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ADVANCED TEXT-BOOK

PHYSICAL GEOGKAPHY

"In considering the study of physical phenomena, not merely in its bearings on the material wants of life, but in its general influence on the intellectual advancement of mankind, we find its noblest and most important result to be a knowledge of the chain of connection by which all natural forces are linked together and made mutually dependent upon each other; and it is the perception of these relations that exalts our views and ennobles our enjoyments."—Humboldt's Cosmos.

ADVANCED TEXT-BOOK

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

DAVID PAGE, F.R.S.E. F.G.S.

AUTHOR OF * INTRODUCTORY TRXT-bOOK OF PHYSICAL ObOORAFHV,' 'INTRODUCTORY AND

AIH'ANIKb TEXT-ROUKS OF fiEOLOUY,* 'HANDbOOK OF GEOLOGICAL TEEMS AND

GEOLOGY,' 'FAST AND PRESENT MFR OF THE OLObE,' ETC ETC.

WILLIAM BLACKWOOD AND SONS

EDINBURGH AND LONDON

MDCCCLXIV

y^2—^-ff.

The Right of Translation w reserved.

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PREFACE.

In connection with his Text-Books of Geology, the Author has long meditated the production of two similar works on the closely-allied science of Physical Geography. The two subjects are most intimately connected—Geology forming, as it were, the groundwork of Geography, and Geography, on the other hand, ;-beconiing the field in which the operating causes of Geology.are most obviously and intelligibly at work. The • ^ev.bfecomes;, -in fact, the complement of the other; and thb>tiifle^i x>{ Geology can hare no better preliminary training than a systematic course of Physical Geography; while the student of Geography cannot more readily ascend to the higher problems of his science than through the teachings of Geology. Though thus closely related, the two sciences may be studied, each on its own basis; and a large amount of knowledge may be acquired respecting the geographical conditions of the world —its lands, waters, and atmosphere; their mutual actions and reactions; the distribution of mineral, vegetable, and animal productions; and the bearings of these on the intellectual and social progress of man—without knowing more of Geology than merely being able to appreciate and apply its more obvious deductions.

Convinced of this, the Author has endeavoured to pro

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