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“ In considering the study of physical phenomena, not merely in its bearings on the material wants of life, but in its general influence on the intellectual advancement of mankind, we find its noblest and most important result to be a knowledge of the chain of connection by which all natural forces are linked together and made mutually dependent upon each other; and it is the perception of these relations that exalts our views and ennobles our enjoyments."—HUMBOLDT'S Cosmos.

ADVANCED TEXT-BOOK

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

BY

DAVID PAGE, F.R.S.E. F.G.S.

AUTHOR OF 'INTRODUCTORY TEXT-BOOK OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY,' 'INTRODUCTORY AND
ADVANCED TEXT-BOOKS OF GEOLOGY,' 'HANDBOOK OF GEOLOGICAL TERMS AND

GEOLOGY,' 'PAST AND PRESENT LIFE OF THE GLOBE,' ETC. ETC.

WILLIAM BLACKWOOD AND SONS
EDINBURGH AND LONDON

MDCCCLXIV

the ba
201. f. 35

The Right of Translation is reserved.

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PREFACE.

In connection with his Text-Books of Geology, the Author has long meditated the production of two similar works on the closely-allied science of Physical Geography. The two subjects are most intimately connected— Geology forming, as it were, the groundwork of Geography, and Geography, on the other hand, becoming the field in which the operating causes of Geology are most obviously and intelligibly at work. The one becames, in fact, the complement of the other; and the student of Geology can have no better preliminary training thán'a systematic course of Physical Geography; while the student of Geography cannot more readily ascend to the higher problems of his science than through the teachings of Geology. Though thus closely related, the two sciences may be studied, each on its own basis ; and a large amount of knowledge may be acquired respecting the geographical conditions of the world -its lands, waters, and atmosphere ; their mutual actions and reactions; the distribution of mineral, vegetable, and animal productions; and the bearings of these on the intellectual and social progress of man—without knowing more of Geology than merely being able to appreciate and apply its more obvious deductions.

Convinced of this, the Author has endeavoured to pro

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