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recommends a careful, defensible budget, schools of southeastern Connecticut are and shows in detail what may best be in- carrying out an experiment by introducing cluded.

the great hymns into the schools. The Mr. E. E. Lewis treats the problem of the Board of Education of New York is trying eaching staff in a more general way. As an experiment in Public School 46 of disa superintendent of schools, he discusses missing the children one hour each week the recruiting of teachers: their training for instruction in a church of the pupil's before and during service, their certifica- choice. Similar experiments are being contion and selection, their appointment and ducted in other parts of the country. breaking in. He is concerned with the Of the books on the subject of religiproblems of handling home talent, of the gious education the most scholarly that married teacher, of adjusting the teaching has come to my attention during the year load, of the measurement of efficiency, of is Latent Religious Resources in Public salaries, tenure, teachers' councils, teach- School Education, by C. A. Hauser, D.D., ers' health and recreation, and the ethics Ph. D.,' a doctor's thesis presented to the of the profession. A clear and attractive faculty of the Graduate School of the Unistyle, large numbers of concrete cases, versity of Pennsylvania. Dr. Hauser and reference material for further study, rightly takes the position that Americans make this a valuable book.

are well grounded in the principle of sepD. L. Geyer.

aration of church and state. This princi

ple, however, does not imply that the state RELIGIOUS EDUCATION

does not recognize the function of the However lacking our times may be in life and perpetuity of a democracy. In

church and of religious education in the moral tone, one of the hopeful signs is the deed, in the very separation the founders obviously increasing interest in religious of our government had in mind an implied education. This interest is manifesting contract-namely, that the state would itself in an abundance of periodical and give secular and the church religious edupamphlet literature on the subject, in cation. Probably the failure of the church books by both educators and religious lead- fully to meet expectations has been due ers, in increased attendance at schools giv- largely to the fact that the state can secure ing training courses in religious education, in experiments being carried on by public must depend upon voluntary gifts. But schools and churches, in an emphasis upon pedagogically, also, the church has not week-day religious training, and in frank kept pace with the state. discussions by statesmen, educators, reli

It was to make a contribution to the gious leaders, and citizens in general. Many of the educational journals dur- that Dr. Hauser made his study. Running

pedagogical aspects of religious education ing the year have had articles on the sub- through and underlying his work are the ject. There are in this field several peri- fundamental principles of modern educaodicals devoted entirely or largely to tional psychology. Specifically he bases religious education. The School of Reli- his work upon the principle that new ideas gious Education of Boston University has an enrollment, according to the Journal that the teacher in presenting new ma

must be based upon past experience and of Education of April 16, 1924, of 474 stu- terial should find contacts with the pupil's dents from thirty-eight states, twelve for- old ideas and interests. Since the child eign countries, and eighteen religious denominations. Among the pamphlets e. Lewis. New York: The Century Company, 1925.

3 Personnel Problems of the Teaching Staff. By Ervin sent out by this school is a twenty-four- Pp. 460. $2.25. page bibliography of books for elementary tion. By E. A Hauser. Philadelphia: The Heidelberg workers in religious education. The Press, 1924. Pp. 319. $2.50.

spends a large part of the day in the public makers it will be of great value. school, the most fertile field for the teacher The second part of the book takes the of religious education to find contacts is in Philadelphia Public School Courses of public school material,

Study, as typical of courses in other cities, The purpose of the book, then, is to point in literature, history, the natural sciences, out to the church school teacher the wealth the social sciences, art, and music, and of material for religious education in points out definite material from the work public school courses. A broad foundation of the various grades that may be used by is laid by discussing through six chapters the church school teacher for specific purthe theme as it relates to educational aims poses in religious education. This work, and objectives. This part of the work too, is grouped about the five forms of concenters about the “Five Forms of Con- trol. This book should be read by every trol” as developed by Dr. A. Duncan leader in religious education and by public Yocum. These are impression, vocabu- school teachers who are active in church lary, variation, habit and system, and work. The two pages of twenty-one contransfer. Much of this discussion will clusions should provoke the serious probably be rather obscure to church thought of all who are concerned with our school teachers who have not had consid- civilization and our democracy. erable training. For leaders and course

Turner C. Chandler.

BOOK NOTICES

An Introduction to Teaching. By Ned Harland Dear The Materials of Reading. By Willis L. Uhl. Ver born. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1925. York: Silver, Burdett and Company, 1924. Pp. 386. Pp. 337.

Keen competition for school time and money is "What shall be the nature and content of the begin- causing teachers, educational investigators, and school ning course in education in teacher training schools ?" administrators as never before to demand an accounting is a question neither fully nor satisfactorily answered for the time and money received. English teachers in at the present time. The historical view of education particular have been and are being subjected to the closest is common and has the sanction of long usage. How scrutiny because of the large amount of time, relatives, ever, beginning courses in some schools, at least, are usually given to English and because of a feeling planned with the idea of giving prospective teachers a among many critics that the objectives of English teachview of education as at present organized and going, ing are rather vague. In keeping with the present vogue together with some treatment of its leading features of the efficiency expert, there is a pressing demand for and problems. Something of the guidance principle to objective evaluations and measurements in the methods aid students in making a selection of the type of educa and materials in English courses. Dr. Uhl's book is tional work best suited to their tastes and capabilities really a compendium of all the more valuable investiis also a feature of such courses.

gations that have been made of the teaching of readirg For the type of course just mentioned, An Introduction and literature in the elementary and intermediate schools

. to Teaching will be a very helpful book. It may even The fourteen chapters, fifty-six tables, and thirteen be made the instructor's chief dependence in developing diagrams contain a wealth of information that is inthe course. The first part of the book, about one-half valuable to the teacher of reading and to those making of it, will give students a view, although a rapid and courses of study in reading. The book does not theorgeneral one, of the nature of the occupation of teach ize. The author states a problem, gives the results or ing, with some comparison with other professions. statistics of investigations made in solution of the Qualifications of a teacher, both personal and educa problems, and lets the facts speak for themselves. tional, are pointed out. A chapter on the various kinds Some of the investigations reported have to do with of schools in existence, both public and private, should vocabularies of readers, relations between methods of be helpful in aiding students to make a selection of the readers and their contents, the grade placement of kind of educational work they will enter.

reading material, physical conditions of reading, chiThe second part of the book deals with education dren's interests in reading, the social worth of reading from the professional point of view, its nature, im reading processes, classroom methods, diagnostic and portance, ideals that govern, and its scientific aspect. remedial work, measurement of progress, and the forThe last three chapters point out in a general way the mulation of standards. work content of schools and modern methods in the classroom.

One Hundred Ways of Teaching Silent Reading. Be Mr. Dearborn's book is well written and readable. Nila Banton Smith. Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York: But its general treatment of rather difficult technical World Book Company, 1925. Pp. 149, $1.40. phases of the educative process will call for careful The busy teacher, however conversant she may be examination of those matters by instructors and stu- with the fundamental principles of teaching, often weldents, if the latter are to obtain real comprehension comes the devices of others. In this book Miss Smith of the aforesaid technical phases.

has collected one hundred exercises grouped under six

abilities that should be developed by silent reading

lamely, speed, comprehension, selection, organization, are given. The first section is for children under ten etention, and skimming. Under each of these headings years of age, and the second for children over ten. The here are exercises calling for oral, written, and action wide range of the second section makes it rather diffiesponses. The exercises offer great variety; they will cult for parents or children who are not already somenterest the children; they will promote right reading what familiar with the books to make a suitable seleclabits; they offer concrete material for each of the tion for reading. Few mediocre and no cheap books lifferent types of reading; they provide for individual are included. lifferences; and they are workable, having already been ried out in classrooms. Underlying and running The Horace Mann Readers: New Primer, Pp. 124. hrough all this concrete material are the pedagogical Teacher's Edition, Pp. 124 + ccvii. New First Reader, nd psychological principles formulated by modern stu- Pp. 136. Teacher's Edition, Pp. 136 + clii. New lents of reading.

Second Reader, Pp. 188. Teacher's Edition, Pp. 188 +

clii. By Walter L. Hervey and Melvin Hix. Chicago: Hari, the Jungle Lad By Dhan Gopal Mukerji. New Longmans, Green and Company, 1922, 1924. (ork: E. P. Dutton & Company, 1924. Pp. 220. $2.00. The printer, the artist, the author, and the educator

A universally felt need among teachers today is the have joined resources in the making of this attractive Teatest abundance of reading material, written at the and sane series of readers. There is an abundance of hild's own level so as to give him a rich and varied color illustrations. The print is large and clear. An icarious experience. Particularly strong is the demand unusually large amount of the material is new and or more appropriate material with accounts of other original; most of the stories are of the cumulative type ands, other peoples, stories of adventure, of nature, and and are easily taught. Both the original material and of animal life. In the account of Hari, the Jungle Lad, the standard selections have literary merit. The Teacher's ve have a very valuable addition to this type of writing. Edition for each year consists of the regular edition, Tividly and interestingly the writer tells of the jungles after which is printed the manual. The latter consists f India and of the denizens of the region. He gives of two parts: a general discussion of the Horace Mann

the reader the thrill of the hunt, informs him of the method and daily lesson instructions for the material rays of the elephant, the buffalo, the tiger, the stag, in the reader. he monkey.

The Horace Mann method is based upon the idea that Each page of the story imparts new and exciting in- no one-method system of teaching reading is sufficient; ormation. One reads of the stag's delicate hearing, of all sound and practical methods should be used; such ne bear's taste for honey and ants, of the peacock's skill methods are not competitive, but supplementary. The 1 killing snakes, of the elephant's peculiar rubber heel. authors, therefore, make use of the values and call Ine learns particularly of the elephant-of his great attention to the dangers of all methods: the drill, the itelligence, of his shrewd instinct, of his loyal devotion jingle method, the thought method, story telling, drama? a friend and his unrelenting hatred of an enemy. tization, the sight word method, the phonic method, and 'he peculiar nature of the Oriental is portrayed in a the problem method. Thinking, problem solving, and ascinating manner. Good sportsmanship fair play, love silent reading are particularly emphasized. The place or animals, consideration for the weak characterize the of oral reading in the primary grades is rightly recogpok.

nized. All the reading material is chosen for its intrinsic The story is told in the first person and is made very worth-interest to the children, literary value, or ethical eal in every respect. The adolescent youth is greatly content. leased by the narrative, and comes from the story with In one respect, however, the authors are not so free n enriched background of experience. The style is from over-using one method as they claim. Even a lear, simple, and free from technical and unusual words. casual turning of the pages will reveal the emphasis ther books by the same author along similar lines are placed upon phonics. Although the work in phonics is Cari, the Elephant and Jungle Beasts and Man.

well done, the large amount of space given to it suggests

the phonic method and might easily lead some teachers Burton Holmes Travel Stories. Edited by William H. to teach phonics and not reading. Vheeler and Burton Holmes. Japan. By Eunice On the whole, however, teachers will find the material ietjens. Egypt. By Susan Wilbur. Illustrated from in the manuals psychologically sound and pedagogically hotographs by Burton Holmes. Chicago: Wheeler sane. 'ublishing Company, 1924. Pp. 404 each. $1.28 each.

The first two of a series of highly illustrated, in Thought Test Readers, Grades First and Second. By ormational, silent readers, the first being for the Prout, Baumeister, Mischler, and Renner. Chicago: fth and sixth grades, and the second for the seventh The University Publishing Company, 1924. Pp. 117 and nd eighth grades. For each book there is a teacher's 152, respectively. janual, prepared by Delia E. Kibbe. The books are As the title indicates, these readers are designed to ttractive; the material is well selected and interest develop and to test comprehension. The testing is done gly told. They may be used for classwork, for in through action, oral, and written responses called for in ividual reading, or for project material. In whatever the reading material. The oral responses correlate oral ay they are used, they will help to enrich the child's and silent reading. In the first grade the written re(perience and broaden and deepen his sympathies for sponses are for the most part on the blackboard; in the nd understanding of the peoples in other lands. The second grade, on supplementary sheets prepared for the nphasis is placed upon the people, their thoughts, purpose. These responses are in the form of drawing leir motives, and their historical background. The lines under one of a series of pictures, adding some part litors are probably right in their hope that through to a picture, underlining words, filling blanks, etc. In Ich material a better understanding between nations each book there are brief but sufficient instructions to ay be brought about and thus a contribution may be teachers. Most of the material is original, interesting, ade toward eventual world peace.

and within the children's experience. The vocabulary

is adapted to the purpose in view. In make-up the Children's Books for General Reading. By Effie L. books conform to modern standards. Teachers will find ower. Chicago: American Library Association, 1924. here valuable material for supplementary work. p. 8. 20 cents each; 10 for $1.00; 100 for $4.00.

This is a restricted list of about 275 titles of chil In Storeland. Book I. By Margaret E. Wells and ren's books. Publishers and prices, but no annotations, H. Mary Cushman. New York: Silver Burdett and

Company, 1924. Pp. 200.

This is an informational, industrial reader intended for supplementary work in the third and fourth grades. The child is taken in company with the Everybody family to the store, where at the various counters fairies, little girls, and other interesting persons tell the story of the goods sold there. Among the stories are cotton, linen, silk, wool, fur, lace, leather, and rubber. The illustrations are from photographs of industrial processes and products. The book itself is a project and may be used as a basis for many interesting and valuable class activities.

Pp. 264. $1.80.

The author in a popular style and with an appreciative attitude sets up in his first chapter standards for eval. uating poetry for children. In his later chapters be discusses Mother Goose and fourteen other significant poets who have written for children. In the selection of these poets some attention was given to securing representatives of various types of children's poetry. A appendix comments briefly on sixteen other poets. Poems are quoted abundantly to illustrate points made in the essays, and at the end of each chapter several pages of additional poems are given as typical of the auth under consideration. The book is an excellent intro duction to a study of children's poets and poetry.

The Children's Poets. By Walter Barnes. Yonkerson-Hudson, New York: World Book Company, 1924.

BOOKS RECEIVED DURING THE MONTH

EDUCATION The Adjustable Class Book. Arranged for Six-Week Periods. By Helen H. Cowing. Cleveland: The Adjustable School Register Company, 1925. 45 cents. Paper bound.

Experimental Practice in the City and Country: School. Edited by Caroline Pratt. With a Record of Group Seven by Lula E. Wright. New York: E. P. Dutton and Company, 1924. Pp. 302. $2.50.

Giles Recitation Score Card and Manual of Directions. By J. T. Giles. Chicago: World Book Company, 1925. Specimen set 10 cents.

An Introduction to the Study of Education and to Teaching. By Ellwood P. Cubberley. Chicago: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1925. Pp. 476.

The Purpose of Education. By St. George Lane Fox Pitt. Fetter Lane, London: Cambridge University Press, 1924. Pp. 92.

School and Home. By Angelo Patri. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1925. Pp. 221. $2.00.

Visiting the Teacher at Work-Case Studies of Directed Teaching. By C. J. Anderson, A. S. Barr, and Maybell G. Bush. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1925. Pp. 382.

PSYCHOLOGY Studies of Mental Defects and Handicaps. By J. E. Wallace Wallin. Oxford, Ohio: Miami University, 1925. Pp. 177. 75 cents. Paper cover.

Teacher's Manual for First Reader, pp. 79. Teacher's Manual for Second and Third Readers, pp. 106.

What is English? A Book of Strategy for Englisä Teachers. Revised Edition. By C. H. Ward. Chicago: Scott, Foresman and Company, 1925. Pp. 487. $1.0

Willie Fox's Diary. By Ruth M. Hilkene and Marie Gugle. Chicago: Ginn and Company, 1925. Pp. 125 72 cents.

GEOGRAPHY GeographyUnited States and Canada. By Harlar. H. Barrows and Edith Putnam Parker. Chicago: Silver, Burdett and Company, 1925. Pp. 288.

Nations as Neighbors. A Textbook in Geography for Junior High Schools and for Classes of Correspondir.3 Grades. By Leonard O. Packard and Charles P. Sinna: New York: The Macmillan Company, 1925. Pp. 57

Oceania, A Supplementary Geography. By James F Chamberlain and Arthur H. Chamberlain. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1925. Pp. 172.

MATHEMATICS Arithmetic Work-Book. Teacher's Edition. Grade Five. By F. B. Knight, G. M. Ruch, and J. W. Studebaker. Chicago: Scott, Foresman and Company, 19% Pp. 76. Paper cover. (Pupils' edition, 36 cents.)

Junior Mathematics-Book Two. By Ernest R Breslich. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1925 Pp. 264.

SCIENCE Eyesight Conservation Survey. Bulletin 7. By Joshua E. Hannum. Edited by Guy A. Henry. Times Building. New York City: The Eyesight Conservation Council 1925. Pp. 219. Paper bound.

Teaching Science in the Schools. By Elliot Rowland Downing. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1925. Pp. 185. $2.10 postpaid.

ART Paintings of Many Lands and Ages. By Albert W. Heckman. New York: Art Extension Society, 1925. Pp. 63.

PHYSICAL EDUCATION Gymnastics in Education. By William J. Crome Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1925. Pp. 220. $3.75.

LANGUAGE Essentials of French. By James P. Bird. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Page and Company, 1925 Pp. 368.

First Course in Spanish. By Joseph E. A. Alexis Rock Island, Illinois: Augustana Book Concern, 192 Pp. 303. $1.20.

COMMERCIAL WORK Business Law. Revised Edition. By Alfred W. Bays. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1925. Pp. 473

SOCIOLOGY

Social Problems of Today. By Grove Samuel Dow and Edgar B. Wesley. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1925. Pp. 337. $2.00.

ENGLISH

American Short Stories. Edited by James F. Royster. Lake English Classics Edition. Chicago: Scott, Foresman and Company, 1925. Pp. 342. 72 cents.

A Book of Modern Plays. Edited by George R. Coffman. The Lake Library Edition. Chicago: Scott, Foresman and Company, 1925. Pp. 490. $1.20.

The Elements of Composition. By Henry S. Canby and John B. Opdycke. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1925. Pp. 699.

Johnny Goes a-Hunting. By Cyrus Lauron Hooper. Chicago : Rand McNally and Company, 1925. Pp. 200.

Old King Cole and Other Medieval Plays. By Josephine E. Krohn. New York: George H. Doran Company, 1925. Pp. 208. $1.50.

The Pathway to Reading. By B. B. Coleman, W. L. Uhl, and J. F. Hosic. Chicago: Silver, Burdett and Company, 1925.

Second Reader, pp. 186. Third Reader, pp. 248. Teacher's Manual for Primer, pp. 97

SPEAKING OF THIS AND THAT

ACCURACY AND RELIABILITY

By WILLIAM McANDREW
FORMALISM

old. It used to be required in schools
E had, not long ago, a lively meet- fifty years ago in New England.
ing of public-school principals

FORCING THE PROOF discussing ways and means of

Unfortunately almost every class disgetting classroom work to rise from the

covers some children who, after adding defects of formalism to real habit

or subtracting or performing whatever ormation.

the operation is, go through the motions of proving it and merely copy as proof

the first result obtained, thus fooling Every arithmetic class I have visited his year shows evidence that the prin- teacher. To obviate this in addition, the

themselves and sometimes deceiving the ipal has caused to be put into practice device of making two partial sums and he requirement that results shall be proved by the child who does the figuring adding them together is being used: But in all too many instances I found

96,352

85,914 hildren, after performing an addition,

98,777 nerely copying the result and passing it

281,043 off as proof. That is bad enough; but for

73,987 1 teacher to permit it is an encourage

97,659

85,797 nent of falsehood and cheating. Such negligence means teaching children to be

257,443 naccurate and unreliable. It turns the

538,486 538,486 possibility of real habit-forming into

Another device is this: vasteful formalism.

PROOF We discussed, some time ago, the result of a canvass of thirty-five Chicago citizens vhose business deals with figures. Every vne emphasized the need of accuracy and eliability as a trait our schools should

These requirements are to enable the ultivate. Accuracy is assured only by teacher quickly to see that the actual vroof. The proof in computation must proof has been worked out. They are esult from repeating the operation in clumsy; they should be discarded as soon inother form. This is the basis of

as the teacher has found out who the double entry” invented by the Italian deceivers are and has brought them into

the ranks of honest workers. Then the vankers in the Middle Ages, to secure bsolute accuracy. In business any man

simple proof shown by drawing a line ir firm who submits a financial or

across the top of the column as well as lumerical statement, is responsible for its

across the bottom, adding up and adding .ccuracy. This is secured by checking down and comparing results, should be

used. ir proving. This is universal. We thereore agreed that all computations done in

MOTIVATION rithmetic classes should be proven, not If a teacher takes pains to emphasize occasionally, but always. The proof is again and again the real pleasure of selfin essential part of the process. This is reliance, the real joy of being sure that

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