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NEMEA I.

ON THE VICTORY OF CHROMIOS OF SYRAKUSE

ERRATA.

p. 6, text v. 9, for ovv read ov

p. 9, note on v. 25 σтelxovтα, for Ol. 115 read Ol. 1. 115
p. 27, notes col. 2 11. 8, 9, for ȧpio-тóкeια read ȧpioто-TÓKELA
p. 31, note on v. 83, for Nem. III. 33 read Nem. x. 33

p. 55, text v. 49, for TEKTOV read TéкTOV'

p. 92, note on v. 46 λáßpov 1. 8, dele comma after 'neck'

p. 110, note on v. 29 oi, dele 40,

p. 123, note on v. 28, for 'odoribus' read 'oloribus'

p. 140, note on v. 18 eld', for Ol. xiv. 4 read Ol. xiv. 14, Frag. 53, 1

p. 208, text 1. 5, for axeîaí T' read axeîтal T'

For corrected chronology of Nem. v, Isth. III, IV, V, VII, see p. viii.

It is at any rate
He is said to have

able to cope with nis paternal uncies, the youngest of whom, irasybulos, was directly responsible for his ruin. clear that Chromios was Hiero's chief supporter. been his charioteer. The reason for regarding him as a Gelôan immigrant to Syrakuse is because Pindar tells us (Nem. IX. 40) that in his prime he fought with distinction in the battle on the Helôros, in which Hippokrates, tyrant of Gela, defeated the Syrakusans. As this battle is mentioned in the ode (Nem. IX.) sung at Aetna, it is probable that the Syrakusans of rank who moved thither were new citizens of Syrakuse introduced with Gelo. In the new city they

F. II.

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NEMEA I.

ON THE VICTORY OF CHROMIOS, OF SYRAKUSE
(PROCLAIMED AS OF AETNA), WITH THE
FOUR-HORSE CHARIOT.

INTRODUCTION.

CHROMIOS, son of Agêsidâmos, was, according to Dissen's conjecture, a member of the Hyllean tribe of Dorians, one of the Hêrakleids who went from Rhodes to Gela (see Pyth. 1. 62). He was made by Hiero governor, éπírроños (according to Schol. on Nem. IX.), of Aetna, founded B. C. 476, of which Deinomenes was titular sovereign (Pyth. 1. 58-60). Gelo had given Chromios one of his own and Hiero's sisters in marriage, and had made him, with the other brother-in-law, Aristonoös, a guardian of his son. It appears however that Polyzêlos, brother of Gelo and Hiero, married Gelo's widow, Dâmareta (Dêmaretê), thus getting control over Gelo's son and heir, so that in supporting Hiero, Chromios was not necessarily betraying his trust. He may well have despaired of his ward being able to cope with his paternal uncles, the youngest of whom, Thrasybulos, was directly responsible for his ruin. It is at any rate clear that Chromios was Hiero's chief supporter. He is said to have been his charioteer. The reason for regarding him as a Gelôan immigrant to Syrakuse is because Pindar tells us (Nem. IX. 40) that in his prime he fought with distinction in the battle on the Helôros, in which Hippokrates, tyrant of Gela, defeated the Syrakusans. As this battle is mentioned in the ode (Nem. IX.) sung at Aetna, it is probable that the Syrakusans of rank who moved thither were new citizens of Syrakuse introduced with Gelo. In the new city they

F. II.

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were out of danger of surprise by the republican faction, and were reinforced by numbers of Megarians and Peloponnesians which could scarcely have been introduced into the old city, while they were near enough to give effective aid to their friends in Syrakuse. As Akragas and Himera had just before the time of the composition of this ode, Ol. 76. 4, B. c. 473, recovered their freedom, it is probable that Pindar had in view, when mentioning foresight (v. 28), this provision for Deinomenes and precaution against the impending struggle against the tyranny. If so, he lived to see the futility of the policy he thus admired, which was doubtless partly owing to the division of the dynastic party after Hiero's death. Chromios took active part in Hiero's martial enterprises, and as ambassador to Anaxilas, tyrant of Rhêgion, between B. C. 478 and 476 (see Pyth. II. Introd.), he prevented the subjugation of the Lokri Epizephyrii. He won this Nemean victory, Ol. 76. 4, B. c. 473, in the summer. Pindar was in Sicily when this ode was recited before the banquet given in celebration of the victory at Chromios' house in Ortygia, at which the poet was apparently himself present. The chorus performed it at the πрólυрov, i. e. before the principal door of the palace. Mezger well compares Chromios with Thêrôn, and says that his praises came straight from the poet's inmost heart. It is therefore not surprising that the scene of the myth should lie in Thebes. The rhythm is Dorian.

vv.

ANALYSIS.

1-7. The ode goes forth from Ortygia in honour of Zeus of Aetna, on the occasion of Chromios' Nemean victory.

8, 9. The exordium makes mention of gods, as the victor's merits are derived from them.

10-12. The highest object of ambition, celebration by an Epinikian ode, has its occasion in victory.

13-18. Praise of Sicily's sacred relation to Persephonê, fertility, rich cities, glory in war, success in games even at Olympia.

18. This topic is dismissed.

19-25. For it is Chromios' hospitality which brings the poet to his halls, and to him praise is due to confound various cavillers.

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