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IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS By FRANKLIN BOBBITT, Professor of Administration, College of Education,

University of Chicago* ECONDARY education, like all edu- health education is making these funcation from kindergarten to graduate damental factors fairly clear. It is our

schools, is being redirected. High purpose here to present about fifty specific school is for giving a specific type of human statements which seem, at least, to represervice. Its purpose is to improve the sent the direction of professional thought quality of human living.

relative to the nature of the fundamentals We used to think that secondary educa- of education in this field. We are stating tion was for the purpose of storing the the matters with a good deal of overlapmind with prepared packages of knowl- ping in the thought of the several stateedge; and that fifteen packages, stored ments in order that each may assist in away without undue evaporation, consti- making the others clear without any tuted one full-sized secondary education. great amount of explanatory discussion: Even yet, in this modern age, that is still 1. Education is to promote the quality the prevailing conception. But in the re- of human living. organization of a secondary education, of 2. This human living takes place at all which nowadays we hear so much, this ages and stages of one's life. Education archaic academic conception is being sup- is therefore to improve the quality of huplanted. More and more we are coming man living at every stage of human existto see that education should be the whole- ence, from infancy to old age. some upbringing of human beings, to the 3. Health education is to improve the end that they may live wholesome human quality of one's physical living; and of all lives. We are coming to see that the object- i those intellectual, emotional, and social ive of education all along the line is whole- matters which are bound up with one's some living; and that the means of such physical living. education can be nothing other than 4. This physical living takes place at all wholesome living.

ages. Health education is therefore to Health education in our high schools improve the quality of one's physical livhas been much neglected. In proportion ing from infancy to old age. to need, it is greatly undeveloped. In the 5. The objective of health education is quite evident expansion of community un- not a mind stored with knowledge; but derstanding and appreciation of health : rather the process of living continuously matters, it cannot be said that the high and consistently in a physically wholeschool has contributed its proper portion. some manner. The objective is a process.

But there are compensations. As a con- not a stored body of inert information. It sequence of this under-development, sec- is a process that goes on for seventy years. ondary health education has no great

6. This central educational process, apbody of crystallized academic traditions plicable to all fields of education, is repreto hamper the development of a modern sented by the old dictum-old because program.

universally recognized as true—that one In formulating such a program, the first learns to do by doing.

learns to do by doing. One learns the step is to take a general over-view over the

process of living wholesomely by long conentire field and to note the fundamental

*Read before the Health Education Conference, the factors. The abundant literature of University of Chicago, June 22, 1925.

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tinued and consistent wholesome living. for physical education will discover the This is the fundamental principle of all specific things which each needs to do by education of whatever type.

way of maintaining the process of physical 7. The fundamental process of health living upon a high level. education is healthful living. Everything 14. The business of health education is else is but contributory to this one funda- to take in hand this physical living of each mental thing.

separate pupil and to perfect it so far as 8. Health education results from right may be, and to keep it perfected, curphysical living one hundred sixty-eight rently, and continuously. hours each week, fifty-two weeks each 15. Education must find a way effectyear, for all the years from infancy to full ively to influence the living of boys and maturity. Health education results from girls during the one hundred and forty continuity in right living.

hours each week while they are not in 9. One's life is one's curriculum. What school. This appears to be the major prois not a portion of one's life cannot be a fessional task as regards health education. portion of one's curriculum. A certain It demands an educational technique portion of the whole may be taken and ad- which as yet has been very imperfectly deministered by the schools; but in so doing veloped. Born in the cloister, schools have this is to administer but a part of one's tended to operate as cloisters. total curriculum.

16. In organizing human life as educa10. From this point of view, there are no tion for education, this isolation of the such things as extra curricular activities. school must be abandoned. Whatever one does, whether in school or 17. Right physical living is to be a matout, is irrevocably molding the man or the ter of individual self-direction in the maxiwoman. Education is concerned with mum measure possible; and of profeswhatever shapes the development of the sional direction only in the minimum individual. The so-called extra curricu- degree necessary for maintaining pupillar is a part of the actual curriculum; activities on a proper level. sometimes the more important part.

18. The schools will provide the condi11. Right physical living is not a gen- tions of the greatest possible self-direceral abstract thing, but rather the per- tion; and then see that that self-direction formance of a great number of quite spe- is exercised. cific and concrete activities: (1) Food ac- 19. As parents delegate responsibility to tivities; (2) Oxygenation activities; (3) the schools for supervising the children's Physical exercise; (4) Sleep; (5) Tem- life activities for thirty hours each week, perature regulation; (6) Gu'arding

(6) Guarding they do not and cannot give over their reagainst invasion by micro-organisms; (7) sponsibility for supervising their children's Maintaining personal cleanliness; (8) activities during the other 138 hours per Guarding against accidents; (9) Care of week. For the effective accomplishments the teeth; (10) Care of the eyes; (11) of the needed results, they are responsible Care of ear, nose, and throat; (12) Care for the co-operative supervision of the of other specific organs; and others be- child's physical living. However much sides. For our guidance, the list should they may neglect this responsibility, they be made as complete as practicable.

cannot shift it or evade it. 12. One performs these many activi- 20. The work of the school is finished ties as an individual, and within individ- when the growing individual can of himual situations. One lives as an individual. self consistently and continuously hold to

13. Through individual physical exam- right methods of physical living. ination and analysis of the nature and 21. The power of self-guidance in sucsituation of each pupil, those responsible cessful health care is a major objective of


as an integral portion of the activity itseli 22. The power of self-guidance is de- —the planning and guidance portion. . veloped through the year-long and gradu- 26. The specific intellectual activities ally increasing exercise of self-guidance. involved are rooted in and grow out of

The responsibility of the school for di- man’s master activity of general, sponrecting the health activities should be an

taneous, and non-purposive VISION. ever-diminishing one.

27. From infancy to maturity there Self-direction requires that the indi- should be an ever-widening vision of the vidual know what is right procedure. Ob- matters within man and without man viously there is something that must be which relate directly or indirectly to his prior to, and back of, the practical and physical nature and well-being. year-long health activities.

28. In its original form, this vision of One must find out how to act. In the reality should be an activity for its own main one ought to get this by associating sake wholly, and with no consciousness of all through one's growing years with more its values for guidance. mature persons who are performing health 29. For providing this vision, there activities in the ways in which they ought should be much revealing reading. to perform them. The basic training in 30. The various possible fields of huways of doing things is the contagion of man vision are of unequal degrees of relatively unconscious social imitation.

practical value. In those fields related to 23. The major factor in right physical health the values are great. living is the intellectual guidance that is 31. The fields of vision are of unequal provided by health science. The thinking, appeal. When rightly revealed, however

, the planning, and the current guiding are those that lie as background to health indispensable portions of the activities. understanding are of unusual interest. 24. The growing individual needs first

32. Vision cannot be compelled. the guidance of good example. For the 33. The program of the activity here highest results he should continuously as- called vision cannot be drawn up in the sociate with those who, habitually and service of any specific department of pracrelatively unconsciously, supply right ex- tical affairs. It is a background of all of amples of physical conduct, and who also them at one time. So far as it must have supply example of the interests, under- regard for practical activities, it must have standing, and valuations of proper health for its use a statement of the needs of all conduct.

of them as its program is formulated. The culture gains of civilization are 34. The reading materials needed for crystalized in conduct. The growing in- vision of things related to health should dividual needs to be a continuous viewer be selected as a part of a comprehensive and reader of this conduct. Here he reads reading program which relates to all imhealth science, not in its raw state, but in portant fields of vision. its finished form. He reads it not as it 35. The need of health care activities exists embalmed in a book, but as it exists is a universal one. in living form in the current vision of 36. The need is a continuous one. those who are setting the patterns of con- 37. Health training is a basic need. It duct—both practical patterns and intel- cannot be elective or optional. lectual patterns.

38. The high school science department 25. For consistent self-guidance, the pu- 'cannot properly perform its part in health pils need a clear intellectual view of the training until it has reformulated its purthings involved in the several fields of poses and processes in terms of human health activity. In other words, they need living. the necessary technical information, but 39. To generalize that statement, no

department of the high school is prepared cation should be formulated without refto perform its proper share in the health erence to existing departments. After this training program until it has formulated is done, the responsibility can be distribits purposes and processes in terms of hu- uted to the several departments to which man living.

the portions are appropriate. 40. The general program of health edu

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Examinations of Teachers N GIVING a physical examination to by individual, to ascertain asthenias, any group of persons it is, of course, asymmetries, irregularities, abnormali

taken for granted that the objective ties, all degrees of departure from normal, aimed at will determine the kind of exam- with the object in view of subsequently ination given, its scope, the factors selected instituting corrective, ameliorative, and for uniformity in emphasis, the relative normalizing measures, then indeed we distribution of time consumed by each need not inform you in advance that this item canvassed, and finally the correct in- is work done in the field of education and terpretation of the findings in each indi- that in its wildest connotation. vidual of the group, in the light of heredi- Just another pertinent preliminary retary factors, social and racial history, per- mark needs to be made anent physical exsonal history, and total health history. aminations, viz: that there are all degrees

Thus, if the object be to determine the and kinds of procedures from mere casual total expectancy of life-span, as in life in- and surface inspection to the most minute surance prerequisites, the emphasis in ex- and skillful use of all available instruamining will be essentially different in ments of precision for such aspects of many factors, as well as in viewpoint, from life as are measurable, anthropometric, that carried out in finding the physical sensory, movement-action (internal and working efficiency of the body as a whole external), physio-chemical and bio-chemand its parts, such as many industrial in- ical, and including even mental make-up surance examinations insist on; and and personality complexes, and, be it again, both of these types of examinations added again, all to be interpreted in the differ in many essential respects from ex- light of a complete personal history of each aminations designed to work out a group, subject-case. familial, or individual health program for Judged from the standpoint here outgeneral health and capability on the broad lined, the factors, facts, and findings which lines of nutritional demands and variant I shall here present to you may seem subodily reactions thereto.

perficial indeed, but they are constant as If, however, the standpoint is stated well as reliable within the scope intended, frankly in its' objective as examinations and are believed to carry their own import for the purpose of physical development, for general educational interests, and then indeed we at once note a decided de- moreover are suggestive in a special way parture from all other ends and opera- for teachers of physical education in high

schools. When a group is examined, individual The data presented were collected from


the routine physical examinations of re- at, or in other words and negatively, what cent high school graduates, who elected to defects disqualify from entrance, it is to prepare themselves for the vocation of be noted that emphasis was placed on the teaching in elementary schools of Chicago following kinds of data: and had passed the required academic ex- Family History: In the usual health aminations for entrance to the two years records there were taken the ages, occucourse of training in the Chicago Normal pations, and vocational attainments of College. The usual procedure is that each family, immediate and antecedent, the candidate to be admitted by the Board of health history of each member, and the Examiners of the

of the City must first like. The anthropometric data were limpresent a card from the physical examin- ited to height, height-sitting, weight, ers indicating that the candidate is ac- strength of grip and manual index oi ceptable.

strength and vital capacity. Because of the frequency of appearance The sensory tests of vision and hearing of certain kinds of defects which caught were given. The former were limited to the the eye and engaged the attention of the usual ophthalmological examination for physical examiners, I became convinced acuity and muscular control, and the hearthat it was worth while to assemble the ing tests extended to cover inspection of data from the records of the entering the auditory-organ and tests of functional class in February, 1925. Two hundred reactions to voice, tones, and noises. and sixty-six of the 315 class applicants In the distinctly medical features of the belonged to the special group under con- examination, data were collected on gensideration-recent graduates from city eral nutrition and diathesis; on the inpublic high schools, parochial schools, and tegumentary system, skin, teeth, nails, Cook County schools. It would be an hair; the nervous system, with special refeasy matter to increase this number by erence to history in sanitaria, hospitals, of near sixty times from my files, but the any specific derangement, nervous peculirepresentativeness of this particular class arity or mental disability or disorder that is highly typical of conditions obtaining might prove prejudicial to efficiency in for twenty-five years from year to year in teaching as a vocation; the respiratory Chicago, and, according to my data, of system, as to obstructions, rate, and charhigh school graduates from other cities. acter of breathing; glandular system, par

The most general statement of the re- ticularizing with reference to enlargement quirements for admission from a physical of lymphatic glands, abnormalities of viewpoint centered primarily about the thyroid or other members of the endocrine physical efficiency demanded nowadays system and tonsils; vascular system, emin the vocation of an elementary school phasizing rate and character pulse, standteacher in any or all the varied lines of ing, at rest, and after exercise, the heart activity. As a more immediate criterion action as to the presence of murmurs of admissibility there was emphasized, or enlargements, the blood vessels as to first, general soundness of health and blood-pressure and pulse pressure, sitting, physical efficiency to withstand the strain at rest, and rate of recovery after exercise; of travel incident to this school life and the digestive system; and the genitostudy under pressed conditions, and more urinary system. General considerations, immediate still as well as prophetic of such as any deformity as lordosis or future capability, the ability to carry suc- scoliosis or disability from disease or accessfully the required units of physical cident, such as disablement from infantile credits in the prescribed course of study paralysis, or any nutritional disorder, and in their training courses.

finally the personal health history of all As to how these desiderata were arrived diseases, injuries or infirmities, and recor

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