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ναὶ μὰ γὰρ ὅρκον, ἐμὰν δόξαν παρὰ Κασταλία 25 καὶ παρ ̓ εὐδένδρῳ μολών ὄχθῳ Κρόνου κάλλιον ἂν δηριώντων ἐνόστησ ̓ ἀντιπάλων,

πενταετηρίδ ̓ ἑορτὴν Ηρακλέος τέθμιον

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'ETT. B'.

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κωμάσαις ἀνδησάμενός τε κόμαν ἐν πορφυρέοις ἔρνεσιν. ἀλλὰ βροτῶν τὸν μὲν κενεόφρονες αὖχαι 30 ἐξ ἀγαθῶν ἔβαλον· τὸν δ ̓ αὖ καταμεμφθέντ ̓ ἄγαν 40 ἰσχὺν οἰκείων παρέσφαλεν καλῶν

χειρὸς ἕλκων ὀπίσσω θυμὸς ἄτολμος ἐών.

Στρ. γ'. συμβαλεῖν μὴν εὐμαρὲς ἦν τό τε Πεισάνδρου πάλαι αἷμ ̓ ἀπὸ Σπάρτας· ̓Αμύκλαθεν γὰρ ἔβα σὺν Ὀρέστα, 35 Αἰολέων στρατιὰν χαλκεντέα δεῦρ ̓ ἀνάγων

καὶ παρ ̓ Ἰσμηνοῦ ῥοᾶν κεκραμένον

μὴ cf. Madv. § 210 Rem. 1, Soph. Aiax 70, αὐγὰς ἀπείρξω σὴν πρόσοψιν εἰσιδεῖν, Isth. I. 60.

24. yáp.] For else.'

ἐμὰν δόξαν.] Cf. Aristoph. Pax, 232, καὶ γὰρ ἐξιέναι, γνώμην ἐμήν, μέλλει. These are accusatives of 'extent, range, sphere,' Madv. 31 c, like τὸ ἐμὸν μέρος, τὸ κατ' ἐμέ: but instead of qualifying the action or state predicated, they qualify (make conditional) the predication, like an infinitive, e. g. δοκεῖν εἰπεῖν ἀκούειν, with or without ws. Cf. Madv. §§ 151, 168 b.

παρά.] Here and in the next line to be taken after δηριώντων, while μολών = had he gone (thither).' For the victor's return cf. Nem. II. 24, Οl. VIII. 67-71, Pyth. VIII. 81--87.

26. Medicean MSS. ἐνό(έ)σταντ' by dittography.

27. Cf. Nem. x. 33, Ol. xi. 57, 58, ΟΙ. ΧΙΙΙ. 40.

28. πορφυρέοις.] Cf. Hor. Od. iv. 1. 10, purpureis odoribus. Like χρύσεος, Οl. VIII. 1, Nem. I. 17, and

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elsewhere, πορφ. = 'gleaming, glistening,'rich-coloured.'

30. ἀγαθῶν.] Blessings of victory" (cf. Ol. VIII. 13) are of course included under the general term.

ἐξ. ἔβαλον.] Τmesis. Frequentative aorist; so παρέσφαλεν, and ἔδωκ. v. 39. Render 'cast down from.' καταμεμφθέντ'.] Disparaging. 31. oikeiwv.] 'Proper,' 'within his reach.'

33. συμβαλεῖν.] Infer, 'ga

ther.'

υ.

τε.] Taken up by και v. 36, from ̓Αμύκλαθεν to ἀνάγων being a parenthesis. For ἔμμεν suppressed with πάλαι ἀπὸ Σπάρτας cf. Nem. x. 51. The Achaean Peisandros was said to have been driven from Sparta on the Migration of the Dôrians into Peloponnêsos and to have joined Aeolian emigrants from Boeôtia in that country, whence they sailed to Tenedos.

35. χαλκεντέα.] mss. χαλκεντέων (one χαλκέων τε, -ων being expressed by a superscribed^). 36. In Thebes.

ἐκ Μελανίπποιο μάτρωος· ἀρχαῖαι δ ̓ ἀρεταὶ

̓Αντ. γ'.

ἀμφέροντ ̓ ἀλλασσόμεναι γενεαῖς ἀνδρῶν σθένος·

ἐν σχερῷ δ ̓ οὔτ ̓ ὦν μέλαιναι καρπὸν ἔδωκαν

ἄρουραι,

40 δένδρεά τ ̓ οὐκ ἐθέλει πάσαις ἐτέων περίδοις ἄνθος εὐῶδες φέρειν πλούτῳ ἴσον,

ἀλλ ̓ ἐν ἀμείβοντι. καὶ θνατὸν οὕτως ἔθνος ἄγει

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Ἐπ. γ'. μοῖρα. τὸ δ' ἐκ Διὸς ἀνθρώποις σαφὲς οὐχ ἕπεται 55 τέκμαρ' ἀλλ ̓ ἔμπαν μεγαλανορίαις ἐμβαίνομεν, 45 ἔργα τε πολλὰ μενοινῶντες· δέδεται γὰρ ἀναιδεῖ

[blocks in formation]

περόδοις.] For περιόδοις, cf. περάπτων, Pyth. III. 52.

ner;

41. πλούτῳ ἴσον.] Dat. of man' in equal abundance.' 42. ἐν ἀμείβοντι.] For the gerundive use, in alternation" (=άλλασσόμεναι), of the active participle cf. Thuk. I. 142, ἐν τῷ μὴ μελετῶντι, Madv. 180 B. Rem. 2, Soph. Oed. Col. 1219, ὅταν τις ἐς πλέον πέσῃ | τοῦ θέλοντος, Aristotle's τὸ ἀντιπεπονθός. Compare our English confusion of abstract nouns in -ing with the participle (which originally in Saxon ended in -nd). Pindar's suppression of the article is noteworthy. Perhaps the usual expla

nation given above is wrong and ἔτει is to be supplied in thought from ἐτέων.

Kai...ouтws.] 'Even so.'

43. τὸ δ' ἐκ Διός.] . As for what comes from Zeus. Cf. Nem. II. 17, ὅσσα δ ̓ ἀμφ' αέθλοις | Τιμοδημίδαι ἐξοχώτατοι προλέγονται. For sentiment cf. Ol. xII. 7, 8, Soph. Oed. Rex, 978, πρόνοια δ ̓ ἐστὶν οὐδενὸς σαφής. Isth. vii. 14, 15, Eur. Herc. F. 62.

44. ἐμβαίνομεν.] 'We embark upon.' Metaphor from navigation followed up in v. 46.

45. τε.] For the coupling of a participial clause to one containing a finite verb cf. Soph. Oed. Rex, 740, τὸν δὲ Λάϊον φύσιν \ τίν' εἶχε φράζε, τίνα δ ̓ ἀκμὴν ἥβης ἔχων. Also with the participle preceding Ol. I. 13, 14, δρέπων μὲν | ἀγλαΐζεται δέ, Isth. I. 14, Aesch. Αgam. 97, τούτων λέξασ' ὅτι καὶ δυνατὸν | καὶ θέμις αἰνεῖν, παιών τε γενοῦ τῆσδε μερίμνης: where however, as in Choëph. 547 (Ρ.), τε seems = accordingly and is hardly copulative. In the present case I think the construction is κατὰ σύν εσιν, as though μεγαλανορίαις contained μεγαλανορες ὄντες.

δέδεται.] Constrained. Perhaps

ἐλπίδι γυῖα προμαθείας δ ̓ ἀπόκεινται ῥοαί.
κερδέων δὲ χρὴ μέτρον θηρευέμεν·
ἀπροσίκτων δ ̓ ἐρώτων ὀξύτεραι μανίαι.

a metaphor from a slave chain-
ed to the oar. Cf. Pyth. IV.
71, τίς δὲ κίνδυνος κρατεροῖς ἀδά-
μαντος δῆσεν ἅλοις; Pyth. III. 54,
ἀλλὰ κέρδει καὶ σοφία δέδεται (with
which cf. Bakchyl. Frag. 4 (2), ὡς
δ ̓ ἅπαξ εἰπεῖν, φρένα καὶ πυκινὰν
κέρδος ἀνθρώπων βιᾶται).

ἀναιδεῖ.] • Improbus, unconscionable,' 'unreasonable.'

46. προμαθείας.] Mezger and Postgate rightly join the genitive with ῥοαί. Men strive or drift in a variable, uncertain course, but foreknowledge, if they only had it, would bear them along steadily like a current. No doubt the mariners of Tenedos were familiar with and often grateful to the strong Hellespontine current. For the metaphor cf. Ol. II. 33, ῥοαὶ δ' ἀλλότ ̓ ἄλλαι εὐθυμιᾶν τε μετὰ καὶ πόνων ἐς ἄνδρας ἔβαν. For the general sentiment cf. Solon, Frag. 13 [4], 65, πᾶσι δέ τοι κίνδυνος ἐπ ̓ ἔργμασιν,

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οὐδέ τις οἶδεν | ᾗ σχήσειν μέλλει πρήγματος ἀρχομένου. Theogn. 585.

47. For a more general statement of the doctrine of a μέτρον cf. Ol. XIII. 46, ἕπεται δ' ἐν ἑκάστῳ | μέτρον· νοῆσαι δὲ καιρὸς ἄριστος. Also Hes. W. and D. 692, Pyth. 11. 34, Isth. v. [vi.], 71.

48. For general sentiment cf. Nem. III. 30. For μανίαι cf. Theogn. 1231, σχέτλι' Ἔρως, μανίαι σ ̓ ἐτιθηνήσαντο λαβοῦσαι. So that Plato's classification of Ἔρως under μανία, Phaedr. pp. 244, 245, was perhaps suggested by poetic diction.

δ'.] Equivalent to ἀλλά. Cf. Soph. Αi. 12.

ὀξύτεραι.] Don. refers to Matth. Gr. Gr. § 457, thus making it doubtful whether he would render the comparative by 'too' or 'somewhat,' 'rather,' or as merely equivalent to a positive. It clearly means 'too acute' in the medical sense of acute. Cf. Ol. VIII. 85.

ISTHMIA I.

ON THE VICTORY OF HERODOTOS OF THEBES IN THE FOUR-HORSE CHARIOT RACE.

INTRODUCTION.

HERODOTOS, Son of Asôpodoros of Thebes, was one of several Theban victors at some Isthmian festival of uncertain date. Some consider that Asôpodôros had been exiled from Thebes (vv. 36—38); but this supposition is not consistent with the most natural interpretation of the passage vv. 34-46, and seems in particular to involve making his father's exile too prominent a topic introducing the most striking part of the ode. If Hêrodotos himself had been exiled at the time of the Persian war as a young man of about twenty he would not be too old to act as his own charioteer (v. 15) in B. C. 458, Ol. 80. 3 to which date Dissen refers the composition of the ode. He thinks that the alliance between Thebes and Sparta before the war in which the battles of Tanagra and Oenophyta were fought is figured in the association of Kastôr and Iolâos vv. 16, 17 (but cf. Pyth. IX. 59 ff. composed B. C. 478); that war is suggested by the allusion to Gêryôn's Opaσeîaɩ kúves (v. 12) (but Prof. Seymour justly remarks, agreeing with Don.-"This was the most distant point reached by Heracles, hence this clause means 'whose mighty deeds reached even to the ends of the world""); and by Toλeμíčov v. 50 (but see my note) so that the premises can hardly be said to be strong enough to carry Dissen's conclusion. Leopold Schmidt on altogether insufficient grounds places the date between the third Isthmian and the fifth Nemean, that is, in the first period of Pindar's poetic activity. Pindar may merely intend to apologise for the slightness of the composition and the thinness of the senti

ments when he mentions his engagement for the men of Keos. It is to be safely inferred from vv. 39, 40 that Hêrodotos was an aristocrat. (Mezger thinks the father was obliged to retire to Orchomenos through loss of property by actual shipwrecks, reading épeiπóμevov v. 16, a view which I cannot at all admit.) The main thread of the Ode is the enforcement and illustration of the glory conferred on the arρis by a successful pursuit of åperà and the consequent reward of praise and remembrance due from fellow-citizens (cp. vv. 12; 17; 30, 31; 35; 40; 66, 67; 1—6; 43-46; 50, 51; 67, 68). This train of thought is peculiarly appropriate if Hêrodotos was reestablished at Thebes in consequence of this Isthmian victory, which may be inferred from vv. 39, 40.

ANALYSIS.

vv.

1-10 Invocation of Thêbâ, with an apology for laying aside a poem for the men of Keos to compose an Athenian ode.

10-12 Since six prizes have fallen to Thebes.

12-13 The birthplace of Hêrakles.

14-16 In honour of Hêrodotos victory in the four-horse chariot race the poet is ready to compose a Kastoreion or ode of Iolâos.

17-31 The athletic prowess of Kastôr and Iolâos.

32-40 Allusion to the victor's family and to his exile and return to good fortune.

40-52 General sentiments in praise of prowess and enterprise glancing at Herodotos.

53-59

Enumeration of some of his victories.

60-63 The scope of the ode prevents him proclaiming all.

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Often what is not mentioned gives the greater satisfaction. 64-67 A hope that encouraged by poetic praises Hêrodotos may win at the Pythian and Olympian games.

67, 68

If any one hoards and finds fault with those who are lavish in pursuit of honour, he does not consider that he will die 'unhonoured and unsung.'

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