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years to the musical world as the Organist of WestIn Memoriam.

minster Abbey-the publisher of Notes and Queries,

Mr. John C. Francis, for whose father the late HENRY FREDERIC TURLE.

Editor had felt a very strong regard; the Organist On Thursday, June 28, the anniversary of his of the Chapel Royal, St. James's, an old assistant father's death, Henry Frederic Turle, Editor of of Henry Turle's father; the Editor of the AtheNotes and Queries, passed away from among us, næum ; and the Foreign Secretary of the Royal ere the pages of that week's number had received Society of Literature, who had been entrusted their final revision. Those of his friends who had with the temporary charge of Notes and Queries seen him but shortly before, full of life, and of last week. interest in life and in his work, can even yet scarce Of such a one as Henry Turle, taken from believe that they have lost him.

among us in the full activity of his powers, it An “Old Westminster” by education as well as seems only possible to sum up his career in the by long residence and association, Henry Turle words, “ Consummatus in brevi, explevit tempora felt strongly the historic attractions of the royal multa." church and college within whose precincts he had Our valued correspondent A. J. M. writes :spent so many happy years. Very fitly, he lay in "I ask leave to say a word, prompted only by another church full of historic memories, the private friendship and private sorrow, about the Chapel Royal, Savoy, before being taken to his sad and sudden death of our genial Editor. His last home in Norwood Cemetery. And no less judgment and tact and temper in the conduct of fitly, in the case of one whose reverence for things N. & Q.' were singularly fine and accurate, and ancient was so deep, the service commenced by the loss of them is grievous to us all. But there the Dean of Westminster and the clergy of the are many, and I am one of them, who will feel Savoy was concluded at Norwood by a canon of even more deeply than this. They will feel, as I Westminster, Canon Prothero, a personal friend do now, that they have lost a friend ; a man whose of the late Editor of "N. & Q.". Among those hearty cheerful kindness and personal regard were who had known Henry Turle long and inti- always at one's service and were always welcome. mately, there followed him to Norwood—where His memory will live with that of N. & Q.,' he lies with his father, known for such long which is no light nor trivial touch of fame.”


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H. E. Carrington, Chronicle Office, Bath, 1831.)"

3 vols. VENEZUELAN FOLK.LORE AND GIPSIES. The information as to the leaders of the revolu. written with much ability, and giving a bright of the Indian weed of which so many of his comI have recently been reading again a book tion in South America is often interesting. Simon

Bolívar, the “Liberator," had, it seems, à dislike and interesting account of some very varied

.No author's name is given on the title- patriots were votaries:page, which reads:

"After supper he encouraged a brisk circulation of

the bottle ; for although Bolívar was in general remark“Campaigns and Cruises in Venezuela and New Gre. nada and in the Pacific Ocean from 1817 to 1830; with ably abstemious, he was fur from being rigid in enforcing the Narrative of a March from the River Orinoco to San temperance at his own table. From thence cigars alono Buenaventura on the coast of Chocd; and Sketches of soldier) he had an unconquerable dislike to the smell of

were banished, as (strange to say of a creole and a the West Coast of South America from the Gulf of tobacco."— Vol. ii. p. 244. California to the Archipelago of Chilöe. Also Tales of Venezuela : illustrative of Revolutionary Men, Manners,

The primitive character of the agriculture may And Incidents. (London, Longman & Co. Printed by be estimated from the following:

“ The plough used in the interior of South America is "He was one of that class of Mestizo natives who are of a very primitive construction, as are all the imple called, in many parts of South America, Gitanos and ments of agriculture and mechanics. It is of wood, and Chinganéros, in allusion most probably to the wandering, in one piece, being made of the crooked limb of a tree vagabond way of life they have adopted; for there would selected for the purpose. It is sometimes, although seem to be no reason to believe that they really belong to rarely, strengthened in the share part with iron; but that singular race of outcasts from whom they derive this is not essentially necessary, as the ground is usually their name, and who are supposed to be as yet confined rather scratched up than ploughed. As it has but one to the Eastern quarters of the globe. These people are handle, the ploughman is enabled at the same time to held in utter contempt and abhorrence by all true steer it and to use the goad; he therefore requires no Indians; and not even the meanest tribes among them assistance in guiding his oxen or mules, which are har. will hold any intercourse with the Chinganéros, whom nessed in a very old-fashioned manner. The costume of they consider degraded by their buffoonery to the level the husbandmen, and the appearance of the ploughs, of monkeys. Their agility and humour, nevertheless, drawn generally by a yoke of oxen, strikingly resemble rendered their occasional visits always welcome to the those in the vignettes which are sometimes to be found light-hearted Criollos; and even the supercilious Spain old editions of Virgil's works. The harrows are even niards deigned at times to relax from their haughty gramore simple in their formation than the ploughs. They vity, and to smile at their unpolished gambols. At the are often nothing more than long branches of thorns, hottest periods of the guerra à la muerte the Chin. fastened together, and rendered sufficiently heavy by ganéros were considered as privileged exceptions to the large blocks of wood tied across."— Vol. i. p. 189. general rule, which admitted of no sort of neutrality in

That the people were superstitious need not be the sanguinary contest, and were freely permitted to said :

visit the encampments of both patriots and royalists, for

the diversion of the soldiery. As they belonged to no The existence of apparitions is firmly maintained party, so they could scarcely be looked on as spies; by them, in common with the natives of every other and although they had not the least scruple in conveying part of South America. They also believe in various such intelligence as lay in their way, or even occasionally classes of supernatural beings, as duendes, or dwarfs, becoming bearers of private messages from ono side to who are said by them to haunt particular persons, to the other, still they atoned for this conduct, or rather whom alone they are visible. These are represented as neutralized its effects, by the perfect impartiality of capricious fairies, lavish in the favours they confer when their communications. In a word, they were considered pleased, but excessively prone to jealousy, and, when too despicable and insignificant a race for anger, or even enraged, capable of inflicting any injury, short of death, for serious attention."-Vol. iii. p. 162. on the former object of their affection. Vullos, also, are dreaded as malicious spectral appearances, haunting

In another place he says: deep glens and lonely hills, usually seen towards day- " The Chinganéros are a peculiar race of wandering break, very much resembling a wreath of cloud or mist, Criole minstrels, whose habits, and even whose appellaand are said to be sure precursors of misfortune to those tion, strikingly resemble those of the Zinganées, or by whom they are seen. Brujas, too, or witches, are uni. Eastern gypsies. They claim for themselves pure Indian versally and firmly believed in.”—Vol. i. p. 306.

descent; but this is denied by the aborigines. They are It may not be out of place here to quote from all good dancers and musicians, and, above all, fortuneanother author the description of a place that holds tellers, supposed sorcerers, and improvisatori,”—Vol. ii. an important position in the Venezuelan folk-lore : p. 324.

“At twenty_leagues further inland, on entering the of their power as minstrels he gives two exrange of the Bergantin Mountains, near that of Tu amples, with translations :rimiquiri, is the famous grotto of Guacharo, in which are millions of a new species of Caprimulgus, that

La Montonera, fill the cavern with their plaintive and dismal cries.

Montonéra soy, señoras ! In every country the same causes have produced similar

Yo no niego mi nacion,effects on the imagination of our species. The grotto of

Mas vale ser Montonera Guacharo is, in the opinion of the Indians, a place of

Que no Porteno pintor : trial and expiation; souls when separated from bodies go

Montonéra en Buenos Ayres to this cavern; those of men who die without reproach

Por las Pampas he pasado; do not remain in it, and immediately ascend, to reside

Montonera por las nieves with the great Manitou in the dwellings of the blessed :

De las Andes he baxado. those of the wicked are retained there eternally; and

En su curso por el cielo such men as have committed but slight faults of a venial nature are kept there for a longer or shorter period,

Quien atajarà al Lucéro ? according to the crime. Immediately after the death of

Mas atreve quien pretiende

Atajar al Montonera. their parents and friends the Indians go to the entrance of this cavern to listen to their groans. If they think

Libres vuelan los Condores they hear their voices, they also lament, and address a

Por la cana Cordilléra ;

Y no menos por los valles prayer to the great spirit Manitou and another to the devil Muboya; after which they drown their grief with

Libre va la Montonéra." intoxicating beverages." - Lavaysse, Description of Vene

" A Montonéra's life I lead zuela (London, 1820), p. 119.

I'll ne'er disown the name, My present object, however, is chiefly to call atten

Though village maids and city dames tion to the account given by the former writer of

May lightly hold our fame. a race bearing very striking analogies to that mys

From Buenos Ayres' boundless plain

The Montonéra comes, terious Romany race which has provided so many

And o'er the mighty Andes' heights puzzles for ethnologists of the Old World :

In liberty she roams,

What hand e'er tried in empty space

To arrest the morning star?
The Montonera's freeborn mind

To enslave is harder far.

It has been my good fortune, whilst making
Free o'er the Cordillera's peaks

some researches into the naval history of the The lordly Condor stalks ;

Commonwealth, to light on the following most
As freely through her native wilds
The Montonéra walks."

interesting letter from Sir John Lawson io Sir

Henry Vane. The short notice of it in the CalenLa Zambullidóra.

dar of State Papers (Domestic), 1652–3, p. 529, " Nino ! tomad este anillo,

scarcely hints at its great value as an autobioY llevadlo á la muralla, Y díle á la centinela,

graphical sketch of Lawson's early career, of which Este nino va de guardia.

nothing has hitherto been known, and what little Vamo'nos, Chinas del alma !

has been guessed at proves now to be erroneous. Vamo'nos á zambullir;

(Compare Granville Penn's Memorials of Sir WilEl que zambulli se muere,

liam Penn, vol. i. p. 111). I will only add that Yo tambien quiero morir

the writing is that of a fairly well educated Huid la pompa del poblado,

man; the spelling (which I have not attempted to Nino, huid á la savanna ;

copy) is not abnormally irregular, and the grammar Ali gozareis quieto, En salud, hasta mañana.

- which speaks for itself—is, on the whole, pretty Vamo'nos, Chinas del alma !

good; the form of the letter quite bears out the Vamo'nos á la caléta,

inference that Lawson's origin was by no means so Para ver los guacamallos

low as it has been generally represented. Con fusil y bayonéta.

Right Honourable,-It pleased the Lord in the be. Piensan luego en dispertarse

ginning of these times to convince me of the justice of Los temblores ya dormidos ;

the Parliament's proceedings, for that in the year 1642, Volvad nino a la muralla,

I voluntarily engaged in their service, and ever since the Salgad, ó serais perdido.

Lord has kept my heart upright to the honest interest Vamo'nos, Chinas del alma !

of the nation, although I have been necessitated twice Vamo'nos á la laguna,

to escape for my freedom and danger of my life, at the A ver si en la zambullida

treacheries of Sir Hugh Cholmley and Col. Boynton at Encontremos una pluma,

Scarborough in the first and second war; my wife and Con que escriba la chata mia

children being banished two years Hull, where it Las cartas de Montezuma."

pleased God to make me an instrument in discovering and “ Youth ! this magic ring receive,

(in some measure) preventing the intended treachery of The Chinganéra's fairy spell;

Sir John Hotham, having met with other tossings and Swift the city ramparts leave,

removals to my outward loss, suffering many times by the

enemy at sea, my livelihood being by trade that way: Nor heed the wakeful sentinel. Come ! beloved of my soul, -

during part of the first war I served at sea in a small ship To the depths of ocean fly;

of my own and partner s, in which time receiving my freight

well I had subsistence; since that I commanded a foot Where the dark blue billows roll Fearless plunge, nor fear to die.

company at land near five years, and about three years last

past was called to this employment in the State ships, To the wild savanna fly !

at which time my foot company was disposed. In the Empty pomp of cities scorning;

aforesaid service at land and this last at sea, by reason of There, beneath the vault of sky,

the treacheries and revolutions ashore and smallness of Rest safety till the morning

salary at sea, I assure your honour myself and family has Come ! beloved of my soul,

not had maintenance from the public, nor I have not To the sands of ocean come;

used those ways of plundering that others have. At my There no sounds shall meet thine ear

return from the Straits the last summer I resolved to have Save curlew's pipe or bittern's drum.

left the sea employment and to have endeavoured some Hark! the wakening earthquake's cry

other way to provide for my family; but this difference Echoes on the startled ear;

breaking out betwixt the Dutch and us, I could not To the city ramparts fly,

satisfy my conscience to leave at this time being very Youth ! for death awaits thee here.

well satisfied that this service is in order to the design Come ! beloved of my soul,

of God in the exaltation of Jesus Christ, and therefore Fly we to the desert waste;

with much cheerfulness shall spend myself in this cause There, where the lake's blue waters roll,

where the glory of God and the good of his people is 80 A fairy pen, by wizards placed,

much concerned. May it please your honour, I have Lies for thee to write a scroll

one suit I shall humble beg for favour in, which is, that Such as Montezúma traced."

if the Lord shall have appointed my course to be finished

and shall take me to Himself while I am in this employ. Whether these wandering minstrels are really ment (which at the appointed time I trust through His gipsies or not, the resemblance between the mon- rich mercy & free grace in Jesus Christ He will do) that taneros and the gitanos is sufficiently striking to your honour will become instrumental that my wife and be worthy of notice, and of fuller investigation manner, for they have suffered outwardly by my em:

children may be considered in more than an ordinary by those having the opportunity for making further bracing this sea service last : my wife is dear to me, and I inquiries. WILLIAM E. A. Axon.

have good ground to believe she is dear to God, and there. fore I assure myself your honour will be more willing in months after his accession to the crown, by a such a case to take the trouble upon you. I beg pardon charter dated July 20, 1390. This John was for this presumption, beseeching the Lord to preserve your honour and all faithful ones at land, and that His probably much older than his half-brothers David presence may be with, and providence over us at sea. My and James. The Auchingown charter was the most humble and bounden service presented, I crave leave first of a series by which the patrimony was built to subscribe myself, Right Honourable,

up of the family now represented by Sir Michael Your Honour's and the Interest of God's people's Robert Shaw-Stewart, Bart., the last being given on faithfull Servant whilst I am


May 5, 1403, shortly before King Robert's death. On board the State's frigate Fairfax in Dover Road, and romantic history. The son of his father's

We seem here to see the materials of a strange 12th of the 12th month, 1652 (Feb. 12, 1652/3].


boyish and dubious marriage, John, himself married very young, but had no family for eighteen

years. His succession to the crown depended on King Robert III. OF SCOTLAND.—The last King David's dying without issue and on the number of Blackwood contains an able refutation marriage of his parents being admitted. When at of recent attempts to rehabilitate the character of length, in the fifty-fifth year of his age, he sucRobert, Duke of Albany, in connexion with the ceeded to the throne, he had to change his name death of his nephew David, Duke of Rothsay. To from John to Robert, and to entrust the reins those who wish to study the question a short note of power to that brother, Albany, whose name he about the family history of the royal house of had assumed. He had to condone and pardon the Scotland at that period may be interesting.

death of his own eldest son while in Albany's harsh Robert II. (son of Walter the Steward and the custody. He had to seek a foreign asylum for his Lady Margery Bruce) was born on March 2, 1316, youngest son, whose life was threatened by the ascended the throne of Scotland on the death of same too powerful prince. However much he his uncle, King David (Bruce), on March 27, failed in protecting his own legitimate sons, we 1370, and died on May 13, 1390. His two mar- find him during his retired reign of sixteen years riages and the mystery attending them will always steadily watchful over the interest of his son by involve questions of much difficulty. His eldest that unknown mother to whom, not withstanding son, John (afterwards Robert III.), was the eldest his early marriage, his heart seems to have beer of the three sons of his first wife, Elizabeth Mure. given.

SIGMA. The dates of his parents' marriage and of his birth are not stated, but as Robert II. was born in 1316,

AN ATTRIBUTE or FAME. - In The Tragedy and as Robert, Duke of Albany, the youngest of Sir John Van Olden Barnevelt, lately reprintea the three sons, was born in 1338, the date of John's by Mr. A. H. Bullen, occur the lines, birth may be assumed at 1335. He married in

" Read but ore the Stories 1357 (age twenty-two). On his father's accession Of men most fam'd for courage or for counsaile, he became Prince of Scotland and Earl of Carrick

And you shall find that the desire of glory

Was the last frailty wise men ere put of : in 1370 (age thirty-five). David, his eldest son

Be they my presidents,"(and probably his eldest child), was born in 1375 (age forty). James (afterwards James 1), his but with the intrusion after the third of them of youngest son (and child), was born in 1391 (age Milton's line (Lycidus, v. 71)fisty-nive). He succeeded his father as Robert III. " That last infirmity of noble minds." in 1390 (age fifty-five), and reigned for sixteen On this, as "a coincidence," Mr. Swinburne years, dying in 1406 (aged seventy-one).

addressed a communication to the Athenaeum, Queen Anabella (Drummond) was married in which appeared in its issue of March 10 last, 1357, and died in 1401. Besides David and p. 314. In reply, Mr. Bullen explained in the James she had one son, who died youvg, and three same periodical (March 17, p. 312) that the daughters, who married and left issue.

insertion was due to the printer. He agreed It will be seen from the above dates that Robert with Mr. Swinburne as to the possibility of an (John) and Anabella had no children for the first Italian original for the thought, citing after Warton, eighteen years of their marriage, and that their from the Lettere of the Abbate Grillo, “Questa sete youngest child (James) was not born till the thirty- di fama e gloria, ordinaria infirmità degli anini seventh year of their marriage.

generosi”; and expressed his expectation that "a Robert (John), unlike his father and his succes. closer parallel” would "yet be found." sors in the dynasty, had a very limited number of The concetto in question seems traceable up, as natural sons. By a lady whom tradition connects to its fountain head, to a saying of Plato's, which with the house of Campbell of Lochawe he had is preserved to us, on the authority of Dioscorides, two sons, John and James. Very little is known by Athenæus, xi. p. 507 d : čoyatov tùy this about James of Kilbryde, but to John, the eldest SÓEns Xızôva év to Daváto, aúto drodvójela, son, he gave the lands of Auchivgown, a few év drankais, év ékkopedais, év túbois.

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