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NEMEA IX.

ON THE VICTORY OF CHROMIOS OF AETNA WITH THE FOUR-HORSE CHARIOT IN THE PYTHIA AT SIKYON.

INTRODUCTION.

In this victory

FOR Chromios see Introduction to Nem. I. Chromios won a crown (vv. 52, 53) and silver bowls (v. 51). The ode was composed some time after the victory (v. 52) soon after the founding of Aetna, i. e. B. c. 474 or 472 (v. 2). As Pindar seems to have been present the latter date is preferable.

The rhythm is Dorian and the ode is processional, accompanied both by lyre and flute (v. 8).

vv.

ANALYSIS.

1-5. Invocation to the muses to inspire the chorus to celebrate Chromios' victory in games sacred to Lêtô and her children.

6, 7. Let not a deed of prowess sink into oblivion.

8, 9.

Strike up with lyre and flute in honour of the games instituted by Adrastos.

9-27. Myth of the Seven against Thebes concluding with the flight and engulfing of Amphiarâos.

28-32. Prayer that Zeus may grant lasting peace, civil order and glory in games to the Aetnaeans.

vv.

32-34. They are fond of horses and, strange to say, are above considerations of gain or economy in their ambition.

34-39. Chromis is a mighty warrior such as few besides. 39-43. As Hektôr by Skamandros, so Chromios by Helôros got glory, and elsewhere too by land and sea.

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45-47.

48, 49.

He has earned a peaceful old age.

He has been blessed with riches and honour.

The banquet loves peace; fresh victory is enhanced by song, which is inspired by the bowl.

50-53. Let the prize bowls be filled with wine.

53-end. Zeus is invoked to note the excellence of the poet's min

strelsy.

Στρ. α'.

Κωμάσομεν παρ' ̓Απόλλωνος Σικυώνοθε, Μοῖσαι, τὰν νεοκτίσταν ἐς Αἴτναν, ἔνθ ̓ ἀναπεπταμέναι ξείνων νενίκανται θύραι,

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ὄλβιον ἐς Χρομίου δῶμ'. ἀλλ ̓ ἐπέων γλυκὺν ὕμνον πράσσεται.

τὸ κρατήσιππον γὰρ ἐς ἅρμ ̓ ἀναβαίνων ματέρι καὶ διδύμοις παίδεσσιν αὐδὲν μανύει

1. Κωμάσομεν.] For the future tense referring to the time of recitation cf. Pyth. Ix. 89, XI. 10. Böckh and others make this and ὄρσομεν conjunctives, Don. on v. 43 deliberative futures, a needless distinction.

2. ἀναπεπταμέναι. ] Flung back. ξείνων.] For the gen. cf. Soph. Αίαχ, 1353, κρατεῖς τοι τῶν φίλων νικώμενος, Eur. Med. 315, σιγησόμεσθα, κρεισσόνων νικώμενοι, Madv. § 64.

For the hospitality of Aetna cf. Pyth. 1. 38; of Chromios cf. Nem. 1. 19-25. The Schol. on Aristoph. Acharn. 127, τούσδε ξενίζειν οὐδέποτ' ἴσχει γ ἡ θύρα, has come down to us with the strange misquotation

ΙΟ

of this passage-ἔνθ ̓ ἄρα πεπταμέναιν ξείνων ἕνεκεν ταῖν θύραιν.

3. πράσσεται.] Cf. Ol. III. 7 for the phrase, in which the ode is regarded as a debt. The majority of mss. and editors read πράσσετε, but it is not easy to see who is meant, as the Muses do not claim songs but inspire, and so forth. For the addition of ἐπέων cf. infra, v. 7, and Nem. VII. 16. The ἀλλ' favours the reading πράσσεται. The chorus must discharge their obligation of minstrelsy before partaking of Chromios' hospitality.

4. κρατήσιππον.] 'Team-vanquishing,' according to analogy probably, but cf. Pyth. ix. 86.

ματέρι, κ.τ.λ.] In honour of

5 Πυθῶνος αἰπεινᾶς ὁμοκλάροις ἐπόπταις.

Στρ. β'.

ἔστι δέ τις λόγος ἀνθρώπων, τετελεσμένον ἐσλὸν μὴ χαμαὶ σιγά καλύψαι θεσπεσία δ' ἐπέων καύχαις ἀοιδὰ πρόσφορος.

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ἀλλ ̓ ἀνὰ μὲν βρομίαν φόρμιγγ ̓, ἀνὰ δ ̓ αὐλὸν ἐπ ̓ αὐτὴν ὄρσομεν

ἱππίων ἄθλων κορυφάν, ἅτε Φοίβῳ θῆκεν "Αδραστος ἐπ ̓ ̓Ασωποῦ ῥεέθροις ὧν ἐγὼ

1ο μνασθεὶς ἐπασκήσω κλυταῖς ἥρωα τιμαῖς,

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Στρ. γ'. 25

ὃς τότε μὲν βασιλεύων κεῖθι νέαισί θ ̓ ἑορταῖς
ἰσχύος τ ̓ ἀνδρῶν ἁμίλλαις ἅρμασί τε γλαφυροῖς ἄμ-
φαινε κυδαίνων πόλιν.

Lêto and Apollo and Artemis. Cf.
Pyth. iv. 3.

μανύει αὐδάν.] 'He gives the signal for a strain.' The seeming interpretation of αὐδὲν by the Schol., τὸ θαυμάζεσθαι, may have been due to a false reading ayav or to a true παίδεσσ ̓ ἄγασθαι. Anyhow the meaning of μανύει is singular.

6. For sentiment cf. Pyth. Ix. 93-96, Frag. 98 [86].

τετελεσμένον, κ.τ.λ.] ‘Hide not by silence in abasement the achievement of a deed of prowess.' For the infinitive clause cf. Pyth. II. 24. For the participle cf. Ol. Ix. 103, Isth. VII. 12, Nem. VI. 2.

ἐσλόν.] Used in this sense Nem. v. 47, and almost = 'victories,' 'prizes,' Pyth. VIII. 73. Cf. the poet's use of ἀρετή, Nem. v. 53.

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καύχας might be like ἀνάγκας, Nem. VIII. 3, and quality ἐπέων ἀοιδά, but πρόσφορος without а dative is awkward. Kayser, Rauchenstein and von Leutsch alter ἐπέων, which it is true may have come from v. 3 and is not wanted. I would suggest θεσπεσίᾳ δ' ἐρέω καύχας ἀοιδᾷ πρόσο φορος, ‘But I will utter loud praises meet for divine minstrelsy.'

8. άλλ'.] Resumptive, going back to vv. 4, 5. Cf. Ol. Iv. 6.

βρομίαν.] ‘Pealing (Myers). Cf. Nem. xΙ. 8, λύρα δέ σφι βρέμεται καὶ ἀοιδά. The root βρεμ properly denotes deep sound or great body of sound.

ἐπ' αὐτὴν ἱ. ἀ. κορυφάν. ] 'For the very prime of contests with horses.' The phrase refers to four-horse chariot races generally.

9. ̓Ασωπού.] For this stream, which flowed on the east of Sikyôn, cf. Nem. III. 4.

12. ἅρμασι.] Βöckh and Dissen take this dative as dependent on ἁμίλλαις, comparing Ol. v. 6. Cf. also Pyth. vi. 17.

γλαφυροῖς.] ‘Carved. Böckh. ἄμφαινε κυδαίνων.]

Both these

φεύγε γὰρ ̓Αμφιάρηόν τε θρασυμήδεα καὶ δεινὰν

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στάσιν πατρῴων οἴκων ἀπό τ' Αργεος· ἀρχοὶ δ ̓ οὐκ ἔτ ̓ ἔσαν Ταλαοῦ παῖδες, βιασθέντες λύα.

15 κρέσσων δὲ καππαύει δίκαν τὴν πρόσθεν ἀνήρ. 35

Στρ. δ'. ἀνδροδάμαντ' Εριφύλαν, ὅρκιον ὡς ὅτε πιστόν, δόντες Οἰκλείδα γυναῖκα, ξανθοκομᾶν Δαναῶν ἔσσαν μέγιστοι δὴ τόθεν.

words are elsewhere (Pyth. IX. 73, Ol. XI. 66) used of victors; but here of the ἀγωνοθέτης Adrastos, who conferred distinction upon Sikyôn, the city whither he fled from Argos when expelled by Amphiaraos' faction, by instituting sacred games there. Pindar ignores the fact that Kleisthenes had suppressed Adrastos' games and substituted the Pythia in which Chromios gained his victory.

'Had fled.' Lit.

13. φεύγε.] 'was in flight from.'

14. Ταλαοῦ παῖδες.] Adrastos and his brothers Parthenopaeos, Pronax, Mêkisteus and Aristomachos; these were descendants of Bias, Amphiarâos of Melampus, Kapaneus of Proetos.

λύᾳ.] Cf. Hesych. λύα· στάσις. Meaning at first, no doubt, not faction generally, but a struggle for deliverance from oligarchy or monarchy.

15. κρέσσων.] ‘Of superior intelligence.' Cf. Xen. Mem. I. ch.ii. §§ 16 and 47, and perhaps Pyth. v. 102, κρέσσονα μὲν ἁλικίας | νόον φέρBera. A Schol. interprets κpeloσων φανεὶς καὶ συνετώτερος.

καππαύει.] For καταπαύει. For the assimilation cf. Ol. VIII. 38.

dikav.] Quarrel' generally. The whole line is a gnômê, condemning protracted litigation and here applied metaphorically. I have fol

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lowed most editors; as it seems to me that this line must refer to what follows on account of the asyndeton (or T') in the next line and the fact that dóvres refers to the same subject as βιασθέντες. There is however a difficulty about Tav πрbolev, which one Schol., Thiersch and Mezger avoid by explaining For a stronger man putteth an end to the former right (of sovereignty)'; i.e. might goes before right. But it does not seem to be the poet's cue to suggest that Amphiaraos was a better man than Adrastos; while тàv πрóσ0e quite applies to the quarrel in question, which was of long standing at the time of the reconciliation, and of which the acutest part was at its beginning. The shade of meaning given to diκn again is at least unusual and lastly-why should Pindar say 'might is right' just before telling of a compromise by which the former right was recovered?

16. Mss. give ἀνδροδάμαν τ' and ἀνδρομέδαν τ'. Pindar uses the epithet in reference to her bringing about Amphiarâos' death.

ús ÖTE.] Cf. Ol. vi. 2.

17. Oikλeida.] Amphiaraos. δόντες ἔσσαν.] It was after they had given...that they were.'

on Tólev.] The мss. have here a lacuna. Böckh got the text from

καί ποτ' ἐς ἑπταπύλους Θήβας ἄγαγον στρατὸν ἀνδρῶν αἰσιᾶν

οὐ κατ ̓ ὀρνίχων ὁδόν· οὐδὲ Κρονίων αστεροπὰν ἐλελίξαις οἴκοθεν μαργουμένους

20 στείχειν ἐπώτρυν ̓, ἀλλὰ φείσασθαι κελεύθου.

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Στρ. ε'. φαινομέναν δ ̓ ἄρ ̓ ἐς ἄταν σπεῦδεν ὅμιλος ἱκέσθαι 50 χαλκέοις όπλοισιν ἱππείοις τε σὺν ἔντεσιν· Ἰσμηνοῦ δ ̓ ἐπ ̓ ὄχθαισι γλυκὺν

νόστον ερεισάμενοι λευκανθέα σώματ ̓ ἐπίαναν καπνόν

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ἑπτὰ γὰρ δαίσαντο πυροὶ νεογνίους φῶτας· ὁ δ ̓ ̓Αμφιάρῃ σχίσσεν κεραυνῷ παμβίᾳ

25 Ζεὺς τὴν βαθύστερνον χθόνα, κρύψεν δ ̓ ἅμ ̓ ἵπποις,

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Στρ. 5.

δουρὶ Περικλυμένου πρὶν νῶτα τυπέντα μαχατὰν θυμὸν αἰσχυνθῆμεν. ἐν γὰρ δαιμονίοισι φόβοις φεύγοντι καὶ παῖδες θεῶν.

the ἐντεῦθεν δὴ of the Schol. ; literally ' In consequence of just this.

18. Cf. Aesch. Ag. 104-119 (P.), esp. 104, ὅδιον κράτος αἴσιον, Aesch. Eum. 740, παρόρνιθας ὁδούς. Note that αἰσιν ὀρνίχων is a genitive of quality after ὁδόν.

21. Cf. Archil. Frag. 98 [65], φαινόμενον κακὸν οἴκαδ ̓ ἄγεσθαι.

22. σύν.] For position cf. Pyth. II. 59, Nem. x. 38.

23. ἐρεισάμενοι.] Böckh and others read ἐρυσσάμενοι, “having stayed delightsome return.' Cf. Od. XXIII. 244; but the phrase is not quite parallel, Ἠὼ ῥύσατ'. Το too in Isth. VII. 53 the object of ῥύοντο, ‘were wont to check, is a person. The text is unsatisfactory. Mss. give ἐρυσάμενοι and ερεισάμενοι. Mommsen reads the latter. Hartung alters to ἀπουράμενοι (cf. Hes. Scut. Herc. 173), Benedict to ὀλεσσάμενοι.

F. II.

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Rauchenstein proposes ἀπωσάμενοι Οι ἀνανόμενοι. I suggest ἀπειπάμενοι as nearer to the Ms. reading, if ἐρεισάμενοι (‘having set fast on Ismênos' banks delightsome return') is to be disturbed. It is supported by the Schol., αὐτόθι τὴν οἴκοι ἀνακομιδὴν ἀπέθεντο.

23. λευκανθέα σώματ'.] ‘As pale corpses. Old Mss. give σώμασι (ν) ἐπίαναν; some editors read σώμασι πίαναν, taking λευκανθέα whitewreathing with καπνόν. As white myrtle was sacred to the dead (Isth. III. 88) λευκανθέα may mean ‘decked with myrtle.' The text is Böckh's.

24. δαίσαντο.] Carries on the metaphor of ἐπίαναν.

̓Αμφιάρῃ.] The nom. and acc. of this name in Pindar end in -ρηος, This dative is from a con-ρηον. tracted form in -py; which changes its declension by analogy.

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