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thorough study as to what ought to be away often if you want to do a pub :: done in a general revision of the course of service and render justice to the teachers study. That course of study, when it is who are honest, industrious and diliger: formed, will be largely elastic, and you The unwarranted absences of a very few will still retain the power to modify con- may work a hardship on the large number ditions as they will be found by you to be of earnest teachers who never stay away needed in your districts.'”
unless it is physically impossible for the
to go to school. Local School Board ABSENCE OF TEACHERS
should take more than a perfunctory inNew York is bothered, also, by too easy terest in the absences of teachers.' absence of its teachers from duty. The “Dr. O'Shea told the District SuperSuperintendent, at his recent conference intendents also that teachers who are abwith the District Superintendents, warned sent from duty on account of illnes: that the rules “granting absence refunds should send a doctor's certificate promptly to sick teachers may have to be made to their principals and should make every more rigid.” A resumé of his remarks effort to get well by consulting their made public today discloses the fact that physicians promptly and as often as may he informed the District Superintendents be necessary. that he did not know how long that
“Among constructive suggestions oíprivilege will be allowed unless we do fered by Dr. O'Shea for improving something to check the absence of some teachers' health and comfort in the schoc teachers who are absent nearly every year. were: urging that District Superintend“As far as I am personally concerned,” he ents recommend the establishment of rest said, “the most liberal treatment should be rooms wherever possible, emphasizing the accorded to a teacher genuinely sick, who necessity of care in assigning newly aphas been regular in her attendance for a pointed teachers and teachers who are long period of time. If it were my private infirm or have been seriously ill, to classes business I would give her two years' salary which do not require the expenditure ci if she were sick that length of time, pro- much nervous energy. Such teachers vided that she had many years of regular should not be assigned e. g., to slow progattendance at her work. We do not find ress or opportunity classes. fault with those people who have prolonged absence due to serious personal
REST ROOMS illness. We find fault with the absences “Speaking of the value of rest rooms of younger teachers who feel that they Dr. O'Shea pointed out that at times a own their positions. Quite a few of them teacher who is slightly ill would recover —more than a dozen—have told the quickly if she had the opportunity of restdoctors their opinion in this stereotyped ing for a short period while her class is expression : 'I am entitled to twenty days, taken care of by the assistant to principal am I not?' 'I am entitled to thirty days, or other person; whereas, through lack of am I not?'—thinking, firmly convinced a rest room the teacher may be requires of the fact, it is not by grace, but by right to stay home for several days—a loss to that they are entitled to sixty days' ab- the teacher and the city. sence in the year, or one-third of the whole
TEACHING TEACHERS HOW TO TEACH working year. They are not entitled to that and they should not stay away unless “Dr. O'Shea emphasized again the they are physically unable to do their necessity of giving assistance to yourz work.'
teachers, and said: “ You should be very careful in follow “ 'I have always said that it is no: ing up the absences of teachers who stay necessary for the head of department to
visit every teacher under her supervision collections among school children will every day. Her time could be infinitely soon cease. better spent by assisting the young
“ 'There is, of course, no objection to teacher, until her authority is established voluntary gifts. The State Department of -until she finds herself. It is much easier Education is always glad to have any to teach a young woman how to go right worthy object mentioned in its semithan it is to let her go wrong and then try monthly Bulletin, which goes to all the to correct bad habits.'
schools, and to have any teacher or pupil
feel at liberty as an individual to give as COLLECTIONS IN SCHOOLS
much or little as he chooses. The collection What Chicago has done locally the should not, however, be made through the whole of New York State may enact schools, but the contribution should be generally:
sent directly by the giver to the body re“State Commissioner of Education sponsible for the particular movement. Frank P. Graves has come out strongly Neither the Board of Regents nor the against permitting financial drives in the Commissioner wishes to stand in the way schools of the State, even for such worthy of contributions to any deserving cause, purposes as the preservation of ‘Old Iron- but financial drives cannot properly be sides,' the frigate Constitution. The State permitted in the schools and children Commissioner, in the current Bulletin of forced through social obloquy to give the University of the State of New York beyond the means of their parents. We calls attention to the action taken by the must protect both the children and the Board of Regents nearly three years ago schools.'” prohibiting the soliciting of funds in the public schools of the State.
SPEAKING OF SPEAKING “ 'This step,' he said, 'was not taken I wonder whether you would be inthrough opposition to any of the projects terested to know what I said to the for which funds were sought from the principals about a pleasant opportunity school children. It was recognized that I am missing: “The custom of Chicago most of the objects were worthy and that principals of inviting visiting superintendthere was every desire to see that they ents of the department to ‘say a few words were furthered. Collectively, however, the to the children, to meet the teachers, etc.,' sums requested and secured by pressure is one of the courteous and agreeable inwere exceedingly large, and it was felt that cidents of school visits. Some of us enjoy methods of securing them voluntarily speaking; for others of us it partakes of should be devised by the sponsors. The the nature of a show-off; some of us make main reason for this exploitation of the our school visits more a matter of business school children seemed to be that numer- than others do. For myself, there is not ous agencies found it a facile and con- the slightest danger of offense at the venient way of financing their particular omission of either of these courtesies. My interests.
visits to schools should be so much of an “ 'Each project seemed small in itself, ordinary every-day occurrence as not to but the sum total of the various objects require any special attention. I am deeply was somewhat appalling. Not less than concerned with the solid achievements of fifty or sixty such requests have been made the schools. I feel that the artistic, within a comparatively brief period of musical, and dramatic specialities are so time, and the purses of the parents well in hand as to require little encouragecannot stand such a continual drain, ment. You will not, I know, take it amiss small though each amount may be. It is that I would prefer inspection of the to be hoped that the suggestion of further commoner school work to the delights
and entertainments which you are offer- fundamentals. The schools which shine ing. May I say also that I never have with a moderate amount of dramatic and found that these pleasant additions to the musical entertainment have, in my exold-fashioned school curriculum interfere perience, done as good solid work as the with the advancement of the so-called others.”
DIAGNOSTIC AND REMEDIAL WORK IN SILENT READING
By D. J. BEEBY, Principal, Oglesby School* T the end of each semester all the 1924. We did not have our remedial work
pupils in the Oglesby School as well organized in previous semesters as
given standardized tests in silent at present so the higher median scores obreading. In June, 1925, the pupils in tained from previous tests are not as grades 3B to 8A were tested with the Bur- healthy as they might appear to be. It is gess Scale for Measuring Ability in Silent easy to get a high median score by workReading, No. 4. Grades 2B, 2A, and 1A ing with the pupils who do not need were tested with the Haggerty Reading attention. Examination, Sigma I. The iB classes It will be remembered that the Burgess were given the Detroit Word Recognition Tests consist of twenty illustrated paraTest, Form A.
graphs of about equal difficulty. The pupil Table I shows the distribution of the reads the paragraph and makes a very scores of the classes tested with the simple addition to the accompanying Burgess Test. The classes marked with picture. The tests call for careful reading, an asterisk are made up of pupils having somewhat like the reading called for in high intelligence quotients. Those marked an arithmetic problem. I have found that with a dagger are lowest in intelligence the results obtained from the use of the and those marked with a double dagger Burgess Tests correlate very closely with lie between the two groups mentioned. those obtained from the Monroe, HagThe last six columns represent rooms in gerty Sigma I, and the Thorndike-McCall. a branch which is not organized into in- A good deal has been written about the telligence quotient groups.
effect of practice upon the results obtained The reader will notice that the scores from the Burgess Tests. No doubt there are more "scattered” in the low I. Q. is a considerable carry-over if the tests classes. This scattering is not so marked are used too frequently. The pupils repas in previous tests, because we have resented in Table I had not read one of the worked to bring up the laggards rather Burgess Tests since early in May, 1924– than to make high median scores. Notice a matter of thirteen months-So I think also the overlapping in reading ability in the effect of practice may be called such widely separated grades as 8A and negligible. 4A. This means that there are many In January, 1925, these same pupils pupils in 4A who are more efficient were given one of the Monroe Reading readers than some pupils who are in 8A. Tests. All the pupils who were a year or
Table I shows, on the whole, lower more retarded in reading were placed in median performance than we obtained for
*Read at the June meeting of the Chicago Pedagogica' tests given in January, 1925, or in May, Club.
FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF SILENT READING SCORES
OGLESBY SCHOOL JUNE 1925
I *I* *t*t* * *TI*t
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 22 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 I
3 27 2
1 I I
2 3 -Gol 3 11442 4.
3 18 2 5 2 3
3 2 2 8 1163 14 312 12753 4 5 6
I 24 2 12 6
3 116 16 14 84 2 2 4G 174114 54 3 3TGT
5 1 9 4 3 2 2 4 I 7 -&- 4 5 10.498 4 2 3 HG-42972
4 165 2
/ 2 / 3
2112 11 4 1714 5 2 7 5 4 3 3631 5 221 3 24
2 I 13 4 1 7 5 4 4 2 1 8 25 2 4 2 11 2
2 2 21 F-614 43) 2 14 I 2 734 7 2 1 2
1 5 1
remedial groups. Of course, this was a The reader will notice that certain purely arbitrary arrangement. In the pupils made an improvement equivalent Monroe and Burgess Tests the steps from to one, two, three or even four years in a one paragraph to the next amount to a single semester. Others show slight imyear when the results are converted into provement while others received lower grade equivalent scores. That is, a pupil scores in June than in January. The who read seven paragraphs correctly teachers agreed that many of the scores might be classed as a remedial pupil, while did not begin to show the real reading a pupil of the same class reading eight improvement of certain pupils as indiparagraphs would be up to grade. With cated by their new power to get lessons this explanation the large number of from books. In other cases the teachers remedial pupils will not be disturbing. said that the test results indicate greater
Sometimes a pupil with a high score improvement than the actual facts will was placed in a remedial class because the warrant. teacher thought he needed the individual It is well known that varying types of instruction. The records of these pupils reading matter have a profound effect do not appear in Table II.
upon a pupil's silent reading performance. A peculiar thing about reading as a Allowance must also be made for the inschool subject is that occasionally a pupil adequacy of the tests to measure a child's will appear as a deficient for the first time reading ability. We must also remember as late as seventh or eighth grade. And that a child's physical and mental conthere is no mistake about it, he has de- dition will have much to do with his veloped a real reading deficiency. Some achievement. The statistical method is pupils will show up in the deficient group valuable if we do not take the results too just once in their whole school career. seriously. Other pupils will be poor readers all the
TABLE II. way through the grades in spite of everything the school can do. These last are
GRADE 8A 3.
5. usually pupils of low mental ability.
G. E. Score
G. E. Score Table II shows the results of remedial No. I. Q. Jan., '25 Diagnosis instruction with 344 pupils during the
4, 8, 11 10.5
2 106 6.6 second semester of 1924-1925. Column
1,2,4,7, 8,11 7.3
12.one contains the identifying numbers of
4, 8, 11 85 114 5.9
4, 5, 11 9.5 the pupils. The number of remedial
9.5 pupils in a room varied from three to
1, 2, 7, 8, 11 5.5 75 7.3
4, 8, 11 7.5 seven in the high I. Q. rooms, and from
9 57 5.2
2, 6, 11 twelve to twenty-three in the low I. Q. 10 112
5, 8, 11 11.5 11 146 7.3
4,5, 8, 11 55 rooms. Column two in Table II gives the
12 114 5.9
4, 8, 11 9.5 intelligence quotient of each remedial 13 100 6.6
1, 2, 4, 5, 8,11
4, 5 9.5 pupil. Column three shows the grade
2, 6, 7 equivalent scores of the pupils as tested 16 104
17 117 7.3 with the Monroe Reading Test in January, 1925. Column four contains the re
GRADE 8B sults of the teacher's diagnosis of each
4. G. E. Score
G. E. Soere pupil's deficiency. For the explanation of
I. Q. Jan., '25 Diagnosis the numbers in this column refer to the 18
1, 2, 7, 11
117 “Suggestions to Teachers” on page 211.
4, 5, 11 Column five contains the grade equivalent
1, 4 22 127 6.6
1, 2, 4, 7, 11 scores received in the Burgess Test given
6 116 6.6
7, 8, 11 in June, 1925.
25 92 7.3
1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 11
3 4 5 6 7 8
11.5 10.5 8.5