exermillan Company, 1924. Pp. 360.
cises. By Marvin S. Pittman, 1924. 75 cents. Education of Gifted Children. By Lulu M. Stedman. No. 7–Problems of a High School Teaching Staff Measurement and Adjustment Series. Edited by Ter 60 problems selected and arranged for use in high man. Chicago: World Book Company, 1924. Pp. 192. school faculty meetings. By G. M. Whipple and J. B.
Educational Problem Series. Edited by G. M. Whip Edmonson, 1924. 75 cents. ple. Public School Publishing Company, Bloomington, Educational Supervision. By Charles Edgar Scott. Illinois :
Milwaukee: The Bruce Publishing Company, 1924. No. 1.-Problems in Educational Psychology. 80 Pp. 98. $1.00. Exercises. By Guy M. Whipple, 1923. 75 cents.
Educational Tests for Use in Elementary Schools. In Mother Goose Land. A First Reader. By Agnes
The Mind at Work in Studying, Thinking, and Read-
, tion-A Study in Correlation on the Curriculum Side. Brace and Company, 1924. Pp. 138. By C. A. Hauser. Philadelphia: The Heidelberg Press, Thought Test Readers. First Grade, Second Grade, 1924. Pp. 319.
and Supplementary Sheets for Second Grade. By Prout,
Real Stories of the Geography Makers. By John T. Second, and Third Grades. By Bain, Burns and Van
Faris. Chicago: Ginn and Company, 1925. Pp. 332. Sistine. Chicago: The University of Chicago Book United States. Revised Edition. By Nellie B. Allen. store, 1924. Pp. 38. Sixty-five cents. Paper cover. Ninety-two cents. Practical Problem Projects. For fourth through ninth
Chicago: Ginn and Company, 1924. Pp. 340. grades. By F. W. Rawcliffe. Chicago: F. E. Compton With Lawrence in Arabia. By Lowell Thomas. New and Company, 1924. Pp. 112. Thirty-five cents. Paper York: The Century Company, 1924. Pp. 408. $4.00. cover. Talks to Young Teachers. By Mattie Dalton. Chicago:
MATHEMATICS The Educational Publishing Company, 1923. Pp. 245. The Pilot Arithmetics. Book One. By LouBelle
Stevens and James H. Van Sickle. Books Two and PSYCHOLOGY
Three. By Harry B. Marsh and James H. Van Sickle. Fundamentals of Social Psychology. By Emory S. Chicago: Newson and Company, 1923 and 1924. Pp. 272, Bogardus. New York: The Century Company, 1924.
304, and 312 respectively. Pp. 479. $3.75.
The Prevention and Correction of Errors in ArithGirlhood and Character. By Mary E. Moxcey. New
metic. By Garry Cleveland Myers. Chicago: The York: The Abingdon Press, 1916. Pp. 400. $2.00. Plymouth Press, 1925. Pp. 75. Sixty cents. Paper cover.
The Slide Rule. A Beginner's Description, and Uses. HISTORY AND CIVICS
By H. T. Erickson. Milwaukee: The Bruce Publishing Early Settlements in America. By John A. Long. Company, 1924. Pp. 32. Paper cover. Chicago: Row, Peterson and Company, 1925. Pp. 438. The Stone Arithmetics. By John C. Stone. Chicago:
Helps for the Study of Our Constitution. By Grace Benjamin H. Sanborn and Company, 1925. Primary, A. Turkington. Chicago: Ginn and Company, 1925. Pp. 306,72 cents. Intermediate, Pp. 322, 76 cents. Pp. 153.
Advanced, Pp. 326, 80 cents.
Appleton and Company, 1924. Pp. 291. $1.75. Books of Good Reading. Two pamphlets: one for first two years of the high school, another for the last
LANGUAGES two years. Syracuse, N. Y.: High School Reading Com Caesar's Invasion of Britain. Edited for the Use of mittee, 1924.
Beginners. By W. Welch and C. G. Duffield. Adapted Burton Holmes Travel Stories. A Series of Informa for Use in American Schools. By S. G. Ashmore. New tional Silent Readers. Edited by William H. Wheeler York: The Macmillan Company, 1925. Pp. 106. and Burton Holmes. Japan, Korea and Formosa—for fifth and sixth grades. By Eunice Tietjens. Egypt and
RECREATION the Suez Canal-for seventh and eighth grades. By Guessing the Geese in the Goose Family. By Margaret Susan Wilbur. Pp. 404 and 404. $1.28 each.
E. Wells and H. Mary Cushman. New York: DoubleChildren's Books for General Reading. By Effie L. day, Page and Company, 1924. Pp. 102. $1.00. Power. Chicago: American Library Association, 1924. What Shall We Play? By Edna Geister. New York: Pp. 8. Twenty cents each, 10 copies for $1.00, and 100 George H. Doran Company, 1924. Pp. 175. copies for $4.00.
THE PIONEERS AND THE
NEW YOUTH From an Address by CARL VAN DOREN, Literary Editor, the Century
Magazine* SHOULD like to speak about a general was one of the vices. We thought it one movement in the United States touch- of the virtues. ing the forms of public opinion and of To an amazing degree I think the public, and many forms of private, amiable American people have got into conduct. That movement is a revolt from the habit of believing that in some way a standardization which has become or other it matters relatively little what the great American vice-unless it is happens to minds, so long as our morals perhaps the great American vice of
vice of are intact. This is, after all, an immoral amiability. I used to think that amiability conception. We urge children at various was our national vice, and possibly it is times to keep away from bad communicatrue that when a nation has standardized tions. That is, they are not to associate ways of doing things it is only a result of with persons who are drunken or loose in amiability. So it comes back to that in their speech or conduct, or evil or brutal. the long run.
But there has never been any definite, Since I am primarily a critic of litera- emphatic movement of feeling on the part ture, I will speak about a book which is of Americans at large that we should more than a book, which is the sign of the avoid dull people as we would avoid times, a kind of document in the history people suffering from the smallpox. And of education, more important in the his- we should avoid not only unnecessary tory of education than any book, in my contact with those persons, who by the opinion, of recent times, Mr. Lewis' Main acts of God are made dull, but those Street. And let me explain what I mean people who are not only sunk in dullness, by associating that with education. but proud of the dullness, valiant in de
Public opinion in the United States has fense of dullness, and missionaries for at various times in its history been stirred dullness, who go out over the world by certain books which, we realize, did a preaching the gospel of dullness and great deal to bring to the surface a large and swinging the banner of dullness to amount of public opinion not yet settled every people. on that topic. Uncle Tom's Cabin is an I maintain that conduct can never be example of that kind of precipitation of good except as it is based on intelligence, ideas.
some kind of intelligence. In an army One item which accounts for the great you can get a million or ten millions of success of a new book, or a new solution, men if you want, who by the virtues of or a new idea, is that it is novel in thé obedience and loyalty and faith—those sense that it gives dramatic form to large qualities of which there is such an enorideas and opinions that do exist, and are mous stock in the world to follow a floating, and are gathered together.
leader, but it took in the past war a long In Main Street, Mr. Lewis brought to time to find one man who knew something the attention of a great many people the about conducting an army. It took all extraordinary idea-almost unprece
a-almost unprece- the war to find a man w had enough dented in general popular American cir- sense to end it. culation, never before made use of by
*Delivered before the Chicago Division of the anybody in a popular book—that dullness
Illinois State Teachers' Association, November 1, 1924.
Our ideal is not one of intelligence, of His device was simple enough, and in a finding an idea and making it clear. Our sense unimportant, and the reasons why ideal is always the person who holds him- many people took it up were really not the self in the paths of right conduct when ones he had in mind. His device was to right conduct has once been explained to take a young woman who was dissatisfied him.
in a small, dull community, and show In the United States this, it seems to her in the process of her dissatisfaction. me, is rapidly becoming an impossible Every thing went against her. The young attitude, and that restlessness which we woman had the disadvantage of being a observe in what we call the younger gen- goose, which is always in any community eration is, I believe, nothing more than a disadvantage. You hate to admire a a revolt against the dullness which comes heroine or hero who is a goose. Mr. from minds which have been inoculated Lewis was thus, in a sense, stacking the with certain hard and fast lines of con- cards against himself. And yet he was duct.
victorious. Let us take, for example, this Main Carol Kennicott was, after all, only a Street, not regarding it so much as a contemporary radical, and like many radiwork of art as a phenomenon in the his- cals something of a goose. But, as many tory of education, because that book, you of you know, while many radicals are remember, was not merely published and often wrong, all conservatives are always put out and read by a few people and for- wrong, because in human life the only law gotten.
is the law of change, and there can be no I talked, I remember, with Mr. Lewis such outcome as that a person who sets at the time when he was just publishing out to resist change will be right. the book, and he mentioned a very large Mr. Lewis, allowing that the girl was sum of money that he had wasted on it. a goose, still liked 'her and admired that He had no notion the book would really little element of rebellion that was in her. sell well. He had no notion it would She hates to see a community in which please people at large. He had written it they have all got into standard ways of to please himself. He had recently been feeling and doing and thinking. At a writing books which he had been obliged little party everybody must always do the to write for economic reasons, books of a same thing. When you are introduced, more popular nature, for one of the great you must always make the same response national magazines which sells for five to the salutation. When you get up at a cents a week.
meeting, you must always begin your reIn that magazine he had, so far as he marks with the same apology for the bad could, done what the public wanted, as he speaker you are, an explanation that is conceived it, in order to get from the public almost always unnecessary. A commuenough to live on. But now he had saved nity in which as a matter of fact, the ways his money, and had gone to work and had of life had got to a kind of mandarin sunk his money in the hole, he believed, of standardization. So, while doubtless perMain Street, in order that he might rid sons there might be sane, might be very his heart and emotions of certain ideas virtuous, might be very healthy, might be that were struggling there. But it caught very hearty, they had ceased to think, befire, and it went throughout the United cause you cannot think as long as you States. It has added a word to the agree with everybody else. language, it has added numerous words I do not mean you have to disagree with to the language, it has added characters to everybody to be right, .but you have to general popular discussion, and it has pre- know why you agree with other people to cipitated an opinion.
be right. You have to have thought the
matter out and to have come to a conclu- and if you were short handed as to labor, sion before there is any chance of being you would find yourself obliged to make right. Agreement with the mob is, there use at once of all sorts of labor saving defore, not thought, but habit; not thought, vices, and you would find yourself obliged but a kind of vague emotion, the kind of to do what you did in accordance with the emotion that glues us together in war, and standardized method of production, with glues us together in times of national ex a standardized method of distribution. citement, without the power to move our That has been the history in brief of wings or move our minds.
the United States. There was a rough Now, in Main Street, Mr. Lewis repre- continent to be subdued to the purposes sents Carol as a trivial girl, upholding the of man. In order to get it subdued at all, ideas which she has about what is owed our citizens have had for a long time to to the mind and the ideas which she holds work vigorously, to work on an extremely to the effect that dullness is not, after all, large scale. one of the major virtues, or one of th The vision of one political party, or one virtues at all. Mr. Lewis, for the first party of opinion in the United States, time in the history of American opinion, has been that of a great centralized counmanaged to give to that loyalty to unrest try with a powerful government in Washon her part, that preference for those ington, which could send out in all directhings in life which are not deliberately tions its communication, so that the whole dull, a kind of dramatic and representative country would move as nearly as possible quality. And it was taken up, you see, all in one mass. There have been, of course, over the country.
political dissent from that idea. In the Now, what was there in his book, be- late eighteenth century the West wanted sides the naturally entertaining qualities, to secede, and it was only with some diffithat brought forth so instantaneous a rec- culty kept from doing it. At least there ognition? It was precisely the fact that was a party for secession. In the early there was already in the United States a part of the nineteenth century many perlarge number of people who were begin- sons in New England wanted to secede ning to revolt against the very standards and get rid of this strong centralization, which we were being told on every corner which it resented. In the middle of the were our national glory, when, as a mat- nineteenth century the South did secede, ter of fact, they are our national danger, and although the war fixed the nation toif not our national defect.
gether in a new unity, what had happened It is easy enough to account for the way was merely the expression of this little bit in which such standards, such mechanical of dissent. But since the Civil War there standards, have encroached among us. If has been a continual growth in these variyou were a farmer, to put it in simple ous forms of standardization in the United terms, and you went to some new coun- States, so that now you go from city to try, and if you had a very small farm, city, and you can hardly find any
differwith no stones on it, and no trees, and the ence at all. drainage already well established by na With regard to the value and importture, you would find that the task of put- ance of these external forms and standting it under cultivation was fairly simple. ards, there perhaps would be much quesIt would probably be managed by hand- tion. Because of a really magnificent gift work, with the freedom and ease which of organization, the United States has achandwork implies. But if you went to a complished things in the way of sanitafarm which was enormous, which was cov- tion, in the beginnings of education, alered with trees, full of stones that must be though only the beginnings, in a certain removed, marshes that must be drained, kind of local organization, in distribution