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eral state being in the cities of the North Atlantic Division having from 320,000 to 1,300,000 inhabitants. Here, Philadelphia presents a ratio so far above the general average as to throw some doubt upon the return. The only other city in which an average attendance equal to 90 per cent of the enrolment is secured is Sacramento, Cal. The low percentages of average attendance in New York and Brooklyn are a significant reminder of the hitherto unsuccessful efforts to bring the children of the poor and vagrant classes into the schools. Boston makes a creditable showing in this respect, and if the figures from Philadelphia are trustworthy, that city would seem to have solved the problem of regularity in school attendance.

The per capita expenditures all seem to vary greatly, not only in the cities of one section as compared with another, but in the cities of the same section. The highest per capita expenditures for supervision and instruction are reported from Oakland, Cal.

TABLE 12.—Comparative school statistics of a number of representative cities, grouped ac

oording to population and geographical position.

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Cities containing
from 5,000 to 20,000

inhabitants. North Atlantic Division... Altoona, Pa

Cohoes, N. Y
Gloucester, Mass.

Lewiston, Me
South Atlantic Division ... Wilmington, N.C.

Lynchburgh, Va..
Alexandria, Va.

Macon, Ga..
Northern Central Division. Springfield, II

Burlington, Iowa.
Council Bluffs, Iowa.

Leavenworth, Kans.
Southern Contral Division. Montgomery, Ala ...

Houston, Tex
Little Rock, Ark

Chattanooga, Tenn..
Western Division...... Portland, Oreg.

Leadville, Col.
San José, Cal..
Vallejo, Cal
Oilies containing
from 20,000 to 80,000

inhabitants. North Atlantic Division... Allegheny, Pa.

Lowell Mass.
Cambridge, Mass

Paterson, N.J.
South Atlantic Division ... Richmond, Va..

Charleston, S. C.
Wilmington, Del.

Atlanta, Ga.
Northern Contral Division. Indianapolis, Ind.

Kansas City, Mo
Toledo, Ohio

Minneapolis, Minn
Southern Central Division. Nashville, Tenn..

Memphis, Tenn
Covington, Ky

78 79 67 65 58


7 24 22

14 40
12 89
11 53
21 81
10 86
18 62
14 71

1 81 2 52 1 33 7 75 11 02 4 58 2 72

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14 16 21 25 13 10 21 17 20 19 18 33 16 15 13 14 23 15

79 09

3 55

78, 682 59, 475 52, 669 51, 031 63, 600 49, 984 42, 478 37, 409 75, 056 55, 785 50, 137 46, 887 43, 330 33, 592 29, 720 29, 132 34, 555 21, 420



17 68
13 29
10 61
13 36


4 96 2 15 3 55 5 16

Mobile, Ala Western Division..... Oakland, Cal

Sacramento, Cal.


24 52

4 45


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Oakland owns 20 school buildings and the Chabot observatory, which, with their sites and furniture, are valued at $419,175. The schools are divided into 11 grades, of which 4 form the primary, 4 the grammar, and the remaining 3 the high schools. Special prominence is given to English, and much attention is paid to drawing during the entire course. As a beginning in the direction of manual training, one of the schools has been provided with a complete carpenter shop, in which classes are being trained as wood workers. Both sexes are tanght together, and 6,770 pupils are enrolled, including 120 in an ungraded evening school. The Chabot observatory is an important aid and incentive to the study of astronomy; it is thoroughly equipped, containing a powerful telescope of 8-inch aperture.

San Francisco school-houses are in a wretched condition; but at last there seems to bo a probability that the needed improvements will be made, since the continned efforts of the superintendent in this direction have resulted in the introduction of a specific clause for their provision into the platforms of all the political parties. Careful investigation has shown that the majority of the schools are over-graded, and that pupils are advanced beyond their capacity. This is thought to be the result of abolishing annual examinations. The course of study was modified during the year, and kindergarten methods are more extensively employed in the lowest grades. The time required for the completion of the normal-school course was made two years instead of one, at the beginning of 1885–86, by act of the board of education. One grade in the girls high school receives instruction 1 hour each week in domestic economy, and much interest is manifested in this novel branch. A commercial school is conducted with great success,

San José reports the enrolment in the public schools of 3,000 scholars, an increase of 262 over 1884–85. The number of 612 children of school age has attended private schools only, and 765 have not attended any school during the year. The evening school, which had been discontinued in 1884, was re-opened during the year, and 196 pupils bave been enrolled. In addition to the usual branches, book-keeping, commercial arithmetic, free-hand and mechanical drawing are taught. In December, 1885, tho schools of this city were awarded a diploma for the excellence of their exbibit of work before the State Teachers' Association. The city has appropriated $1,100 for the maintenance during the ensuing year of a kindergarten, the merits of which will be thoroughly tested for the first time here. As an experiment, instruction has been given during the year to some of the pupils in needle-work and wood-carving, and as a result it is proposed to add industrial training to the school course.

The total value of school property, personal and real, owned is $158,500, and the annual cost per pupil, based upon number enrolled, is $15.65, or $1.03 less than the previous year.

COLORADO. Aspen schools are primary, intermediate, grammar, and high, requiring, respectively, two, four, three, and two-years study. Each school year is divided into threo terms of three months each. The rudiments of music and drawing are taught in the lower grades, and book-keeping is embraced in the high-school course.

District No. 2, Denver, employs only experienced teachers, and as a natural consequence of such a wise policy, excellent schools are the result. The course of the graded schools extends over six years. The buildings are all new, and amply provided with arrangements for heating and veutilation. Notable additions have been made to the philosophical apparatus of the high school. Special teachers are employed for music and German.

CONNECTICUT. Bridgeport school registration for 1885–86 has been 349 more than for the previons year, and a corresponding increase in the cost of maintenance is reported. A new school has been opened under 2 teachers, in a rented room, and an average attendance of 90 scholars has already been secured. The sum of $12,000 was appropriated for additions to one of the buildings, and many other improvements of lesser

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