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3. Attendance — absence, tardiness, from the principal's office. Then he distruancy. Of these he helps keep an ac- cusses some activity in which the House curate record.

is interested, such as a championship 4. Supervision of study periods. Pupils House basketball game, the school paper. spend all vacant hours in the House unless the next opera, or the scholarship of the given permission to be elsewhere.

House compared with that of the other 5. Scholarship and discipline. The Houses. A good example of this was teachers report to the House principal the shown on Thursday and Friday of a poor scholarship of their pupils, poor recent week. There was but little interes: deportment, or any other deficiency. in the opening basketball game. One Likewise they bring to his attention note- boys' House challenged the other three to worthy achievements. The House prin- a ticket buying contest for the game. cipal learns from the teacher what a boy's Great enthusiasm was aroused, with the difficulty in any particular class seems to result that nearly 1,100 of the students atbe, whether lack of ability, or indifference, tended the game. The House is also the or laziness. The teacher learns from the ideal unit for intra-school athletics. BeHouse principal the degree of studiousness ginning ninth grade students cannot of the boy during his vacant hours, his at- compete with 12B's but House vs. House titude in other classes, facts of his home gives equality. life, or other details that enable her to Besides discussing questions of loca! understand the boy better. Then, after school interests, the students consider at conferences with several or all of the these daily “record” periods many topic boy's teachers and a talk with the boy of state or national interest, such as: himself, the House principal decides on “thrift week,” “Junior Red Cross," "corthe best course to follow in the attempt to servation of trees,” health, etc. At these help the boy. If the scholarship or con- times the principal often calls on various duct, as the case may be, does not im- members of the House to give their ideas prove, he sends for the parents in order to and opinions. Sometimes the students will gather other facts and to secure their do nearly all the talking, the principa! co-operation.

offering only a word now and then. Sone6. Supervision of the duties of any times a business or professional man give school or class officers who are members a vocational or inspirational talk, or 20 of his House.

alumnus of the House makes remarks. 1: But looking after the routine studies is the period corresponding to the audi and daily program of his students is only torium period in the platoon schools, o? part of a House principal's work. His the class period in social arts of our pr9biggest job is to direct the self-expression posed new curriculum. In other words cf his pupils in a way that will bring the the House is used as the organization usia best results for them. This development for the development of all kinds of extra comes only partially from activity in the classroom activities. It is easy to see that classroom: it comes from their participa- in units of from 250-300 these things cap tion in the issue of publications, “service be done much more effectively than when committee,” Junior Red Cross, student the whole school meets together in one bi self-government movements, plays, musi- assembly. In fact, in only one school in cals, science clubs, and the like. Every the city is the auditorium large enough :0 day each House has a record or assembly seat more than half of the pupils. period, for twenty minutes, sometimes for The House principal is the foster father forty. Each pupil signs a record slip. This of his boys. Much of this time is spent is is the “clearing house” time. The House heart to heart talks with them, not on principal reads notices and directions about their studies, present and future.

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it about their personal appearance, their ness, the same for discipline. At these abits, associates, their relations times he makes it his business to probe, irents and teachers, their ambitions in as it were, into the very depths of the boy, se, and countless other things. The and to win his confidence if possible. He

ouse principal is the administrative knows the parents and the home sur: ficer, the moral counselor, and the roundings of most of his boys. It is with -lucational and vocational guide for his him that all the boys in the House do bys. Because of his intimate relation things—he is their leader—to raise money ith them his influence is far greater than for French orphans, win the House at of any other of their teachers. To a championship in baseball or track, win the eat extent he is their model, the source of scholarship cup for the semester, or turn eir inspiration. His House reflects him. out more students for the championship

he is very particular about his personal basketball game than the other Houses pearance and that of his room, and will. Because he is their leader, their

tremely neat, this will be reflected in teacher, the one who admonishes, scolds, s pupils. If he is athletic or musical, a encourages them, the one who teaches : turalist, or is particularly interested in them to be good sports, the one who uniachinery, so will he influence the mem- fies or co-ordinates their formal classroom rs of his House along these lines, to an work with their other activities, the one tent far greater than could another to whom they confide their ambitions and acher. Likewise, if he is untidy in his desires—because of these things is it any pearance, or slip-shod in his methods, wonder he has more influence on most s pupils will have a tendency to be the of them than have the other teachers ?

So it is with the women principals, their This is easy to understand: the contact relation to their girls is just as intimate; tween the average teacher and his pupil their influence is just as strong, though almost entirely within the classroom they are not leaders in House rivalry to id is, according to the ordinary peda- the same extent as the men, for among the gy, quite formal. Nearly all the recita- girls' Houses there are not as many conon period is spent in reciting facts, or in tests. But the relation of the girls' Houses ill. So much "ground” must be covered to one another is admirable Two Houses

the end of the fifth week, tenth week, often unite at record period to listen to a id so on. This may be necessary in talk. As the man principal is a foster odern education, but the fact remains father to his boys, so the woman principal at intimate acquaintance and real is a foster mother to her girls. Just as his mpathy between teacher and pupil is problem is to bring out the manly traits

e exception rather than the rule. But in his boys, so hers is to develop the Ew different is the relation between the womanly attributes in her girls. Hers, if ouse principal and the pupil. There is anything, is the more difficult task, for the tle formal instruction by the principal, girl is more sensitive, her feelings are more it much informal. He has to do with the delicate than those of most boys. Naturalal life of the boy—the spontaneous, ly the men and women chosen for House tural things which he likes—or dislikes; principals are those of the broadest exhletics, school publications, student periences, deepest sympathy, and the best lf-government, debating, and so on, judgment; in addition they have high nich do as much or more for the boy scholastic qualifications. In rank and pay an his formal studies, and are vital. He they equal heads of departments. mes into close personal contact with The organization and spirit of the m, too, when he investigates the reasons House is much like that of a community r his poor scholarship, absence or tardi- in real life. Each House has student officers and a council or committee, quainted with 1,000 or 1,200 boys or girls elected by the students themselves. These so that he can intelligently advise then : officers and the council have considerable either about their high school work of influence; and in some of the Houses their life careers. He meets these pupil relieve the principal of much work. In the occasionally. Unless a boy knows the House just as in the community, the older counselor well and has his confidence bé pupils direct the activities. They are ex- will not talk freely. No boy or girl is pected not only to set the right example in going to sit down and confide his secre. conduct and scholarship for the younger ambitions to a stranger. pupils but they often sponsor the younger. The House principal, on the other hand, Unquestionably the older pupils have a knows his three hundred from every direct and wholesome influence on the angle. Moreover, he has the confidence of younger. The extent of the student most of them. Because of this confidence government idea and the influence of the and his intimate knowledge of them, te older brother and sister idea depend is admirably fitted to council concernirs largely on the enthusiasm and direction their high school and college courses, and of the House principal. In several high to help them get the right idea of wha: schools the practice of older pupils coach- they should choose for a life work. In ing and generally helping the younger is these high schools the House principals carried on extensively.

are the only counselors. All of them have After reorganization each semester, the taken at least one special course in Detro: students take charge of one record period to prepare themselves better to do th: a week. Sometimes an entertainment or guidance work. Several have taken musical program is given; sometimes this summer school vocational guidance period is devoted to House business, such courses at Harvard and Chicago. At both as talking about buying a new flag or the of these colleges, great interest has been organization of the House football team. shown in our House system and in the Sometimes the student entertainment guidance done by the House principals committee secures a “live” speaker from At both summer schools the verdict was the outside world to talk about his pro- that the House principal was the logica. fession or some vital topic of the day. counselor. It might be well to state that

The scope of what can be accomplished every educator who has visited our schools is limited only by the time and strength and has seen the operation of the House of the House principal. Three hundred is system has been very enthusiastic about : the maximum number that can be

The only objection ever offered to the handled well in one group. When Houses House system is that it costs more. This have over 400, the principal has too much is FALSE SUPPOSITION. VA clerical work to do. In some schools the Edward L. Miller, Assistant Superintenerecord period has been reduced to only ent of Schools in Detroit, has investigare 10 to 15 minutes, which is all the time the cost of our schools with and withou: that can be allowed in addition to the House principals. In a letter to Supereleven or twelve class periods.

intendent Frank Cody dated February 4, One phase of the House principal's work 1926, he gives figures showing the persor.a. deserves special comment. During the last service charges in all the city high school five years the problem of vocational for last December and concludes his lette: : counseling has received much attention. as follows: Many schools throughout the country are “My conclusion from this whole study using two counselors, a man for the boys is that there is no substantial difference and a woman for the girls. A counselor between the two systems." cannot possibly become well enough ac- In this day when so much is expected

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the school and so little in character

HOUSE OF VICTORY

"There is no failure for the good uilding is done by the home, the House

and the wise.” stem is almost a necessity. Though ving the same general organization and

In most schools the Houses have been eals, each House has a distinct in- formally dedicated-none within a short viduality, due partly to the influence of time after it was started, but each in its

principal and chiefly to the aims and turn when it was ready, when the undereals embodied in its name and motto. standing of its ideals was complete ne Central High School names and enough. This is a fundamental feature of ottos were chosen because of the ideals the plan and drives home the significance d House emblems, which are suggestive of House ideals as can nothing else. On rewise of the symbolism contained in the anniversary of the dedication of each em and not merely because they House commemorative exercises are held, unded well. How suggestive are those during which time the ideals are revivified the boys' Houses:

and the members again repeat the House HOUSE OF ARGONAUTS “I am the master of my fate,

pledge and rededicate themselves to The captain of my soul.”

actualize in their lives the ideals of the

House. "What's brave, what's noble.

These are the days of change and ad

vancement in educational theory and “My own shall come to me."

practice. The old, stilted, formal educa“Liberty is self-enforced obedience

tion is giving way to the realistic “lifeto self-recognized law." Likewise those of the girls':

like" methods, where boys and girls can,

besides learning facts, also develop initi“Scholarship, character, service."

ative, loyalty, self-government, leadership, “We seek the best; we give our best.” and service. We believe, after fourteen "Self-reverence,

years of experience, that the House self-knowledge,

system is the best form of administration self-control, These three alone lead life to sovereign power."

to develop these qualities.

HOUSE OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Let's do it."
HOUSE OF JOHN BURROUGHS

HOUSE OF LIBERTY

HOUSE OF ALICE FREEMAN

HOUSE OF MARY LYON

HOUSE OF ATHENE

LIMITATIONS OF THE SOCIAL PRINCIPAL IN MAKING

A CURRICULUM By FREDERICK S. BREED, Department of Education, University of Chicago* [ "HE tadpole's tail, made famous in frog needs this appendage, and (2) Tails

the charmingly sonorous pages of don't belong to these animals, anyhow. I

Stanley Hall, is now threatened with shall attempt to show that the first statenputation and disaster. The resort to ment is not a valid argument for denying - Irgery on this innocent organ by certain the use of this appendage to the young or embers of the sociological school of cur- *Paper read before the joint meeting of the Educaculum makers is defended by them on tional Research Association and the National Society

of College Teachers of Education, Washington, D. C., vo counts: (1) No properly developed February 24, 1926.

for imposing other methods of navigation, suits; or general and abstract ideas, for and that the second statement is a propo- the most part clearly beyond the mental sition contrary to fact.

and social maturity of the child. AdeisaWe are living in a period of stimulating bility, comprehension, diversion, extercurriculum reform. During the past sion, facilities, beneficent, chronologica. quarter of a century the orientation of the feasible, hospitablethese represent the curriculum has been based largely on the type of words in the group. Their nonbehavior of children. Now it is to be appearance in the childhood lists is easily based on the behavior of adults. We are explained on psychologic grounds. invited to make a delightful swing from On the other hand, children were found one extreme to its opposite. Analysis of to have word needs not included in the adult activities will provide our major vocabulary of adults. The most strikina objectives, which, upon further analysis, examples are presented in the following will yield detailed materials for the courses group of words found in each of the five of study. Man the measure of the selec- investigations of children's themes and in tion of materials, the child the measure of no one of the eleven investigations of acu: their graduation—this is the new gospel correspondence: and slogan.

bonfire dive insect sled Now, let it be observed that few of the cannon

elephant kite squirrel advocates of this engaging doctrine have cart giant noble tiger ventured beyond the point of determining curl Indian onion violet major objectives. Their program is still When the 2437 words found only in the largely in the theoretic and preliminary writing of children were classified, the stages. When the analysis of the leading fell naturally into the following categorie activities and aspirations of adults is con- which I list in the order of decreasin: summated, may we expect it to produce frequency: the content of a satisfactory course of School

.576

Food study? In the most conspicuous case of Stories 465

Farm such refined analysis the results enable Home .358 Plants us already to answer in the negative. It Conduct. .229

Health 34 has been found that a spelling vocabulary Animals 188 Clothing 4 based on the written discourse of adults Play

134

Miscellaneous 145 has two outstanding deficiencies: (1) It These categories, differing striking provides the child with a considerable from those required for the classification body of material beyond his intellectual of the adult-only words, suggest familia level, and (2) It deprives the child of fields of interest, general, and fundamenta much material at his intellectual level. in their appeal to children; and the numThis has been shown by means of a de- ber and the character of the words within tailed comparison of two composite vo- the categories make it clear enough tha cabularies, one derived from eleven inves- the word needs of children differ markeü tigations of adult correspondence and the from those of adults. other from five investigations of children's It was found, moreover, that the dithemes. Nearly half (4459) of the words tinctive elements in the two vocabulară in the adult composite did not appear at cannot be explained, as one writer ha all in the composite vocabulary of chil- claimed, on the ground of the unrelidren. Careful analysis showed that the bility of the childhood lists. A study words used only by adults represented the word lists entering into the two combusiness and professional objects and posites showed that they were abou activities; social, political, and religious equally reliable, the childhood lists agree affairs; domestic and recreational pur- ing with each other to approximately :**

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