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ule. 4. That they shall have an active cators to achieve the real, salient objective art in the formulation of the curriculum of making boys and girls better men and f the local school system. 5. That there women, more useful men and women. I do hall be specific and definite provisions not see how we are going to achieve the or the reflection and revealing of class- real purpose of public education, whether pom teacher originality and initiative. it is in the kindergarten, the junior high

That there shall be what is com- school, the college or university, unless only referred to as permanent tenure people who are directly responsible for the hich they would have obtained much promulgation and carrying out of these ore generally if the term “indefinite functions have a very personal and intinure” were substituted. 7. The oppor- mate privilege in the formulation of that inity, or the assurance accompanied by organization. le proof that the activity of classroom Before the type of building should be achers in respect to the points that I considered at all, it seems to me that we, ave mentioned be carefully weighed and as classroom teachers, need to become very onsidered by the administrative authori- familiar and very adept in the minimum es rather than passively received and requirements of school building construcloved into a correspondence file or waste- tion as they affect classroom procedure. I aper basket.

think entirely too little attention has been The first element presented here is that paid to teaching equipment, to the teachassroom teachers desire a specific and ing apparatus, to the peculiar and special efinite opportunity to participate in de- teaching devices that classroom teachers ding on the particular kind of organiza- themselves would choose; and entirely too on that a local school system should be much attention, relatively, has been paid ganized on, or the lines of organization to the gross or general equipment. lat a local school system should take. Specifically—I was in a community of iperficially and platitudinously speak- some 75,000 last spring, making one of g, most any professional educator would what some people term these infernal :cept that as a perfectly legitimate privi- administrative surveys, and I found this ge of the classroom teacher. Yet, al- situation: A request to the central office lough the stamp of approval is given by on the part of

on the part of a classroom teacher for a Iministrative officers on the part of this particular kind of paper was met in one mand, the administrative force has of two ways. Either an entirely different ther generally been extremely woeful kind of paper was sent back because that id criminally negligent in setting up a happened to be in stock and no further finite machinery by which classroom order would be made until that was used achers could take part in this adminis- up, or else the order was delayed for two ative function. For example, in the ma or three months, and with a smile the busrity of local communities, rural or met- iness manager said, “If we wait long politan, at the present time, about the enough they will forget they need it and ly way an isolated teacher has of reach- will not order it again.” g the administrative body is by personal I cannot be too vitriolic, I cannot speak tter, which more frequently than not re too impassionately in denouncing such an ains unanswered on the part of the ad- administrative procedure as traitorous to inistrative officers. From my point of the teaching body. But, on the other hand, ew I cannot help but think that such a I can speak just as strongly in denunciailure on the part of educational adminis- tion of the classroom teacher in the kinative officers will prove eventually fatal dergarten, for example, in this same town, the program of public education. I do who sent in a requisition for fifteen balls. it see any other way for professional edu- No stipulation was made as to whether the

balls should be made of rubber or iron; no ing individual initiative and originality. specification was made as to the size or This opportunity for expression of origincolor. The order was entirely lacking in ality and initiative carries in the same the minutiae which to a classroom special- breath an obligation and a responsibility ist may be irritating, but which are the for a continued and maintained compebread and life of the man who has to order tence for revealing and displaying originthe material needed.

ality and initiative. In other words, I think some of the irri In all institutions classroom teachers, in tations between the administrative and both isolated and group cases, have beteaching forces, in respect to teaching come apathetic, and all too complacent equipment and teaching supplies, have in about their own achievements. Instead of part arisen because of the neglect of the being alive and alert in attempting to classroom teachers and individual build- find new solutions to old problems, they ing principals in not being careful enough are found to be constantly employing the in citing specifications for the materials old techniques, and, instead of going to the which they are ordering.

trouble to investigate, they either accept The third point in which classroom or discard things that are being proposed teachers are interested is salaries, which I I think in isolated cases, working withir. shall just mention. The most sorely needed limits so that organization machinery will policy in respect to teachers' salaries is not be dismantled and chaotic confusion “Equal pay for equal work.” The quicker result, classroom teachers, either personwe realize that a man would be just as ally or representatively, should have the asinine trying to teach a kindergarten privilege, as they do have the right, of tryclass as a woman would be trying to coaching out something that they want tried a football team, the quicker we will achieve out. But the conclusion should be accomthat condition of equal pay for equal work panied by quantitative and definite eviof equal quality.

dence that they have become intimately As to participation in curriculum mak- familiar with everything available in that ing, the opportunity for detailed participa- field before publicly announcing a polic; tion of classroom teachers in the formula- of their own. tion of curriculum-making is so preva

Some of the classroom teachers most lently accepted at the present time that it insistent for an opportunity to display inimay seem foolish for me to even suggest tiative and originality are basing their that classroom teachers should be directly originality and intiative on such bases as and personally represented in the central “I think,” “It has been my experience." office. Many cities last year relieved ele- “It is my judgment,” with nothing more mentary, junior high school and senior scientific to back up such opinion and high school teachers from a part of their recommendations. If I were an adminisregular classroom teaching in order that trative officer and a group of classroom they might spend time in work on curri- teachers approached me without having culum revision with representatives of the made a scientific study of the problem incentral office. In many cities curriculum volved, I would graciously smile and say, revision has been proposed and achieved “There may be something in what you by the classroom teacher to the delight of say, but until you become familiar wiä administrative forces. Such a policy seems what has been done I do not think you essential to me for the complete success of yourselves will say it is fair for us to try public school teaching.

it out.” The next point that I want to bring to The point I am trying to make is tha your attention is the fact that classroom classroom teachers as well as university teachers desire the opportunity of reveal- and normal school professors and educa

tional administrative officers, as a whole, functions and uses of standardized tests. must become imbued with a zealous desire But I shall pass on to the subject comfor putting education on a scientific basis. monly called "permanent” but which I This must be done in order that we may technically describe as “indefinite tenure.” get the same recognition as other pro- Much harm is done the classroom teacher fessions, and unless you as classroom in respect to this matter. Classroom teachers respond, the case is lost—the in- teachers are accused of wanting to hold stitutional people and the administrative their positions whether they are deserving officers simply cannot do it alone. Institu- of them or not. This I do not believe, but tional folk and administrative forces can- I believe much good would result if classnot do anything, cannot effect any change room teachers discussed indefinite tenure, of policy, cannot make any changes unless rather than permanent tenure. classroom teachers are “sold” on the thing, The administrative force in education and become very ardent devotees, con- has not yet completely recognized that stantly working for the incorporation of there are administrative elements in all such changes in their daily work.

activities in which human beings are inIn this connection I wish I could ask volved, and I wish you would recall my each of you to tell me your conception of first definition, namely, that administraresearch — research of many different tion is the co-operative direction of human kinds. I long for the day to come when effort. Unless administrative forces realize omebody will be qualified to take a group that there are administrative elements in is large as this—yes, twice this size, with classroom procedure, I am afraid we will roper mechanical and clerical assistance, never get a proper working adjustment ind say, “We are gathered here together among professional educators. The ado carry on individual search for the truth ministrative officers feel that they have n respect to some thing. You will be been technically trained in matters of adredited for it. The only requirement is ministration, that they have had adminishis: at a designated time, you must come trative experience, while the classroom n and show-through your own untiring, teacher has had only classroom teaching our own unrelenting, your own zealous experience. They feel that they are the earch for the truth—that you have found focal point representing the commonither that something you already believed wealth of which they are the employees

true on the basis of quantitative evi- and that the searching and scrutinizing ence, or that you are in error in some eye of popular opinion and publicity is lace and you are glad to find it out." constantly bearing upon them. Their re

I said a minute ago that no policy could fusal and their response to the request and e authorized by the administrative offices desire of classroom teachers for the active nless the classroom teachers were "sold privilege of teacher participation has been n it.” The most striking illustration of partially a protective measure that would hat is the use of standard tests, first of the prevent and inhibit office fatality in adiental type and then of the educational ministrative officers, just as teachers wish pe. We who worked with standardized to prevent office fatality in the teaching sts first made the fatal error of saying, force. Here is something of a stencil-like pro Many specific functions of the admindure. You take it and use it.” Obviously istrative office that might be cited seem e should have started out with saying, unfair to isolated sections of the teaching Every teacher gives tests. What kind of body; and yet when viewed from the ensts do you give? What do you want these tire teaching standpoint the solution could sts to find out?" and then going out from not be otherwise. In other words, fellow sts of the teacher's making, into the teachers, I have in my teaching position

frequently suffered; the field in which I through a task which because of frequent am working frequently is impeded in a de- repetition has become mechanized, or of velopment that could be much more rapid constantly experiencing that exhilaration if it were not necessary to divert certain of emotional vibration that should come forces and agencies to other things which from the realization that they are dealing it must be acknowledged are of less with human beings, who in turn are going import, but nevertheless, must be taken to deal with thousands of other human care of when the whole situation is viewed. beings. In other words, I am just trying to say

The second hindrance in the proper adthat condemnation of the administrative justment of administrative matters is inforce by classroom teachers is just as tolerance. The thing that I am thinking vicious as condemnation of the classroom of here is best illustrated by the philosophy teaching force by the administrative of- of John Ruskin. Ruskin defined a laborer ficers. Člassroom teachers are dangerously as a person who works with his hands, ar near making the same error in their rela- artisan as an individual who works with tion to the administrative officers that his head, but the artist as a man who works boys and girls make in their relation to with his head, hands, and heart combined classroom teachers when they are asking If we as professional educators could for the active privilege of participating in daily, hourly, vitalize our beings with ar the administration of their own activities. insatiable and unending desire to at least

I believe the two reasons that have been try to become artists as teachers, I think predominant in differences of opinion, both much of what is superficial rather than as to fundamental philosophy and as to real difference of opinion in respect to concrete and minute policies in educa- teacher and pupil participation in schoci tional administration, are, first, a mutual administration would vanish. lack of vision; and, second, intolerance. There are two deplorable conditions What do I mean when I say that class- that it seems to me we need to avoid in room teachers and administrative officers thinking, in discussing, and in establishing have lacked of vision? The thought I am policies in respect to teacher and pupi! trying to bring to you is this: Three men participation in school administration. The were working in a stone quarry and a first is the benign, either paternalistic o: stranger entered. Going up to one of the maternalistic autocracy, which, when I stone cutters, he said, “My man, what are went to school was maintained first by the you doing?” With an ugly sneer on his board of education toward the superiface, the fellow replied, "Cutting stone." tendent, when the superintendent was Smiling, the visitor went on to the second treated and considered as a hired man. man and said, “My man, what are you and in turn was maintained and condoing?” With a look as much as to say, stantly practiced by the superintendent in “Why, you fool,” the workman answered, respect to the principal, who in turn had “I am making $5.00 a day;” passing on to the same attitude towards the classroom the next man, the visitor repeated the in- teachers. Since we were the last ones in quiry. The last workman was the smallest line, the classroom teacher in turn used i: in stature, the most insignificant in phys- on the boys and girls. The other condition ical makeup, but he carefully laid down that I think would be even more disaihis tools, drew himself up to his full height, trous because it would be destructive, is and said, “Sir, I am building a cathedral.” chaotic sovietism in education. In othe: I wonder if classroom teachers are always words, I am suggesting that you as profesconscious of the fact that they have the sional educators take the same attitude a opportunity daily in the classroom of earn men and women do with wives and husing a certain amount of money, of going bands—that it does not make any differ

ence with what group of beings you come any success at all. Just as a loving father in contact, some of them are going to do, would call in a child, or as child would go hink, and say things that you do not like; to a parent with whom proper personal and you may rest just as assured, that you relations had been established and mainare going to say, think, and do things they tained, so it seems to me that superintendlo not like. The question is not, “Do you ents, assistants and deputies, associate ike everything that is said, thought, or superintendents, directors, supervisors, lone?” but rather “What is actually best supervising principals, district superinor boys and girls?”

tendents, principals, heads of departments, Now, in common terms, it seems to me classroom teachers, in all forms of school hat the whole thing in administration re- work must get together and say there has olves itself to this: Classroom teachers been mutual misunderstanding and violavill not be abolished, and administrative tion of trust, and it is high time we were orces will not be abolished, and neither getting on solid professional ground. can coerce or force the other group with




By J. E. BULGER, Advertising Manager, Chicago Motor Club DUCATION in its broader sense the first year of his school life will scarcely

should enable us to adapt ourselves develop into a careless motorist or

to our environment. Herbert Spencer pedestrian. William James, the great ays, “To prepare us for complete living is American psychologist, in writing on he function education has to perform.” habit says, Chis idea is amplified by Professor Already at the age of twenty-one you see the profesFranklin Bobbitt of the University of

sional mannerism settling down on the young commercial

traveler, on the young doctor, on the young minister, on Chicago. Writing in the CHICAGO SCHOOLS the young counselor-at-law. You see the little lines of OURNAL Professor Bobbitt says,

cleavage running through the character, the tricks, the

prejudices, the ways of the shop from which the man One's life is one's curriculum. What is not a portion

can no more escape than his coat sleeve can suddenly f one's life cannot be a portion of one's curriculum. fall into a new set of folds. certain portion of the whole may be taken and ad

The safety manner once developed will linistered by the schools; but in so doing this is to dminister but a part of one's total curriculum. From remain for life. his point of view, there are no such things as extra

What is being done to develop the urricular activities. Whatever one does, whether in chool or out, is irrevocably molding the man or the safety manner? The automobile clubs roman. Education is concerned with whatever shapes the

have entered into the problem seriously. evelopment of the individual. The so-called extra urricular is a part of the actual curriculum; sometimes In Detroit, for instance, the automobile he more important part.

club has established the custom of giving Safety education is a most important medals to children for performing merijart of the child's curriculum. Habits of torious acts of accident prevention. The aution can be built in childhood's plastic children maintain trial courts where ge that would be difficult if not imposible to instill in later years. In the early culprits violating the rules of safety are rears the child can build up what the psy- brought to justice. If the court, which is hologists term patterns of reaction. These composed entirely of children, finds labits once formed are difficult to eradi- against the defendant he is sent into penal ate. The child who is taught safety from servitude around the school yard picking

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