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teaching children to read. Both with and would be desirable, of course, to put the without the equating of the rooms as to Picture-Story lessons in the hands of the pupil-ability, the results were the same. teachers who taught a control room, and It is true that teacher-ability could not be allow the former teacher of the experiaccurately equated, but whatever differ- mental room to take charge of a contro ences exist would incline to favor the con

room. In this way, whatever teacher diftrol rooms. In one school the teachers ferences there are could be "rotated out" were believed to be of about equal ability; It may be possible in the future to do this

. in the other the teacher of the experi- though it would seem to be a little more mental room was at any rate the youngest than making assurance doubly sure. and least experienced of the three. It

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THE PRE-SCHOOL CHILD AND THE

PRESENT-DAY PARENT By ARNOLD GESELL, Director of the Yale Psycho-Clinic, Yale University* HE child of pre-school age is being that control should be achieved indirect. rediscovered. He has become a social through his parents.

problem of great magnitude be- The present-day status of family life ir cause society now recognizes that the pro- America is not as discouraging as it is tection of physical and mental health, the often painted. There are many direduction of crime, of mental defect and tressing and disquieting signs of instabidisorder, must begin with infancy. There ity. The startling rise in marital divorce are some 13,000,000 children less than cannot, however, be construed as a decline six years old in the United States, a num- of interest in young children. It means ber not much less than the entire enroll- too many other things. Even the declinir. ment of the public schools.

birth rate has a compensation in the higher The mental and physical welfare of the premium it places on every surviving newpre-school children of today is quite at the born infant. The birth rate in superio mercy of the multitude of individual family strains is falling too low, but infar homes in which these children are dis- life is really not held as cheap as in thtributed. The developmental opportunities earlier days of excessive infant and maof the pre-school child hinge on the ternal death rates. fathers and mothers who make or mar The youth and the young marrie these homes. His fortunes depend on his couples of today are perhaps even a lide parents.

more cognizant of the meaning of parentThe re-discovery of the pre-school child, hood than were any preceding generation therefore, has resulted in the discovery of There is no evidence whatever that chill his parents. The parent, too, has become life is falling into lower esteem. In fac something of a social problem. Indeed, the evidence is just the other way. we are beginning to reformulate the prob- hear too little of the unnumbered, unter lem of the hygiene of the pre-school child alded homes, where wholesome your in terms of parent education and parent people are eagerly seeking every possit. guidance. Although the development of guide to help them rear their

young the pre-school child must be brought more *Abstract of an address delivered before the V.

West Conference on Parent Education at Chicago systematically under the control of society, March 6, 1926.

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right. They are ready for more guidance parental education. It is futile to sidehan society is prepared to give.

step the issues of home life and the diffiAll told, the pre-school age is the most culties of rearing children by maintaining undamental, the most formative, the most a squeamish policy of silence in the public recarious portion of the whole life cycle. schools. fwe wish to increase the physical stamina (2) By developing centers of parental f the nation, we must begin at the bot- training, in connection with kindergartens om, safeguard the physical growth of the and nursery schools. Pre-school education hild from infancy, and make the health should be cautiously extended through the rotection of the pre-school child as uni- kindergarten and otherwise; but not so ersal as public elementary education. If much for its own sake as for the sake of ve wish to increase the mental stamina of the parents of the pre-school children. The he nation and cut down the stupendous great objective should be to assist the pad

of insanity, crime, nervous and home and the parent, not to displace mental defect, we must strike near the them. oot and institute preventive measures of (3) By instituting periodic developnental hygiene in the earliest years of life. mental examinations from infancy to

One-third of all the deaths of the nation school entrance. These examinations can occur below the age of six years. There are

There are be made through an anticipatory downen times as many deaths during the half ward extension of medical school inspecdecade of pre-school life as during the fol- tion; through health centers, and preowing decades of school life. Most of the school clinics, but best of all through the ommon physical defects of school chil- upward extension of the infant consultaIren, like mal-nutrition and nose and tion center. hroat defects, are more prevalent among The Yale Psycho-Clinic has for several re-school children than among school years been interested in this problem of hildren. Rickets, a disorder of nutrition, standards of mental growth in children of s almost as common as dental caries and pre-school age. Accordingly, we have s essentially a pre-school disease.

made a series of studies of some 500 norPractically every case of mental de- mal children at ten ascending levels of iciency dates back to birth or early child- their development-at one, four, six, nine, 1ood. Three-fourths of all the deaf, a twelve, and eighteen months, and at two, onsiderable portion of all the blind, one- three, four, and five years. Fifty children hird of all the crippled, and over three- were studied at each of these levels to deourths of all speech defectives acquire termine their significant characteristics heir handicap during their pre-school with respect to motor ability, language, seriod. Many conduct disorders and de- general intelligent behavior, personal and ects of behavior take shape in this same social behavior. eriod.

Through a series of motion pictures we Public health leaders and educators have recorded certain phases of our study like realize that if we are to safeguard of pre-school children, designed to show arly mental growth, society must system- both the scientific and practical signifitically institute measures of parental cance of the earliest stages of growth. The uidance and of pre-parental education. infant's mental growth is so swift, so How can this be done?

1A motion picture dealing with the mental growth (1) By incorporating courses in child

of the pre-school child was shown at the Mid-West levelopment and child care into the home Conference meeting. This picture was made at Yale

University with the co-operation of the Pathe Exconomics instruction of youths in high change. For a brief description of the subject-matter chool and college. In time these courses see Vol. 121, No. 219, of the Annals of the American

Academic of Political and Social Science. Philadelphia, hould frankly become courses in pre

1925.

elusive, and withal so familiar, that its five years of These children appea:

age. true wonder tends to escape us. This film on the screen in the order of their ages. is probably unique in the youthfulness of and thus the spectator gets a sequence o: the principals who enact the drama. The cross-sectional views, which build up : youngest subject is just one month of age; cumulative impression of the speed and others are four months, six, nine, twelve, richness of development in infancy. eighteen months, and two, three, four, and

States.

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CULTURAL POSSIBILITIES BY RADIO

By R. R. SMITH, English Department, Chicago Normal College Editor's Note: Mr. Smith is chairman of the National we must study all possible means of Radio Committee of the National League of Teachers' Associations and Illinois State Teachers' Association culture distribution as well as culture i:He has just made an investigation of the educational self, the real and the counterfeit. We must the country. A detailed report of this investigation ap study, as we have not studied before, that peared in the American Radio Teacher, a publication individual in whom we believe, and we edited by Mr. Smith for the National League and distributed at the last meeting of the Department of Super- must show in some way that he is worth intendence of the N. E. A.

much more to society educated in the The June issue of this journal will include a survey of the actual uses of radio in the classrooms of the United fullest cultural sense of the word thar

educated in the tool or vocational senseMERICA has come to a parting of which the “enemy,” the unbeliever, will the ways in education. Up one way

not altogether admit. lie reaction and retrenchment, a

In this article I am not concerned with curtailing of the individual's opportuni- the culture itself. Much is being written ties, a denial of his possibilities-all with about that now; in passing I refer my the excuse that the individual is not able reader to the article in the March number

: to profit by those opportunities that we

of the CHICAGO SCHOOLS JOURNAL b; would curtail for him. It would be sense- James Edward Rogers in which apprecialess for us to close our minds to the tion, another name for real culture, is campaign being carried on by the advo- treated. Nor am I in this article concates of this restriction program; and it cerned with proving that the culture would be equally senseless for us to do individual is worth more to society thas otherwise than give restriction advocates the uncultured one. I am going on the credit for being honest in their arguments assumption that you and I, after the fire for restriction. Up the other way lie hope experiment that we have made with deand expansion, an increasing of the in- mocracy over a century and a half, believe dividual's opportunities, and increasing that this culture so extolled by Vi belief in his potentialities–because we Rogers really should be a part of ou: are convinced that the individual has not democratic education. Such yet had much of a chance to show his sumption leaves us face to face with the capacity to profit by opportunities. It is question of culture distribution. our business, if we wish to go this way, to After all, that is now the vital question carry on a campaign more energetic than for many reasons of which the followin that carried on by restriction advocates, two are major ones: 1. The “enemy" and we must believe in the justice of our succeeding in closing the doors of college cause in a very whole-hearted manner. to all except leaders in our democracy, and

If we are to carry on our campaign of colleges up to the present time, have bezi expansion and win out over the “enemy,” but another name for culture. 2. Just a:

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the “enemy” has taken up the drawbridges cerned with the “ninety and nine” whom around the colleges and universities, mul- the Creator in his great wisdom must have titudes have for the first time taken up considered when he made a world as rich their stand just outside the walls and as this with material comforts enough to have cried for entrance.

go around; and I am concerned with radio What is to be our answer? Are we going as the possible means for distribution of to encourage these multitudes to wait out- that culture. side and continue their clamoring in hope What is this culture—this real culture that the doors will be opened? Certainly that is, in my opinion, the birthright of we are not going to advise them to take the masses? It is a love for music, for art, intelligence tests to prove their lowly for literature; and it is a realization of station and then ask them to go away, values that comes through an understandsatisfied that they do not belong. If we ing of fundamental laws governing the are to tell them to go away at all, and for material and social world—inorganic and the time we may ask them to do so

life-sciences on the one hand and social till we have built more colleges

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science on the other. It is simple; only must offer to bring culture over the college when we come to the hair-splitting inwalls to them. Wisconsin did this a dulged in by victims of too much leisure quarter of a century ago and revolution- and false culture or the sincere exactness ized university teaching ideas. At the of the research worker in art or science do time that Wisconsin did the job she had we find complexity. The finished product to do it in a very laborious manner; she ready for mass use and application is had to send out a teacher bodily into the simple lending itself to world-wide dis“wilderness,” or she had to send out tribution and application. letters from that teacher. Now Wisconsin How will this radio distribution of has a more economical means of culture world culture to a waiting democracy of distribution, the radio. The teacher does a hundred million come about? Will it be not have to go in person to take his a commercial venture in which culture is culture over the college walls, nor does he sold, a dollar down and a dollar a week, have to depend upon the written letter. or will it be another adventure in AmeriHe just talks into the air and thousands can democracy in which culture is listen in; thus is solved the problem of distributed via the radio as a common obculture distribution. Culture has become ligation in which the expense is borne by as free as air, a culture for the multitude, the entire group-a venture like the public not just for the elect.

schools, parks, and playgrounds? Or will This is not a dream; it is very real. As it be a commercial by-product for the I write my article America is beginning to distribution of which the ultimate conreceive her culture via the air in mass sumer pays but does so in an indirect deliveries instead of in homeopathic doses. manner? Her culture is coming to her on the whole- It is too soon to give more than a tentajale plan, the only way it can come if a tive answer to these questions. Difficulty hundred million people are to acquire in measuring the distributed goods takes culture. I realize that this philosophy will this distribution out of the class of purely ind little favor with those cultured men commercial ventures. The dollar down ind women who look upon culture as some- idea is applied to the selling of receiving hing so limited in quantity that if one sets; but so far as I know there is no adeDerson has it the other person has to do quate method of applying such a practice vithout it. ... the people who want an to the culture to be received via the air iristocracy of culture. I am not especially through the radio set. It seems to me concerned with them. Rather I am con- from the data at hand that expense for distribution will be met in one or the other a leadership that since then has grown to of the latter ways. Either the public will a dominant position, the press. To be pay for it directly, as for any other com- sure, at that time James had reference mon luxury like a park, or as a by-product primarily to the "ten cent" magazines, which seems to be free but which is in while I have in mind here not on! reality paid by increased prices of radio these literary ventures but more especially sets and other commercial products sold the great newspapers; but they are a par as a result of broadcasting. One thing is of the same leadership which is really a sure: The public will have to pay. part of democracy itself. I come then to

There is some indication that the whole this question: Is it not possible that this proposition may be taken over as a part big national air university, arising to of the extension program of America's supply the cultural desires of the many great state universities. Already there is who are now knocking at the doors o: a sort of superchain of university broad American colleges and are not welcome casting stations bound together in The within the walls—will be under the Association of University and College leadership of America's newspapers ani Broadcasting Stations. In this association magazines? Certainly there are indicathere are thirty-two colleges and univer- tions leading one to believe this will come sities. A dozen of them are big state uni- about, in which event this radio distribuversities, aggressive Wisconsin, with her tion of world culture will be a commercial record for taking education to a democ- by-product for which the ultimate conracy, heading the list. These schools are

sumer pays but pays in an unnoticeable

, scattered over the country in strategic indirect manner. positions—from Maine to Montana, from In conclusion we may sum up

what i Wisconsin to Mississippi; east, west, have tried to show in this article: 1. There north, and south we find them, and in the are two movements, one of restriction, the Mississippi Valley, making a real Na- other of expansion; the one would close tional Radio University able to reach an the doors of culture to all save leaders of a entire nation during any given quarter of democracy, while the other would di: an hour.

tribute this culture “even unto the least of This air university of the United States them.” 2. Real culture, consisting in a is a part of her public school system and love and appreciation of the beautiful in offers educational possibilities in demo- music, art, and literature, and in an undercratic education not before dreamed of standing of the application of science : even by democracy's most ardent sup- living, is simple. 3. This simple culture porters.

may be distributed to a waiting people of But will this national air university be a hundred million via the air. 4. Such disworked out under leadership of great state tribution may come through the leadership universities as a part of this nation's of America's great state universities of public school system?

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essay may come through the leadership 09 written long before the day of radio, America's great newspapers and maza. William James deplored the danger of a zines. new educational leadership in democracy,

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