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Seminaries for training women teachers are of recent establishment in Prussia. The obligatory branches of study in these are the same as for the men, omitting geometry and including peedle-work. French is the optional branch.

The teachers' seminaries of Saxony differ from those of Prussia in several important particulars. Candidates aro admitted immediately from the popular schools, that is, at 14 years of age—and the course covers 6 years—the first 3 years cortesponding to the preparatory course which the student follows for admission to the Prussian seminaryThe official plan of studies for the seminaries of Saxony is as follows:

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Harmony, obligatory in the first year, is optional for the rest of the course. The piano, organ, and stenography are optional.

The law requires that the director and at least a third of the teachers should have pursued superior studies and have passed a university examination. Saxony possesses two seminaries for training women teachers, but instruction in these is not gratuitous. The course of study is 5 years, and the branches are about the same as in the seminaries for men; more time, however, is devoted to language and litorature and less to science and to music, the organ being omitted altogether. Needle-work is included, occupying two hours a week throughout the course. The examination and certificate granting are under the same regulations as those for men. It will be seen that with the exception of pedagogy and foreign languages the studies of the teach. ers' seminaries are those of the elementary schools. Instruction in these branches is carried farther and is of a higher order, but the subject matter is substantially the same. The principle constantly kept in mind is this: “that the instruction which the teachers in training receive should present a model of that which they will eventually give."

FRENCH NORMAL SCHOOLS. It may be of interest to consider also the plan of the French normal schools, which bave been modelled more or less closely upon those of Germany. As organized under the decree of 1881 the French normal schools present the same plan of a single nndivided course. In the main the studies are the same as those prescribed for the elementary schools, but as in Germany tho intention is to secure a broader and more comprehensive view of these subjects. The duration of the course is 3 years; candidates for admission must be at least 15 years of age and must have the certificate of primary studies (certificat d'études primaires).

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It is worthy of mention that in the amount of time given to them languages and iterature exceed mathematics in both German and French training schools.

THE SUBSEQUENT CAREERS OF NORMAL-SCHOOL GRADUATES. In his report for 1887, Hon. E. A. Apgar, superintendent of New Jersey, embodied the record kept by Prof. J. S. Hart, while he was principal of the Normal School of that State, which showed that during the period of his administration 98 per cent. of the graduates entered upon the work of teaching.

Mr. Apgar proceeded somewhat further in the inquiries with the view of ascertain. ing the length of time spent by normal graduates and students in the work of teaching.

From the facts collected he concluded that the average time for normal graduates was 47 years, or twice as long as they were required by their pledges, and the average time for undergraduates 21 years.

'In his report for 1885 and 1886, Chas. H. Allen, principal of the State Normal School, San José, Cal., states that“during the past 3 years an effort has been made to obtain the present address and occupation, and the amount of teaching experience, of every graduate of the normal school.”

In view of the approaching quarter-centennial anniversary of the school a special circular has been issued to graduates, whose purpose is thus set forth in the opening paragraph:

“In July, 1887, the California State Normal School, at San José, will complete the first 25 years of its existence."

Following the example of several Eastern normal schools and the suggestions of the United States Commissioner of Education, the board of trustees and the faculty of the school propose to celebrate this quarter-centennial anniversary by issuing å history of the school and the work of its graduates.

This can be done well only through the help of all graduates, former members of the faculty and the board of trustees, and friends who may be familiar with any part of the history of the school."

The large number of graduates and others interested in the project who have responded already, gives the hopo of very fall information as to the practical results of the school.

PUBLIC NORMAL SCHOOLS The following is a comparative summary of public normal schools, instructors, and pupils reported to the Bureau for the years 1880–86, inclusive (1883 omitted):

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PRIVATE NORMAL SCHOOLS. The following is a comparative summary of private normal schools, instructors, and pupils reported to the Bureau for the years 1880–86, inclusive (1883 omitted):

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Number of institutions..
Number of instructors...
Number of students....

114

112

114

128 790

132

563 17, 354

594 21, 020

655 22, 421

842 23, 005

36 279 8, 524

25, 306

Hon. John Eator is here referred to.

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TALLE 17.--Summary of statistics of private normal schools.

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ED 86-21

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