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point in the current reports received up to dato, and shows the ratio of pormally. trained teachers to the entire number employed in the States indicated :

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It is to be regretted that so few normal schools preserve any record of the subsequent career of their graduates.

With tbe hope of exciting greater activity in this respect, statements of efforts made in this direction in two instances are appended to this article (p. 319).

STATE APPROPRIATIONS TO NORMAL SCHOOLS. By reference to column 5 of Table 18, p. 323, it will be seen how widely the States differ in respect to their appropriations for the work under consideration.

Omitting municipal and county appropriations, there were 5 States that appropriated above $50,000 each for the current year, while 4 States appropriated less than $4,000 each.

The full significance of these figures will be more fully realized when they are viewed in relation wiih other conditions as in the following summary:

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a One school not included.

0 Massachusetts Normal Art School not included. In the present state of our information a summary like the foregoing can only be made suggestive. For instance, we have no positive data for a comparison between the number of normal graduates and the number of new teachers required in any given year.

Several years ago it was estimated that 30 per cent of the whole body of teachers change annually; more recent estimates indicate that this ratio is too high for a large proportion of the States. Superintendent Draper, of New York, states that from 3,000 to 4,000 teachers, or from 7 to 10 per cent. of the entire number, are annually required in that State to till vacancies. Probably this would be too low an estimate for the majority of the States, but for the purpose of an approximate statement, 10 per cent. of the whole number of teachers reported has been taken to represent the number of new teachers annually required in the States considered, excepting where the precise number was reported. The comparison serves at least to emphasize the discrepancy between supply and demand in the matter of trained teachers.

Comparisons are hardly allowablo in respect to appropriations, as in some of the States the whole or nearly the whole amount is expended upon normal pupils only, while in other of the States the larger proportion of tho pupils benefited are not in the normal conrses. In short, this, as every other similar study of the educational statistics of the United States, is embarrassed by the want of uniformity in the particulars.

It is a fact worthy of special note that the two highest per capita estimates in the table are for States in which all, or nearly all, the students in the schools considered are classed as normal students.

By reference to Table 18 it will be seen that the appropriations for normal schools in Virginia, as reported, amount to $55,240; but $10,000 of this sum being the interest on the Agricultural College land-scrip fund granted by the State to the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute, hardly seems to come within the definition of a State appropriation, and hence is omitted in the foregoing.comparative table.

The sum total of appropriations for all the States, including $10,000 to Hampton, is $1,228,549.

The view of what the States are doing to secure trained teachers for the common schools would be incomplete without some potice of teachers' institutes.

The most important particulars relating to these agencies as reported for the current year are here tabulated :

TABLE 15.-Statistics of teachers' institutes for 1885–86.

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* Number of counties having institutos. a From report of superintendent to the agent of the Peabody fund for 33 normal institutes. o For the 28 county institutes held duriog 1885 and 1886. c Cost of instruction only. d Stute institutes only. e In addition to these many "educational meetings" woro held.


Course of instruction.-Connecticut Normal and Training School.



Language...... Language and Grammar and com-


English authors (d Literature (with a term).

course of reading). Mathematics ....Arithmetic. Alge- Arithmetic, book

bra ( term) op- keeping. Geom.

etry (term)

optional Science. Physiology, chem. Chemistry and Chemistry and Geology. Review of istry. physics (s term). physics- labora- experiments in tory work.

physics. Miscellaneous ... Geography. Geography, fig. Writing and draw.


ing Didactics...

Methods-fonr sub. Principles of teach. jects.

ing (with a courso

of reading). School practice..

Observation in Practice in model

model schools. schools.

Course of instruction.-State Normal School, Albany, New York.

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Language English grammar English grammar Elocution, compo: Elocution, composi. and composition. and composition, sition, criticism. tion, Englisli lit. elocution, rhet.

erature. oric, Mathematics .... Arithmetic, alge. Higher arithmetic, Higher algebra, ge. Book-keeping, trigbra. algebra. ometry.

onometry, survey.

ing. Physical science. Physiology Botany. natural Natural philoso- Chemistry, geology, philosophy. pby, astronomy, natural history,

comparative anat.
omy, use of micro-

History and geog- Geography History of the History, science of

United States. government.
Drawing., Map drawing....

Free hand and in-
dustrial draw.
ing, kindergarten

Mental and moral


Mental philosophy. science. Religion

Evidences of Chris.


Didactics.. Didactics..
Didactics... Didactice..

School practice..

Teaching in model school.


There are three classes of st udents for whom instruction should be provided.

The first and largest class includes those who wish to prepare for teaching in the common schools in country, town, or city, and who enter the normal school having the minimum amount of scholarship and bot little of that mental discipline which results from a full and efficient course of school instruction. These must learn both the matter they are to teach and the method of teaching it, in the normal school. The school must afford them both academic and professional instruction.

Another class of students for whom provision is made is composed of those who have completed the course of study in high schools and academies, and of those who may not possess the scholarship of the high-school graduate, but who are teachers of age

* From report of the State superintendent, Hon. J. W. Holcombe, for 1885-'86.

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