Imagens das páginas

3. Studies should be made of children's interests in

the field of health knowledge. 4. Health education reading materials accepted as

sound, should be compared with the standard reading scales, and, in accordance with these, be assigned to their proper grade level as a means of

assisting teachers in right selection. 5. The practice school itself should be investigated as

an unmined source of health materials, together with its equipment and apparatus, including the children themselves and the entire community, in

its health aspects. 6. The impressions, opinions, and experiences of large

groups of teachers in rural sections and small towns should be collected as a basis of adaptation of health materials.

RESEARCH 1. Health materials should be analyzed for the pur

pose of discovering to what extent they are dynamic and effective in securing desired action on the part

of children. 2. Textbooks should be analyzed to discover causes of

difficulty and factors which impede comprehension. 3. Studies should be made to discover what are legiti

mate incentives as opposed to inducements used in

health education. 4. Ready-made visual material should be critically

compared with original visual materials produced by children with reference to their effectiveness in furthering the aims of health education.



TEACHERS By PAUL I. PIERSON, Science Department, Chicago Normal College HEN a committee of the N. E. A. The elementary school teacher has a dif

selected a list of teaching ob- ferent problem, and in some ways an

jectives they put “Health” first easier one in correlating health teaching on the list. It even preceded “Command with the other work. She can find many of the fundamental processes”. If we ac- useful suggestions in A Program for cept the fact that the health of the pupil Health Teaching in the Elementary is the first consideration, many of us, Schools, published by the Bureau of Eduespecially in the high schools, will have to cation of the Federal Government. It is change our attitude. In spite of much No. 10 of the Health Education Series, propaganda to the contrary, we are still which comprises eighteen booklets. In “subject” rather than “pupil” teachers. addition to this, the Bureau publishes But no matter what our regular subject the School Health Series, the Physical is, health can be taught. Every subject in Education Series, and several miscellanethe high school curriculum can be used ous publications, posters, and charts. The as a means. The University of Iowa has classroom weight record, a cardboard a bulletin entitled Teaching of Health in form, contains space for the monthly High School,' by Belva L. Swalwell, which weights of forty-eight pupils for is full of suggestions. Do you teach Eng- a year, besides weight-height-age tables lish, civics, history, or economics? There for boys and girls. A small price is asked is a chapter on each of these. Chemistry, for many of these publications. Most of biology, physics, and mathematics can all them are five cents; none are over twenty be used in health teaching. Physical edu- cents. cation and the extra-curricular activities Besides the Federal Government, many have their part. While there is no chapter of the state and city health departments, on the use of foreign language in health and the state universities, are fruitful teaching, the chapters on geography and sources of material. The University of economics would be helpful to language

1This bulletin may be obtained from the University teachers, especially where some study of of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa. peoples and nations is made. Probably 2Government publications can be procured from the

Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing malarial fever contributed to the downfall

Office, Washington, D. C. A list of the publications of Rome which led to the extinction of of the Bureau of Health, with prices, may be had by Latin as a national language.

writing to the Bureau of Health, Department of Interior, Washington, D. C.

Iowa has been especially active in health Many commercial companies publish matters. Besides these government agen- health literature. The National Dairy cies there are several organizations that Council of Chicago and the Metropolitan furnish publications. The American Child Life Insurance Company of New York Health Association not only co-operates publish valuable material. A good pupil with the Federal Government, but pub- project would be clipping the advertiselishes many pamphlets, posters, and chartsments of the Metropolitan Life Insurance of its own. These are very suggestive, Company and making a scrap book of them. especially to elementary teachers. Three A series of pamphlets on Health Heroes to fifteen cents a piece will procure them. may be secured from this company. These Another organization is the Woman's are suitable for pupils in senior and junior Foundation for Health, which publishes high schools. a series of six pamphlets called the Posi Lastly, our own Department of Health tive Health Series. The subjects are sug- in Chicago publishes a very good bulletin. gestive of the contents: The Newer Con- Under Dr. Bundesen the character of this ception of Health, The Individual and the has changed. Instead of mortality tables, Community, Nutrition, Mental Health, positive health is emphasized. This bulleThe Heritage of Life, and Recreation. tin will be sent regularly on request, but This organization publishes several other the request must be renewed each year. publications, besides lantern slides for It is not expected that this is an exrent or sale. The slogan of this organi- haustive list of publications. The author zation is Positive Health. Man first gave of this article would be glad to hear of attention to cure of disease, and later be- any other material which is available, came interested in the prevention of dis- either free or at small cost, should this ease. The next higher step is positive happen to fall under the eye of anyone health, not only in keeping well, but be- publishing the same. coming more healthy.

3American Child Health Association, 370 Seventh Dr. Thomas D. Wood has published a Ave., New York City. personal health standard and scale for 4 The Woman's Foundation for Health, 370 Seventh

Ave., New York City. adults by which one may "score” oneself

5Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columwith respect to health."

bia University, New York City.


COMMENT In recent years there has been a distinct common classics by showing that he has confirmation and stressing of the study of successfully passed a special examination Latin and Greek in the secondary schools consisting of two written tests, one in of Europe, according to the reports of the Latin and the other in Greek, and taken American Classical League, of which two years before the baccalaureat." Andrew F. West, Dean of the Graduate The Chambers of Commerce of Lyons, School of Princeton University, is presi- Paris, and Havre heartily support the dent.

movement. The Paris Chamber of ComIn France, “every candidate, when he merce announces, “As for us who take registers for the first part of the baccala- such pride in the profession of commerce, laureat, which is the degree attained by we are also convinced that, to make a secondary school students, must furnish good business man and manufacturer, inproof of a knowledge of the fundamental tellectual culture is never too broad.

In Germany classics “are studied, not garded as a miniature cross section of life for themselves, but because of their his- itself, rather than a place for making torical importance in the growth of preparation for life. It must encourage European civilization.

initiative, independence, expression, and "In Frankfort the first three years of enthusiasm, as well as order, team-work, the course are devoted to French. Latin and the development of the inhibitions." is begun in the fourth year and Greek in the sixth year. The Frankfort plan will The growing tendencies of colleges and probably serve as a model for the ultimate universities to intrust their executive development of secondary education in offices to comparatively young men is very Germany.

noticeable of late. Dr. Little, who suc“In Latin,' writes Dr. Jaeger, the ceeded the late Dr. Marion L. Burton at youth, according to the various stages of the University of Michigan, is under forty. development, acquires the whole range of He is just a year younger than Glenn moral ideas in the various fields. He Frank, former editor of the Century Magacquires religious, political, social, and azine, who assumed the duties of president other ideas—state, right, friendship, love, of the university of Wisconsin this month. constitution, justice, and whatever else The election of Dr. Max Mason to the there may be.”

presidency of the University of Chicago The value of Latin in the curricula of is another outstanding example. the higher technical schools of France is accepted.

At the One Hundred Thirty-seventh

Convocation of the University of Chicago, Before the Department of Health and held in Hutchinson Court on June 16, Physical Education of the N. E. A. at In- Professor Albert A. Michelson, the noted dianapolis, Dr. Thurman B. Rice of the physicist, was appointed to the first of the Indiana State Board of Health made the Distinguished Service Professorships following statement in his address: established as a result of the present

“The process of education is one of de- $17,500,000 program of development. velopment of the mind, therefore mental In raising the new endowment of $6,000,health or mental hygiene is of paramount ooo,the University has sought to obtain speimportance. As soon as we have become cial funds in sums of $200,000, the income reasonably sure that we know what is from which could be applied to the salaries right in the matter of mental hygiene we of scholars of high rank, either already can do nothing less than modify the entire members of the University of Chicago school curriculum to meet its demands, Faculty or men called from other instituif such drastic action should be necessary. tions. This would establish virtually on What shall it profit a child or a man to a ten-thousand-dollars-a-year salary basis gain an education and lose his health or such Distinguished Service Professorships, his mind?

and would confer a special distinction “Whatever else mental hygiene may upon those appointed, in addition to the mean, it must insist that the child in increased income. The plan is considered school be happy, not happy-go-lucky, and also to be a recognition of scholarship perhaps not happy all of the time, but free which will encourage young men to enter and happy enough for normal symmetrical the teaching profession. development. The proper attitude toward “It was considered fitting by the Uniwork, play, love, and religion, the cardinal versity Trustees,” said Vice-President parts of our mental existence, will James H. Tufts, “that the first of these forestall an immense amount of mental professorships should be awarded to a trouble during school life and in subse- member of the present faculty, and that quent years. The schoolroom must be re- the choice should fall upon Professor





Michelson, who has not only gained schedule, classes will be arranged so that world-renown by his studies of the velocity a combination of university study and the of light and other problems of physics, but cultural values of the large number of lecfor years has been an inspiration to stu- tures, concerts, theatres, and operas in dents and men with the spirit of discovery. Boston during the winter season can be

“This Distinguished Service Professor- taken advantage of. The School of Eduship comes about as another instance of cation courses lead to the degree of Bachthe generosity of Mr. Martin A. Ryerson elor of Science in Education and Master of Chicago, formerly president of the of Education.- Journal of Education. Board of Trustees, donor of Ryerson Physical Laboratory, and consistent friend Physical education in schools is required of the University.”

by law in thirty-three states. Thirteen The presentation of this honor to Pro- now have state physical directors of edufessor Michelson, Head of the Department cation, and most of the states have definite of Physics and winner of the Nobel Prize, requirements for the training of teachers the Copley Medal, and other distinctions, and supervisors for this work. One school came on the eve of his departure for gave professional courses in physical eduCalifornia, where he is continuing his re- cation forty-five years ago, but now sevmarkable investigations of the velocity of enty-five institutions offer two, three, or light.-Newsletter, The University of Chi- four year courses, and post-graduate work cago.

is given in many schools. A summary of Boston University School of Education, and supervisors of physical education has

present state requirements for directors under the direction of Dean Arthur H. been issued by the Department of the InWilde, makes another noteworthy depart- terior, Bureau of Education.-Virginia ure, a Week-end College.

Journal of Education. Teachers wishing to work for higher academic degrees or to improve their pro- Kansas claims the first radio commencefessional equipment, but who find it im- ment in history. The Kansas Agricultural possible to carry on full-time university College sent invitations this year to 1,800 work, will be the chief benefactors under “aggies of the air,” students enrol in the new arrangement, although all stu

courses conducted by radio, to attend this dents wishing to train for the teaching notable event in person.Bureau of Eduprofession through week-end collegiate cation, Washington, D. C. work will find the opportunity provided them by the new development. The inno- About half of Pittsburgh's elementary vation will not imply a new faculty or school children are enrolled in platoon new courses of a radically different type schools. Introduced nine and a half years from the regular School of Education pro- ago as an experiment with 1,200 children, gram. It will mean a readjustment of the about 36,000 are now instructed under the courses so that Friday afternoons and eve- “work-study-play plan,” each subject nings and Saturday mornings will be taught by a special teacher in a room spefilled. In this way students will be able cially equipped for the purpose. In a reto carry about one-half as much col- cent pamphlet, “Superopportunities of the lege work as those who attend the entire Pittsburgh Platoon Schools,” the superinweek.

tendent, principals, and teachers describe The School of Education will take an the enrichment of educational opportuniactive interest in the social life of week- ties that have come to the pupils with the end students.

adoption of this plan.-Bureau of EducaFor the convenience of week-end stu- tion, Washington, D. C. dents who may desire to take a less heavy

Duluth, Minnesota, leads the school visual acuity made with standard test honor roll of the American Bankers' Asso- type, so that the manifest deficiencies were ciation in class A school systems—those recorded. Even with these simple tests, having an enrollment of more than 10,000 however, but 63 per cent were found to be pupils. School savings deposits are car- normal in both eyes. Moderate defects ried by 99.7 per cent of the pupils of that were present in 27 per cent of the children, city. In class B, enrollment 5,000 to while as high as 10 per cent had vision as 10,000, Evanston, Illinois, stands first low as 5/10 of standard vision or less in with a percentage of 97.3 pupils partici- one or both eyes. pating in the school banking system.

That school life is in all probability a Pekin, Illinois, leads in Class C, enroll- contributing cause to poor vision is ment 2,000 to 5,000, with a percentage of brought out by the fact that the number 100; and Albermarle, North Carolina., of children with marked defects of vision also with a full 100 per cent, leads in class at sixteen years of age was four times as D, enrollment under 2,000.-Western great as the number at six years of age. Journal of Education.

It is interesting to note that approxi

mately the same proportion of boys as The International Kindergarten Union girls were found to be defective, though held its thirty-second annual meeting in more of the girls had moderate defects. Los Angeles in July. It was a truly in- Generally speaking, also, there were as ternational convention, for there were many defective right eyes as left, though, delegates from all parts of the world. The here again, it was found that at times one program of the convention was a very eye would be perfect along with one seristrong one, the central theme being “Evi- ously imperfect. dences of the Effect of Training in Early This brings us to the most striking porChildhood.”

tion of the whole report—that which tells The convention began with the visiting the story of neglect. Even among the of the kindergarten at the Southern older children, those between fourteen and Branch of the University of California. - sixteen years of age, but 23 per cent of Midland Schools

those needing glasses were wearing them. The United States Public Health Ser- half of standard vision-or less, and there

Of the children having 5/10 vision-onevice recently published a report of their

were 925 in this group, only 10.9 per cent findings of defective vision among a large had been fitted with any kind of correcgroup of children examined for physical tion. Even more deplorable is the fact defects in general. Dr. Taliaferro Clark, that only 22 per cent of those with vision who is in charge of Field Investigations in

as low as 3/10 or less in both eyes were Child Hygiene, directed and supervised wearing glasses, and of those with 3/10 the work, and the report was compiled by vision or less in one eye accompanied by Selwyn D. Collins, Associate Statistician normal vision in the other, as few as 10 of the Service. The examinations, carried on in certain per cent were wearing glasses to help

along the poor eye. eastern localities, included 9,245 native

It rests with the schools to endeavor to white children between the ages of six and eliminate this state of affairs. Regular sixteen in Spartanburg, South Carolina, periodic eye examinations at least once and nearby villages; Frederick County, each year would detect the manifest deMaryland; New Castle County, Dela- fects. The efforts of school authorities ware, and Nassau County, New York, together with 2,535 white children in Cecil should then be directed toward impressCounty, Maryland.

ing the parents with the seriousness of The results of the tests were merely for neglected visual defects, so that all chil

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