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same extent as the adult lists. Further author, shortly after it appeared, he remore, study of the common element in marked, “Ah, you think I have changed the two composite vocabularies revealed my opinion, don't you?” I has suspected marked differences in the frequency of that he had at least indulged in a judicious use of the same words on the part of chil- amplification. dren and adults. The total divergence of The research findings in the field of the two vocabularies, after the totals were spelling are arrayed against an exclusively equalized, was 40 per cent.

adult standard for the selection of the Let us now be clear in regard to the real content of the curriculum. In a scientific issue in this discussion. There is appar- course of study in spelling, the vocabulary ently no objections to the establishment of adults will not be substituted for the of the ultimate goals of curriculum en- words which children need in order to deavor on the basis of adult behavior. I write about the things and the activities think we are all in favor of it. Even the that touch their deepest interests. And extreme advocates of the project method a similar outcome may be safely predicted will probably agree that teachers should in many other sections of the curriculum. perform their directive functions with Children will continue to profit by the rehese social ends in sight. The argument form initiated in America a hundred years of this paper is rather that the analysis of ago under the leadership of Colburn and adult activities is not an adequate source to study number relations within the range of materials for the curriculum. The of childhood experience, while at the same results of such an analysis will require time curriculum-makers will outline the ooth supplementation and curtailment, for objectives of the course of study after the here will be sins of omission as well as method inaugurated by Wilson. Similarly, ins of commission.

in acquiring the reading skill for effective My esteemed colleague, Professor Bob- participation in social life, children will vitt, whose subtle and influential contri- continue to use nursery rhymes and fairy utions to the theory of curriculum tales, stories of adventure and animal life onstruction have at times seemed tinc- all in a vocabulary that differs materially ured by the sociological heresy under dis- from that of the news reports on the front ussion, has recently freed himself from page of the daily paper. . ll suspicion. In an article on "The New The movement under discussion is in Cechnique of Curriculum-making” he has truth a resuscitation of the disciplinary tated his position with such definiteness doctrine, it is compulsory education in a hat one need not remain in doubt new guise, and it is socialistic in its trend. bout it:

Not social domination and denial of the .... the activity-analyst must see human activities individual, but respect for the objects and within any field not at any one particular age, but and the activities that touch his deepest as a series of activities which take place at all of interests at every level of his development, the age levels from infancy to old age.... The

with guidance in the light of socially deteranalysis is to show what is normal for each of the

mined ends—this, I venture to suggest, is This is indeed a reassuring clarification

the meaning of democracy in the construc

tion of the curriculum. inding support to the central contention f this paper. When I expressed my ap

1 Bobbitt, Franklin. “The New Technique of Curroval of this significant passage to the

riculum-making”, Elementary School Journal, XXV, 1, 1924. Pp. 54.




By DENTON L. GEYER, Director, Bureau of Experimental Education,

Chicago Normal College Editor's Note: Established by vote of the Board of ters that the child learns reading while Superintendents in June, 1924, upon recommendation of the Chicago Pedagogical Club, the Bureau of Experi- learning to read the directions for carrying mental Education at the Chicago Normal College is now on a certain activity in which all children

. bringing to a close its second year of activity. Its primary purpose is to try out new ideas, devices, and are interested, namely, coloring pictures, materials in education under such carefully controlled cutting them out, and pasting them in a conditions as to make possible the measurement of results. It has experimented thus far with materials and

certain order on a frame. To this end individual methods in arithmetic, spelling, handwriting, each child is provided with: (a) a larze and reading. Before beginning these experiments carried on in the

“Lessons Pad” of frames, cut-outs, and classroom itself, the Bureau undertook a statistical directions; (b) a dictionary; (c) a pad analysis of the scores on a series of intelligence tests made by the entering classes at the Normal College

of stories ("Story-Book Pad”); (d) a since 1920. These scores have now been put into a form story-book cover; (e) a large envelope or which permits comparison of this normal school with other teacher-training institutions and with universities,

container in which to keep the material. comparisons of groups of students within the College The first pictures are very simple and (as household arts with kindergarten students, etc.), comparison of scores with scholarship records, and so on.

are constructed by imitation of the These studies will appear in another connection. teacher's example, from her oral instruc

The experiments in handwriting will be described in the June number of this journal.

tions or from directions composed by the

class and printed on the blackboard. But HE Bureau of Experimental Education has conducted a controlled is understood, each child is given a simp.

as soon as the general idea of the method experiment in individualized in

set of printed directions, each word of struction in primary reading with the use

which is illustrated in such a way that it of the Courtis-Smith Picture-Story Read. is possible for the child to teach himseli. ing Lessons. These lessons are built New words in each lesson the pupil learns on the principle that the development to know, first by matching them with of certain character qualities, such as self- words under the pictures which the teacher reliance and the ability to form and carry puts on the blackboard, and later by out purposes, are the concerns of primary matching them with the words under the importance and that learning to read is pictures in his little dictionary. The dicincidental to these. The aims to be tionary “defines”, of course, by showing a achieved in these lessons are stated by the picture of the object rather than by the author, Nila Banton Smith, in this way:

use of other words. Connective words are “1. To develop the child's power to pur- learned by reading slowly certain short pose through reading situations.

memorized sentences on the labels. “2. To enable him to use his reading as

When the child has completed each a tool in carrying out his purposes from picture-following directions for coloring the time of his first contact with the ac- cutting, and pasting-he tears off the top tivity.

sheet from the pad of stories with which “3. To provide some means whereby the he is provided and finds there a sma" child may largely teach himself in learning replica of the picture he has made, toto read.

gether with a story about the picture "4. To permit each child to progress as which involves all the new words that he rapidly as his individual effort and ability will permit.”

1 Published by the World Book Company, Chicae

On the Chicago supplementary reading list as numer The general plan is so to arrange mat- 2003, 2003.01-.06.



has been teaching himself while building E. Lane of the Carter School, and Mr. he picture. If his picture is not like the Daniel J. Beeby of the Oglesby School. eproduction, he removes the parts that Their assistance in rearranging classes at re in the wrong places, rereads his direc- request and in administering tests ions, and makes corrections. He then needed is very much appreciated. To the tudies the stories about the picture, with classroom teachers immediately in charge eference to his dictionary if necessary. of the experimental teaching, Miss LeonVhen he feels that he is prepared, he goes ore Mortimer and Miss Margaret J. ɔ the teacher and reads it aloud to her. Connerty, the heartiest thanks are due for This oral reading of the story is a test their effort in mastering the new scheme f the child's ability to recognize the new and their conscientiousness in carrying ords that he has learned during the pic- it out. are-building activity.

In February, 1925, in the Carter School Each child now proceeds at his own rate, the experimental material was used in the nd the thickness of his collection of com- only IB room organized at that time. leted stories (which he keeps in his This was to a slight extent a select group, tory-Book Cover) is tangible evidence at since nine children having a mental age Il times, to himself and to his parents, of of less than six years, according to the is accomplishment. Since the children Detroit First Grade Intelligence Test, nish the series of lessons at different were sent elsewhere. In the Oglesby School mes and reach the primers at different two rooms were organized, the experiates, not many copies of any one primer mental material being placed in one and r reader are needed. The reduction of the other kept as a control room. No inspense for books thus tends to offset the telligence tests were given here at this ery considerable expense for the Reading time, and no effort made to equate the essons themselves. The method of conducting the experi

TABLE I tent was to install the experimental ma

READING SCORES IN JUNE, 1926 rial in a 1B room in each school and to

Detroit Word Recognition Test

Control mpare results secured there with results

Rooms other IB rooms (“control rooms”) in

Oglesby. Oglesby. Norms.

Q3 le same building taught in the traditional ay, and to compare results in both with 01 sults secured elsewhere. Results were

Haggerty Reading Examination easured by means of the Detroit Word

Experimental Room ecognition Test, the only one we could Carter. Oglesby. Norm. Carter. Oglesby. Norm

Q3 scover which is really suitable for a iB ade. This test was supplemented by Qi other, however, for the sake of having

Table I shows the reading ability atcheck. This was the Haggerty Reading kamination, Sigma 1, whose scores refer, tained at the end of the semester. It will

be noticed that on the best of the reading deed, to the IA grade but which was ed in lieu of something better. In read

tests for this age the two experimental g the tables below it should therefore

rooms made exactly the same median remembered that the announced stand score, and that this is very much higher

than the median in the control room or the ds for this test are for the 1A grade.

norm. It will also be seen that, in the Completion of the experiment would

school having two IB rooms, the lower ve been impossible without the encour- quartile point in the experimental room Cement and co-operation given by prin- (12.5) exceeds the upper quartile point in bals of the two schools used: Miss Abby the control room (9.9)—that is, the child






9.9 6.5 3.2

19.0 12.0 7.0

Test I

Test II


5.3 4.2 3.0






only a fourth of the way from the bottom Later it proved to be advantageous, as this was ar of the experimental group could read bet

experiment to test the value of the material and it

method of presentation as outlined in the Teacher's ter than the child a fourth of the way from Manual. It gave an opportunity to observe results

with different types of children. the top of the control room. The two

We determined to give the experiment a fair trial teachers were of approximately the same by following closely the instructions contained in the

Manual after we had made sure that we could accer: ability, but whether the two groups of the the educational principles upon which the lessons at children were so is, as above noted, un

based. known. It is also seen that the lower the children as more important than learning to read

The lessons stress purposeful activity on the part of quartile point in the experimental room is The children learn to read, to be sure, and their readir


From the begir equal to the median score made in Detroit. ning they read for the purpose of achieving a desire The words making up this test are taken result, and so, almost unconsciously, gain control o from those which occur in the 500 com

the reading tool. At the same time the children art

able to test the value of their reading by their succes monest words of the Thorndike Word or failure in reaching their objective. Two importar:

aims of instruction, motive and judgment of values, ar Book and also in ten widely used first fundamental. readers.

Six-year-old children vary greatly in their pre-scho In the Haggerty scores it is again seen

experience and consequently in their funds of general

knowledge. These lessons are so planned that a teache that in Test I the two experimental can successfully handle forty-five children in a class rooms make almost the same score, and

room and yet "respect these individual differences

allowing each child to progress at his own rate. This that they equal or exceed the announced will impress many as impossible until they have tried the standards for children who have been in

plan. The interest of even the slower children in real

ing their own purposes and in making use of past exschool twice as long. The median reading perience in setting up new ends makes for a diferen

' score in the Carter School surpasses its

an easier and a more satisfactory means of pupil ca

trol than that of the conventional schoolroom. The norm by a good deal more than the teacher is a help to the children in meeting nex ds median intelligence score surpasses its

culties and a guide in interpreting their experiences.

When a child has mastered the twenty-nine lese: norm. Regarding any individual child, he has a working vocabulary of 265 words and is at the two tests agree very closely.

to read with little difficulty almost any primer or in

reader. Toward the end of June, one of the slowe In the Carter School a record was made of our group, a small boy who had just completed the of the number of primers and readers com

“Story-Book Pad", was given a book he had not set"

and presented with a page of six lines. He apparet: pleted during this first semester. One studied it, and then looked up. When asked ii he can

read it, he shook his head. “Can't you read any of 1 child read eight primers, four first readers,

he was asked. "Yes", he replied, “I can skip the yo and three second readers; four children I don't know." With the exception of the initial ve read eight primers and three first readers

"Where", in one of the sentences, he easily read to

page. This word was not in the vocabulary oi tha each; five children read six primers each; Picture-Story lessons and he lacked the power of twelve children read four primers each;

majority of the class to make out the new word:

power developed as a result of some drill in phon't seven children read two primers each; and His ability to attack a new and, for him, somesta: six children read one primer each.

difficult page of reading matter was most gratuiti

as he had earlier shown little power of concentratice The most important outcomes of this Our conditions for carrying on the experiment **

far from ideal. The May moving too

heavy toll. 4 experiment—the development of such

that time we lost ten of the forty-five who began the things as initiative, self-reliance, social lessons in February. An epidemic of whooping cost consciousness, etc.—were not measured.

and one of measles depleted our ranks for weeks at

time. The individual rate of progress, however, a At present we have no instruments for abled children, absent from six to eight weeks ** measuring them. These have to be esti

whooping cough, to take up the work they had left e

no apparent loss of interest. All absentees corpet mated. The recorded impressions of one the twenty-nine lessons before the end of the semest

Miss Smith has made a distinct contribution to of the principals at the end of the first

the material and the method of instruction for price semester are therefore given here.

grades. We hope to see the Picture-Story Rezo

Lessons placed on the Chicago textbook list for READING EXPERIMENT IN THE CARTER use of those who appreciate its possibilities. SCHOOL, FEBRUARY TO JUNE, 1925

lessons, with a classroom library of single copies

primers and first readers, would make an excek By ABBY E. LANE, Principal

equipment for a first grade room. The class of beginners in first grade using the In September, 1925, an improvement of Picture-Story Reading Lessons was by no homogeneous group. At first this seemed unfortunate. the experiment was undertaken. In the




А 22.8 18 0 13.9


B 24.8 14.0

С 16.8 11.4 6.3







1B 1A

2B 2A




18 28

8 8

6 5


[blocks in formation]

Carter School, the Detroit First Grade at the end of one semester equals the meIntelligence Test was given at the begin- dian in Detroit at the beginning of the ning of the semester and the pupils were second year (Table III, column 4). We so divided as to make three rooms of equal also notice that the median score in Room ability. That is, an equal proportion of A is practically the same as the upper bright, of average, and of dull pupils were quartile point (Q3) in the Detroit averageplaced in each of three rooms. The ex- ability group; it is slightly above the perimental material was placed in one upper quartile point in Room C, i. e., the room, in the hands of the same teacher average or middle child in Room A can who had used it the previous semester, read as well as the child only one-fourth and the other two rooms were held as con- of the way from the top in Room C. In rol rooms.?

Room A the lower quartile point (Q1) Table II

exceeds those of the two control rooms by READING SCORES IN JANUARY, 1926

nearly a semester's normal gain—tending Detroit Word-Recognition Test

to show that even the dull pupils learn Detroit Ability Groupings X Y

more when put on their own initiative 13

11.0 under a system of individual instruction 21


4.0 than when taught by the class method. TABLE III

That the teaching in the control rooms INCREASE IN READING SCORES BY was not below average in quality seems SEMESTERS

to be shown by the fact that the median sedian Scores of Y or Average-Ability Group in Detroit

scores of Rooms B and C, when compared on Word Recognition Test.

with the median score in Detroit normal

1B-1A 1A-2B 2B-1A ability group, is practically the same or eginning of Term


slightly higher. ind of Term 12 Table II shows the results of the Word

TABLE IV Recognition Test given in January, 1926. READING SCORES IN CARTER SCHOOL IN {oom A is the experimental room. It is


Haggerty Reading Examination, Sigma 1, Test 1 een that these children make a much

Rooms etter score than those of equal ability


for 1A

Q3 7.1 3.6 1 the two control rooms, and better than


2.8 ne children of average ability in Detroit. Q1 n detail, we see that the median score in Table IV shows the results in January, loom A exceeds the median in Room B 1926, from the Haggerty tests. The same y 4 points. By reference to Table III superiority of the experimental group, is e see that 4 points is about half the revealed here. For example, it is seen that mount of gain usually made in a semester their median score equals or exceeds the i the first year. The median of Room A upper quartile score in the other two xceeds that of Room C, the other control rooms. The median in the experimental nom, by 6.6 points, or by about three- B rooms is slightly above the norm for jurths of a normal semester's gain. The 1A children. iedian of Room A is practically the same In general, the experiments would seem i the median of the brightest group (the to show that the Picture-Story Reading

group) in Detroit,' is points beyond Lessons furnish a very good method for lat of the slow group in Detroit, and

2 The experiment was also continued in the Oglesby irpasses the average-ability group (the School, but serious illness of the principal just at the

group) in Detroit, with which it end of the semester prevented the final tests from being ould naturally be compared, by 6


3 In Detroit the brightest children of each grade are vints, or about three-fourths of

placed in one room, the average pupils in another, and i mester. The median score in Room A

the dullest in another.

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