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oorders. Certificates may be revoked, by a vote of at least tive members of tho State board, for felony or incompetency. The standing of a logally chartered medical coiloge shall not be questioned except by a like vote.

KANSAS.

An act to rogulate the practice of medicine in Kansas was passed in 1879, but bas since been declared unconstitutional. No esaminations have been held under it since 1880.

KENTUCKY.

(Act approved February 23, 1874.] No person may practise medicine in any of its departmonts in this State rho has not graduated at some chartered school of meuicine or who does not possess a certificate from one of the district boards of medical examiners. These boards consist each of five physicians, regular graduates, appointed by the Governor for terins of four years, there being one for each judicial district.

Each board shall hold one regular annual session, and shall examine, in the follow. ing branches, all applicants who desire to practise medicine: Chemistry, anatomy, physiology, obstetrics, surgery, and so much of practical medicine as relates to the nomenclaturo, history, and symptoms of disease. The examiners shall grant to applicants found to possess a fair practical knowledge of the above branches certificates signed by at least three members, entitling them to practise in the district. Certifi cates shall designate the time and the branches the holders are entitled to practise, and shall be issued for not more than five years nor less than one.

(Doctors Pinckney, Thompson, and J. W. Holland, of the State Board of Health assert that in all but a fow counties or districts this law is a dead lotter.)

LOUISIANA.

(Act approved June 26, 1882.) No person shall be allowed to practise medicine or surgery in any of their depart. ments without first making affidavit before a judge, or justice of the peace, or clerk of a district court, or notary public in the parish wherein he residos, of his having received the degree of doctor of medicine from a regularly incorporated medical institution of respectable standing, such degree to bo manifested by a diploma, which must be indorsed as to the standing of the institution issuing it by the State Board of Health.

The State board shall be required to certify the diploma of any medical institution of credit and respectability without regard to its system of therapoutics, and whether the same be regular, homoeopathic, or eclectic. Atfidavits so made shall bo registered n the office of the clerk of the district court of the parish. The State Board of Health shall publish annually a list of all registered physicians and surgeons in the State.

MAINE. There is no law regulating medical practice in this State. Such a law passed the Legislature in March, 1887, but was vetoed by the Governor.

MARYLAND. The only existing act concerning the practice of medicine in Maryland is one providing for the punishment of any person who shall be concerned in producing an abortion.

MASSACHUSETTS. No law has yet beon passed in Massachusetts to regulate the practice of modiciuc.

MICILIGAN.

(Act of September 7, 1883.) Every graduate of a legally authorized medical college shall be deemod qualifier to practise medicine and surgery in Michigan, provided he files with the county clerk of the county in which he intends to practise a sworn statement outting furth the pame and location of the medical college from which he graduated, dato of grailinite tion, length of time he attended the same, and school of medicino to which he belongs, which statement shall be cluly recorded.

No physician shall be ablo to collect in any court pay for professional services reudered, unless duly qualified and registored as above.

MINNESOTA.

[Act approved March 6, 1883.) The faculty of the medical dopartment of the University of Minnesuta shall constitute the Bourd of Modical Examiners. All persons intending to practise medicine wire

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are graduates must apply to this board, which shall issue certificates signed by all its members, and entitling to practise in the State, to all who furnish satisfactory proof of having received diplomas or licenses from legally chartered institutions in good standing.

Non-graduates may receive such a certificate only on satisfactorily passing an examination before the board, of an elementary and practical character, but sufficiently strict to test their qualifications as practitioners.

MISSISSIPPI.

[Act approved February 28, 1882.] No person may practise medicine in this State unless he has passed an examination by a board of censors. There is a board of censors, composed of two sanitary commissioners, for each Congressional district, who hold quarterly sessions. Applicants for license are examined only in the following branches of medicine : Anatomy, chomistry, obstetrics, materia medica, physiology, pathology, surgery, and hygiene. The names of those whose examinations are satisfactory are forwarded to the State Board of Health, which board issues thereupon to such persons licenses to practise in the State.

No discrimination can be made against any applicant on account of the system of practice he may advocate. A holder of a license must have it recorded in the office of the circuit clerk in the county in which he resides. No license may be issued to peripatetic quacks nor travelling charlatans.

MISSOURI.

[Act of July, 1883.) Every person practising medicine in Missouri must possess a certificate from the State Board of Health, The State board sball issue certificates, signed by at least five of its members, and entitling to practise ihroughout the State, to all applicants who shall furnish satisfactory proof of having received diplomas or licenses from legally chartered medical institutions in good standing, of whatever school or system of medicine. Applicants not graduates por licentiates are to receive such certificates upon passing a satisfactory examination before the State board, the examination to be of an elementary and practical character, but sufficiently strict to test the qualitications of the candidates. Every person holding a certificate must have it recorded in the office of the county clerk in the county in which he resides.

(The standard of recognition of medical colleges adopted by the Board of Health is the same as in Illinois. The granting of certificates to non-graduate applicants is viewed with disfavor. Medical schools showing a percentage of graduates to matriculates of 45 or over are required to offer a satisfactory explanation of such excess to the board.)

NEBRASKA. (Act approved March 3, 1881, and amended February, 1883.1 Every person intending to practise medicine in this State must register as a physician with the clerk of the county in which he or she intends to practice. No person shall be entitled to registration unless he or she (1) be a graduate of a legally chartered medical college or institution having authority to grant the degree of doctor of medicine, or (2) can show evidence of having passed a satisfactory uxamination before medical boards of other States created for the purpose of such examination. No person can recover fees for medical services unless registered.

(A committee of the State Medical Society reported in 1882 that this law was virtually a failure, in so far as the protection of the people against quacks was concerned, since it provided no tribunal for determining the genuineness or value of diplomas and licenses.)

NEVADA,

(Act approved January 28, 1875.] No person may practise medicine or surgery in this State who has not received a medical education and a diploma from some regularly chartered medical school. The diploma of a person intending to practise must be exhibited to, and a copy of it filed with, the recorder of the county..

ceived at NEW HAMPSHIRE.

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opy of it filemela Every medical society organized under the laws of the State shall elect a board of censors consisting of three members, who shall have authority to examine and license persons to practise medicine, surgery, and midwifery, and no person shall practise those branches outil he has received a license from some such board. Licenses shall . 1 be issued, without examination, to all persons who furnish evidence by diploma from some medical school authorized to confer degrees that they have pursued some prescribed course of study and have been duly examined. Licenses may be revoked for

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cause. No person may practise dentistry who is not daly authorized to practise surgery, anless sach person has received a dental degree from some institution author. izer to confer the same, or has obtained a license from the New Hampshire Dental Society.

No license is valid until recorded in the office of the clerk of the county where the holder intends to practise.

NEW JERSEY.

[Ad ayprosed March 12, 1890. Every person practising medicine or surgery in this state must be a graduate of sorre legally cbartered medical college or university in good standing, or some med. ical society having power by law to grant diplomas. Such person, before commencing practice, is to deposit a copy of his or her diploma with the clerk of the county in which he or she rerides. So person, unless qualified as above, may colleet fees for medical or surgical services.

NEW YORK

(Act passed May 20, 1880.) The degree of doctor of medicine, lawfully conferred by any incorporated medical college or university in this state, shall be a license to practise physic and sargery within the State after the person holding it has been doly registered in the clerk's office of the county where he intends practising. A person holding a diploma, conferring upon him the degree of doctor of medicine, from an incorporated medical school without the State, mast exhibit it to the faculty of some soch school within the State with such other evidence of his qualifications as they may require. Their indorsement of the diplome will make it a license to practise in the State after the holder has been registered as above. No one may practise under twenty-one years of age.

NORTH CAROLINA.

(Law of April 15, 1859.) No person shall practise medicine or surgery unless duly licensed by the Board of Medical Examiners of the State of North Carolina.

This board consists of seven regularly graduated physicians, elected for terms of six years by the State Medical Society from among its members, unless the General Assembly choose to elect them. They shall examine all applicants for license in the following branches of medical science: Anatomy, physiology, surgery, pathology, medical hygiene, chemistry, pharmacy, materia medica, therapenties, and the practice of medicine, and shall issue licenses, signed by at least four of their number, to such as may be found competent.

Two members may issue a temporary license, good until the next regular meeting of the board. Regular meetings must be held at least once a year. Licenses may be rescinded for grossly immoral conduct.

(It is the intention of the Board of Examiners to adopt a higher standard year by year. In 1886 each applicant for license was obliged to submit to examination in (1) surgery and surgical pathology and diseases of the eye and ear; (2) chemistry aná pharmacy; (3) anatomy; (4) physiology and medical hygiene; (5) materia medica and therapeutics; (6) obstetrics, and diseases of women and children; (7) practice of medicine and medical pathology:')

OHIO.

(Revised Statutes of 1880.1 No person who has not attended two fall courses of instruction of at least twelve weeks each, and graduated at a school of medicine, or who cannot produce a certifi. cate of qualification from a state or county medical society, shall practise medicine in any of its departments within the State.

OREGOX. There is no law regulating medical practise in this state. The secretary of the Oregon State Medical Society said (18-2): “We have had a bill of some kind before the Legislature at every session for the past ten years, and will continue to do so until we succeed."

PEXXSYLVANIA.

[Act of June 1, 1881.) Every person who practises medicine or surgery in this State shall be a graduato of a legally chartered medical school having authority to confer the degree of doctor of medicine; and such person must be registered and file a copy of his or her medical diploma in the oflice of the prothonotary of the county in which he or she resides.

In 1880 thero were 63 applicants, of whom 46 were licensed. They were obliged to answer satis. factorily 66 per cent of the questions. In the future the standard will be raised to 70 per cent.

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No person practising either of the branches of medicine or surgery shall be permitted to enforce, in the courts, the collection of a fee in the practice of any of the branches for which he has not a certificate as provided in this chapter.

VIRGINIA.

(The law first became operative January 1, 1885.) The Medical Examining Board of Virginia consists of 3 physicians from each Copgressional district in the State and ? from the State at large, making 32 members, and in addition also 5 homeopathic physicians, members of the board, except homæopaths are nominated by the State Medical Society and appointed by the Governor.

Every applicant for the practice of medicine in Virginia is required to pass a satis. factory examination before the Medical Examining Board before he can commence practice. Graduates and non-graduates aru snbjerted to the same examination.

Any persou wishing to be "xamined, with the view of practising medicine in Virginia, is required to fill out and file with the secretary of the board a forni of application, stating ago, residence, college where graduated, and date of graduation. The application must be accompanied by a recommendation from 2 citizens of the county in which applicant resides and a fee of $5.

Examinations may be held by the board in session, which is held regularly twice each year, or during the recess of the board by any 3 individual members therhof whom the applicant may select. When before 3 individual examiners a separate and distinct examination on all the branches before each examiner is required.

The examinations are in chemistry, anatomy, physiology, hygiene, medical jurisprudence, materia medica and therapeutics, obstetrics, gynecology, practice of med. icine and surgery. The examiners report to the president, who issues the license.

WEST VIRGINIA.

(Act approved March 25, 1882.) The State Board of Health of this state shall consist of 2 physicians from each Congressional district, who shall be graduates of reputable medical colleges, and who shall have practised medicine not less than 12 years. They are appointed by the Governor, and hold their office for 4 years.

The following persons, and no others, shall hereafter be permitted to practise medicine in this State:

First. All persons who are graduates of a reputable medical college. Every such person shall present bis diploma to the State Board of Health; if it is found to be genuine the said board shall issue and deliver to him a certificate to that effect, and such diploma and certificate shall entitle the person named in it to practise medicine in all its departments in this State.

Second. All persons who have practised medicine in this State for a period of 10 years prior to the 8th day of March, 1881.

Third. A person who is not a graduate, and bas not so practised, desiring to practise shall present himself before the Stató Board of Health, who shall examine him in anatomy, physiology, chemistry, materia medica, pathological anatomy, surgery, and obstetrics.

If be is found qualified to practise medicine they shall grant him a certificate to that effect, and he shall thereafter have a right to practise medicine in the State.

Every person holding ary such cortificate shall have it recorded in the office of the secretary of the State Board of Health.

An itinerant physician, desiring to practise medicine in this State, shall pay to the sheriff of every county in which he desires to practise a special tax of $50 for each month he shall so practise in such county.

WISCONSIN.
There is no law regulating the practice of medicine in this State.

ALASKA.
There is no law regulating the practice of medicine in this Territory.

ARIZONA. It shall not be lawful for any person to practise medicine, surgery, or obstetrics in this Territory unless such person shall have obtained a diploma regularly issued by a medical college in good standing, or udless such person shall bave obtained a license from a board of medical examiners legally existing at the time, and properly qualified to issue such license.

Every person engaged in the practice of medicine, surgery, or obstetrics shall register in the county recorder's office of the county where he intends to practise his name, residence, and place of birth, together witli a true and correct copy of his diploma or license.

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