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work of the semester. And so the experi- The boys seemed to enjoy the experiment, ment ended.
and it will not have proved a failure if Looking back over our twenty weeks of they continue to read.. About those who effort, it seemed to me that much of value go on to college, the complaint no longer had been accomplished, while for the rest may be made that their knowledge of litwe must look forward to future courses. erature is thin, for they have a wealth of My plan from the beginning had been to background resulting from actual contacts expose the boys to the great masters, in the with an author's work, rather than a sechope that the serum injected in some de- ond-hand knowledge gleaned from a textgree would take, and result in a love of book writer's reading. good literature. It seemed to me that the My dreams for the future are threefold. reading had been encouraged, that the I like to think of a day when visiting novquiet hour I had visioned and made pos- elists, dramatists, poets, or essayists shall sible had been beneficial, and that the dis- address the student body in literature at advantages of the lecture and recitation least once a quarter; when each classroom method had been eliminated by our em- shall have a stage upon which the plays phasis on the newer method of supervised studied may be enacted by the students; study. The tests seemed to indicate aver- when the walls of English classrooms ages quite as high as those obtained in shall resemble the walls of great libraries, previous semesters when outlines and lined with materials that no boy could tests, supplemented by a small amount of resist. collateral reading, had been the vogue.
WANTED: GENERAL SCIENCE
TEACHERS By PAUL I. PIERSON, Science Department, Chicago Normal College HERE were about eight hundred peo- is given five times a week for a year. ple who took the first examination While the practice varies in the different
given in Chicago for junior high schools, it is likely that from one-fourth school certificates. Of this number nearly to one-half of the first year science is five hundred passed. Of the five hun- general science. It has long been difficult dred exactly twenty-two passed the gen- to get teachers whose preparation and ineral science major. Though general clination fits them for this work. Many science in some form is one of the back- of the general science teachers in the high bone courses of most junior high schools, schools of Chicago are those who have and particularly in Chicago, where it is been trained in one of the special sciences, given three times a week for the entire and who teach general science only until three years in most courses, it would seem opportunity offers to get into a line of that there is a real scarcity of teachers work more congenial to them. prepared to teach this work. This scarcity The general science movement is only is further evidenced by the fact that gen a part of a greater educational movement eral science and some of the languages which seeks a reorganization of material are the only academic majors offered in used for teaching pupils, especially of the the examinations for junior high school adolescent age, from the standpoint of the certificates this June.
pupil rather than that of the subject. This First year science is given in all Chicago movement touches English, mathematics, high schools in the ninth grade. Here it and the social sciences, as well as physical
science. In fact, this reorganization of plication to agriculture and the industries. material is an essential part of the whole This looks formidable, but that is largely junior high school movement. General because science teaching in the past has science has thus become one of the major been poorly correlated and
we have lines of work followed in most junior thought of these departments as separate high school courses. But the difficulty of entities, while as a matter of fact they are getting teachers trained to teach this closely related. To get the essential facts seems greater than in the other major of these sciences for the "knowledge equiplines, if we judge from the few successful ment” need not entail any greater amount applicants for general science certificates. of work than to prepare oneself for any The reason for this would seem to be the one of the other lines of work in junior fact that few prospective teachers have high school English, mathematics, or training in more than one of the special social science. sciences, while many have training in A housewife has to be a cook, nurse, none.
laundress, teacher, accountant, purchasing Here, then, seems to be a real need on agent, and several other things, but even the one hand, and a great opportunity on in this age of over-specialization a great the part of prospective teachers to pre- many are quite successful at it. So the pare themselves for a less crowded field; prospective general science teacher need in fact, one not crowded at all.
not be discouraged at the prospect. It is the purpose of this article to point In order to get a good idea of the newer out this need and this opportunity and to educational point of view as applied to the suggest to prospective teachers to prepare junior high school in general and social themselves for this line of work. Eiken- science in particular, Van Denburg's berry, in his Teaching of General Science, Junior High School Idea, published by gives these qualifications for a successful Henry Holt and Company, should be teacher of this subject:
read. There are other books, but this is 1. Knowledge. 2. Mental quality. a good one. The Teaching of General 3. Executive quality. 4. Sympathy with Science, by Eikenberry, published by the pupils. 5. Independence. 6. Resourceful- University of Chicago Press, should then ness.
be read. This has less than 150 pages of There are undoubtedly very many teach- reading matter and can be read in two ers in the elementary schools of Chicago evenings. who possess all these qualifications at The teacher should then procure Natural least to a sufficient degree to make them Science, by Piper, and Beauchamp, pubsuccessful, except the special kind of lished by Scott, Foresman and Company, knowledge. It might seem a formidable which is used as a guide in the Chicago task if one is expected to be a specialist junior high schools and will give a good in all of the special sciences. But this is idea of topics covered. Along with that, neither necessary nor desirable. Probably the teacher should make the acquaintance, our special sciences in high schools have as far as possible, of general science texts. suffered because the teacher's training has Three suggested as suiting the purpose been deep rather than broad. The prepa- would be Science of Every Day Life, by ration of the general science teacher Van Buskirk and Smith, published by should be broad rather than deep or ex- Houghton Mifflin; Elements of General haustive in any one field. Eikenberry Science, by Caldwell and Eikenberry, pub(quoted above) further says that it should lished by Ginn and Company; and include earth science, botany, zoology, Science for Beginners, by Fall, published physics, chemistry, human physiology, by the World Book Company. and hygiene, with some knowledge of ap If the teacher feels herself weak in the
background of any of the special sciences interpretation of his social environment. a good elementary textbook which uses We must rely on general science largely abundant illustrative material should be to acquaint the pupil with the so-called studied. The following texts, one in each “scientific method”. This is a method of of the four special sciences, are suggested. study and research which, in the two past They may not be in every case the best, centuries, has made man a greater master but they are suitable.
of his physical environment than he had Subject and Author Publisher
become in all the preceding eons of time. Physics—Tower, Smith P. Blakiston's Son and To it we owe our modern industrial civiliand Turton. Company.
zation. But we are at the dawn of a new Zoology-Hegner. Macmillan Company.
era. Undoubtedly this new era will be one Botany—Bergen and Cald- Ginn and Company. well.
in which the “scientific method” will be Chemistry-McPherson Ginn and Company. more and more successfully applied to the and Henderson.
social sciences, so that we may hope man If one desires to spend some time in will become the master of his social enschool to prepare for this line of work, vironment as today he is the master of both the Normal College and the Univer- his physical environment. What is this sity of Chicago offer summer school "scientific method”? It is simply an uncourses; the University College (U. of C.) biased and unprejudiced search for the offers evening and Saturday courses in truth. It is an objective study of the facts subject-matter of general science and in of environment, the classification and methods of teaching.
grouping of these facts to ascertain their We are living in an age of rapid educa- relationships, the formulaton of hytional progress. The emphasis, especially pothesis to explain these relationships, in our secondary school work, 'is shifting the testing of these hypotheses, and the from the subject to the pupil. The formulation of laws. Once these laws are “humanizing” of our curriculum is going discovered, man uses them for the control on. General science is in line with this of his environment. General science can program. It is, or at least should be, the and should acquaint the adolescent pupil interpretation to the pupil of his physical with this method of study and attitude of environment, as the social sciences are the mind. No other study is so well adapted
to this end.
THE AUDITORIUM IN THE GARY
SCHOOLS By FREDERICK W.WECK, Department of Education, Chicago Normal College
torium program is made to fit into the CCORDING to the Gary plan, the whole scheme of recitations, and is also auditorium activities are regarded an hour in length.
as of equal value to reading, arith A day spent in observing and investimetic, history, or any other subject or gating the workings of the plan revealed activity in the education of children. the following activities which were being
The school day continues from 8:15 to put into practice through the auditorium 4:15 P. M., and each exercise, with the so as to establish habits which would exception of those of the lower grades, is carry over into life situations: an hour in length, making seven hours of a. Having children take part in proclassroom work for the day. The audi grams, thus accustoming them to ap
pear and execute their part of a pro- poolrooms, and that it was his purpose to gram before an audience as an "public-view” this unseemly phase of boy
ordinary event in everyday life; life, by which means, since public opinion b. Establishing responsibility for their is powerful, he would be able, in the course contribution to the program;
of time, to control it. c. Developing acquired interest on the He stated, further, that town boys have
part of the audience by listening to too much leisure; that instead of being a program which in a number of employed advantageously to themselves cases proves to be uninteresting. and community after school hours, these This feature was stressed by the idle times result as a detriment to both, program maker as of great import- and that he therefore proposed to use ance since it carries over into real supervised playgrounds as a means of
life situations so frequently. regulating boys' activities during these d. Fostering the idea of solidarity, a leisure times. school spirit, among the pupils.
How shall this leisure time be used so as Since there are a number of problems not to be a detriment to the child or the that can be solved only by activity, community? Shall it be directed or left
the auditorium is the place for them. undirected? In the adult world there is e. Promoting and inculcating civic no force, no organized power aiming
ideals and interests by rendering, directly at controlling or directing people's especially on holidays—patriotic activities during their leisure time. What programs.
means and efforts there are for usefully
and pleasantly using this leisure time of THE STORY OF A SUPERINTENDENT
the adult world is such that participation Mr. Wirt, Superintendent of Schools at
on the part of the individual is purely Gary, Indiana, was formerly employed in like capacity in the town of Blufton, In- voluntary. Lectures, concerts, art galleries, diana. While there, so the story goes, he places of amusement, etc., are all, or conceived the idea that it would be nearly all, under private direction. The greatly to the advantage of the boys of the public has little used, or little thought of town to gather on a common playground using its leisure time to good advantage. after school hours and to engage in such
In the case of the adult, whose habits sports as would be of interest to all boys, toward things are more or less stabilized,
are fixed, whose ways of life and attitude whether in school or out. To this end, he little can be done. It is the youth, young ented, at his own expense, a large meadow idjacent to the school. He invited all
men and young women, children of all boys to take part in games of various ages whose habits are forming, whose
ideals are not set up or stabilized, whose cinds. He succeeded in getting a motley array, manifest themselves, it is these, the fu
instincts in part are just beginning to ind much interest and excitement. Parnts living near soon protested against leisure now will be a determining factor
ture generation, on whom the use of he whole scheme, since they could not ndure the kind of language that fre- in the usefulness of their future years and uently emanated from the playground. the positions they will fill in society. Mr. Wirt called a meeting, inviting all arents to attend. At this meeting he ex In the construction of an auditorium lained his plan and answered arguments for school purposes two ideals have been nd criticisms. He made it clear to the prominent: eople of Blufton that their boys had not 1. The idea of serving the whole school earned this language on the playground, at any one time, as on holidays, when ut on the street corners, in alleys, and a special program is presented and the
THE LARGE AND SMALL AUDITORIUM
whole school takes part, or when a musical render the program for the day remain program or a play is given. These occa on the stage while the assembly is dissions are few, leaving the auditorium a missed and classes go to their respective vast void at all other times, save at com classrooms, shops, playgrounds, etc., for a mencement, when parents and friends at different type of work, while another group tend. At such times the auditorium, no of pupils come to the auditorium, where matter how large, is still usually not spa- the program is repeated by the same pucious enough to hold all interested. pils as before. In this way the "pro
2. The idea more recent in its develop- gramming” pupils get six or seven opporment is that of serving only part of the tunities in delivering their programs, school at any one time, but by being used which means that they get well over their every hour of the day, yet serves the whole stage fright before the day is over and school. An auditorium for this purpose learn to deliver their parts with telling need not be very large; a capacity of 300 effect, without stammering or interrupto 400 suffices for a school of 3,000 mem- tions. In other words, they become masbership. This form has been adopted in ter of the situation, losing whatever timidthe platoon system because it is more ity they had at the beginning. They learn economical in its construction and in their errors and have opportunity to corits use.
rect them and to discover the most effectA small auditorium can be used every ive way to present their material to the hour of the day, just as a classroom, since assembly. a sufficient number of pupils of common In each case there is a committee of interests can easily be grouped together pupils whose duty it is to take charge of for a common program. For example, the program for the day. One of these seventh, eighth, and ninth year pupils pupils announces the numbers of the prowere grouped together at Gary, similarly gram, another states the object or aim of tenth, eleventh, and twelfth year, also the entertainment with a brief statement fourth, fifth, and sixth. Besides, there are of the names, ages, grades, and accomcertain activities which lend themselves plishments of the pupils taking part. At much more readily to auditorium treat- the close of the program for the hour the ment than to classroom. Special teachers announcer asks for criticism from the aid and direct the pupils in selecting their audience, which is given freely and is subject-matter, working out their graphs, usually of a constructive character. and in securing devices necessary to On certain days, such as national holito the proper presentation of the program. days, special programs are given of patri
The amount of time given to the Garyotic character, or, when opportunity offers, type of program is one hour—the length noted men and women are invited to make of the regular recitation period. The hour addresses. Thus on several occasions is divided into two periods of forty and members of the Civic Opera Company of twenty minutes, respectively. During the Chicago were invited to contribute. forty minute division the pupils give their Once a month “Superintendents' Day" program. The remaining twenty minutes is held at Gary, when the superintendents are used by the teacher of music for the of neighboring cities are called on to give practice of three and even four part songs, talks on administrative phases of school or the pupils listen to records on the pho- activities. One day each week is set aside nograph for appreciation of classics. for moving pictures. These are distinctly Sometimes the historical background of educational in type. Lantern slides are a song is sketched by the teacher, such as also used frequently as illustrative mathat of the "Star Spangled Banner", etc. terial. The object is to vary the program When the hour is over, the pupils who in such a way as to avoid monotony, to