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remolding all of the matter and forces in is history it has not been entirely free from the educational systems of America. such tendencies. Insofar as the establish

As one who has been engaged as a ment of a permanent home for this Assoteacher and an administrator in public ciation at Washington creates a better education for over forty years, and who means for keeping the Association unfethas been a member of this Association for tered and untrammeled, it is to be coma third of a century, I want to pay my mended. Insofar as the employment of respect to the young men and women who permanent officers who have a continuing are constantly infusing new life blood into abiding influence on the programs and the the veins of public education, who by con- policies of this Association tend to keep stantly aligning themselves with this the educational waters stirred, tend to great Association help to keep off the chill keep it free from restraining influences

, of old age and break up the incrustation such a policy of employment should be of conservatism which tends to come to continued.

continued. But we should be ever on our every institution. My congratuations to guard against that human tendency the young men and women who are un- towards stratification into bureaus and afraid, to those who see no lions in the commissions and groups which seek to way that cannot be overcome. In your perpetuate their ideas and their plans, successful efforts to reshape and recast the whether such ideas and plans meet with systems of public education in this Re- the changing thought of the Association or public, you are the real builders of the not. Let us keep it an open forum where commonwealth. This is the Olympus on all matters are considered and settled in which you as modern Vulcans are to forge the open. Let us keep its door of opporand shape the instruments of a newer and tunity open to all. Let us do all to prea better educational system.

serve and strengthen this Association as a In conclusion, may I ask of all you living, dynamic force for reshaping, reyounger members of this Association that molding American education to meet the you here highly resolve that this Associa- expanding needs of the expanding Retion itself shall not become subject to public. these incrusting, stratifying influences. In

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Photo by Ralph M. Kroscher-Gibson Studios WHITE LIGHT FLOODS THE CITY'S CLOCK TOWER

Close on the north embankment of the river the Wrigley Building commands the Boulevard

GENERAL EDUCATIONAL NEWS

AND COMMENT

The Bureau of Education of the De- for 547,648 pupils. The number of pupis partment of the Interior has published a enrolled in the schools is about 489,000; report on the Irish Free State prepared by the percentage average daily attendance to the Department of Education of that the average on the rolls for the whole country. According to this report the country is 71.8, but it is very much higher constitution of the Free State provides in the chief cities and towns.” (In this free elementary education in the national connection it may be stated that bills have schools to all citizens. The report in part been introduced for the enforcement of follows:

compulsory attendance and for the com“The national schools are undenom- pulsory teaching of the Irish language). inational, in the sense that they are “The number of primary teachers is apopen to the children of all creeds, but, in proximately 13,500, and of these all the general, they are managed by the local men and the vast majority of the womer clergyman to whose faith the majority of have undergone a full course of training the children of each school belong. The for the profession of teaching. salaries of the teachers and the grants for “There are five State-aided training colinstruction are paid by the State. The leges which were supplied with students only financial liability resting on the local under the English government by the managers is the provision of the cost of monitorial system. The present governthe equipment, repair, and maintenance ment is taking steps to substitute for this of the school buildings, and, in general, system the more modern one of preparathe provision of one-third of the cost of tory training schools similar to those that the erection or improvement of school- exist in France and Germany. The course houses.

of training in the training colleges is of “The national language of the State is two years' duration, and the number of the Irish language, but the English qualified teachers issuing from the colleges language is equally recognized by the con- each year is approximately 320. stitution as an official language.

“Arrangements exist under which teach“Since the establishment of the State the ers who have completed their course in Irish language has been included as an one of the training colleges may attend a essential part of the curriculum for all university and obtain a diploma in educanational schools, and special courses of in- tion, a degree, or a higher diploma in edustruction in Irish have been held each year cation. since 1922, at which approximately 5,000 “The estimated State expenditure of teachers have already qualified to teach educational services is about £4,400,000, the language. The use of Irish as a me or about one-sixth of the total governdium of instruction in the teaching of other ment expenditure. Of this amount

, about subjects in primary schools has also £3,650,000 is expended on elementary largely increased and is being encouraged education and £260,000 on secondary where it is obvious that this can be done education. The secondary education syswithout injury to the general efficiency of tem differs in many respects from the the teaching

primary. Although it is financed to a “The latest statistics available show that very large extent by the State, the schoo: the number of national schools in opera- of this system are under private contro tion is 5,659, affording accommodation and are not free schools or undenomina

onal. Practically all the Catholic sec to branch off from the general education idary schools are conducted by religious he has hitherto received and to select ders. The non-Catholic secondary those subjects which have a special culhools are usually owned and managed tural and educational value for him or 7 private boards. The number of sec- have a definite bearing on his future ndary schools (on October 1, 1923) was career. 31; and the number of pupils, between le ages of 12 and 19 years, in attendance The World Conference on Narcotic as 22,156.

Education, which will meet at Philadel“The secondary system was until re- phia July 5 to 10, 1926, has been arranged :ntly entirely disconnected from the pri- to organize the agencies of society to comlary system, with the result that there bat the menace of narcotic drug addiction as no co-ordination of method, aim, or through education. The advance proirection between these two important spectus and tentative program of the conranches of education.

ference estimates that there will be 5,000 “Since the establishment of the Free delegates, representing the municipal, protate, however, the new Department of vincial and state, and national and imducation has put into operation a com- perial governments of the world. Although lete co-ordination of the two systems, the committees and special groups will ith the result that one unified education meet at the Bellevue-Stratford hotel, the ads up now from the infant school to the meetings in the Exposition Auditorium, nd of the secondary stage. The aim of the seating capacity of which is 20,000, his reorganized system has been to supply will be open to the public. sound general education to all boys and

The first two days are to be devoted to irls up to the age of 14 and to as many as

and to as many as the data of narcotic education, and the ossible up to the age of 16, and for this last three days to the agencies and methurpose so to conduct the primary and ods of narcotic education. According to econdary systems of education as to abol- plans, the various programs will be orh the gap that hitherto existed between ganized by_such organizations as the hem.

American Bar Association, American “This object has been attained by Medical Association, Parent Teacher As1. Freeing both systems up to the age sociation, National Education Associaf 16 from excessive specialization and tion, the Motion Picture Producers and com a smattering of a variety of subjects. Distributors Associations, and various

2. By arranging the program in both college and scientific organizations. ystems for pupils between 12 and 14 on To overcome the lack of public knowluch lines that a pupil can go straight edge resulting from extreme secretiveness arough from one system to the other of the victims and the activities of addicrithout any violent change.

tion, and to focus attention and thought 3. By basing the educational program upon the subject, a series of competitive n the subjects of main importance to awards, expressed by medals and money, rish boys and girls, viz: Irish, English, are planned for youths and adults for lathematics, history, and geology, and essays, cartoons, and studies in all fields. imple science, especially rural science. In view of the development of the synOther subjects, such as classics, modern thetic manufacture of narcotic drugs and inguages, commerce, etc., naturally play the fact that official estimates place the n important part in the program for sec- number of drug addicts in New York City ndary schools, but not such as to crush alone at 200,000, the problem has become ut the main subjects.)

a pressing one for the United States. “After the age of 16 the pupil is allowed Congress has voted appropriate participa

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tion of the federal government in the con- guidance work in the twelve cities studied. ference. It is believed that great interest The emphasis lies in different directions in will be shown by all civilized countries, as each city and in no two cities are the orindicated in Article VII of the Agreement ganizations similar. Insofar as possible

, of the first Opium Conference of the the report is written in such form as to League of Nations at Geneva: “The con- make comparison easy and to enable one tracting parties shall use their utmost to follow through any given phase of the efforts by suitable instruction in the work in each city. It must be borne conschools,” etc.

stantly in mind, however, that vocational The advance headquarters of the confer- guidance is developing, that what was the ence is located at Room 192-A, House practice in 1922 is not carried out in 1926. Office Building, Washington, D. C. This is strikingly true of the work in Chi

cago, where one hardly recognizes the buIn the winter and spring of 1922 the

reau described in the report as the bureau Federal Children's Bureau and the Junior of today. Division of the United States Employment Service made a study of existing practices The Walter Hines Page School of Inand policies in Vocational Guidance and ternational Relations will open next fa!! Junior Placement in twelve cities where at Johns Hopkins University with an vocational guidance had reached a suffi- initial endowment of one million dollars. cient stage of development to make such The movement is headed by Owen D. a study worth while. A 440-page report, Young, internationally known for his serentitled Vocational Guidance and Junior vices on the committee of experts that Placement (Children's Bureau Publica- formulated the Dawes Plan. tion No. 149), was published last year by A great body of information must be the United States Department of Labor. created and mobilized in some single place

The twelve cities surveyed were Boston, about all the questions which affect interNew York, Chicago, Cincinnati, Philadel- national relations. Some of these probphia, Pittsburgh, Minneapolis, Seattle, lems are economic; some of them are Rochester, Atlanta, Providence, and Oak- historical; some are geographical. land. The study was intended as a sum There are experts in all these fields, but ming up, a stock taking, rather than an it is doubtful if there exists a man whose evaluation. It was felt that a time had business it is to interrelate them. There been reached when the tendency was

are schools that teach many aspects of inpretty general for boards of education to ternational relations, but none that is establish guidance work as a part of their comprehensive, devoted solely to this vast school programs or to take over such work subject. And, certainly, there is no single started by private philanthropic enter- place in the world, whether library or uniprises.

versity, where anybody can go and lean Part I of this survey is an introductory all there is to be known of these fundasection setting forth various phases of mental facts and interrelations. school organizations and their bearing The Page School will become such a upon guidance work and indicating gen- place. It will have a three-fold purpose: erally accepted practices in vocational (1) Develop a science of international reguidance. The school organization and lations, (2) ascertain the facts as far as the curriculum, mental measurements, they can be found on any particular probschool counseling, child labor laws, place- lem, and (3) produce a continually growment, and occupational research are some ing body of individuals trained in that of the topics covered.

science and available for service in goverPart II, the major portion of the report, ment, business, or education.- Journal of is concerned with accounts of vocational Education.

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