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link that held the republic together, and whose death (caused by sudden dismay at the sight of some crimson gouts on her husband's cloak, whose fate involved that of her country ) was followed by the sorrow of all good men, and by the breaking out of those civil wars that overturned Roman liberty : —r- and

'' Collatine's fair love, Lucrece the chaste (0," whose virtue and disaster gave immediate birth to the most celebrated of commonwealths; when Brutus, throwing off his disguise, swore by the adored Capitol to revenge the effusion of her pure blood.

The introduction of Saladin, with an article expressive of'lordly' eminence, is just; and the describing of him as' lonely (2)', that is, as the only one of the same tribe in Elysium, is perhaps equally just: it must have been very peculiar merit in a Soldan that could compensate for his despotic sway. But Saladin is represented by even his adversaries as a noble character; and his courtesy to our

(i) Rape of Lucrece.

(a) Mr. Cary's fierce ( " the Soldan fierce ") is an interpolation; and one quite out of the spirit of the original. For, solo, alone is the only epithet in it ,,

Solo in parte vidi 'I Saladino;. and it is accompanied by the definite article, which in Italian is like a title of nobility, well agreeing with that Saracen's rank ami virtues: The lonely, lordly Saladin .

Cceur-de lion endears him to Englishmen: at least to every Englishman that disapproves of Mr. Hume's epithet barbarous, in speaking of a Prince whose iii«me was long synonimous both in Asia and in Europe with generosity and romantic valour. At the siege of Jaffa, Salad in perceiving our Monarch ( who had just disembarked) directing the operations on foot, sent him by an equerry a horse, saying that it ill hecame so illustrious a personage to be seen without one r a compliment which the gallant Richard answered politely, and, without hesitation, accepted his enemy's gift ('). In one respect the Czar F'eter i. was not singular; for Saladin also is said to have consulted the benefit, of his realm by travelling, disguised as a merchant with two companions, through Armenia to Greece, Sicily, Naples, Rome, Tuscany, Lombardy, Spain , France , and Germany , in order to study the laws and customs of those countries (a).' It is observable that there is one great political question

on which Dante does not touch the Crusades:

yet, if a passion for these was really " in that age a passion for glory (:{), " it is no small encomium on the steadiness of his reason, that, though so anient after glory, he could abstain from commending

(i) Jussit HWitIt per armigenim itli eqnmn trnnsinitti , rlicens uon deceretam ".uhlimem virum tuli loco inter suos sine equo ronsisteie; qnem Hex gratanter uccipiens , cui ialit.itcm ejus rollauilens gratia6 illi egit. Chron. Pip. ap Mnr. Rert Ital Scrip. T. It p. Iio*.

(a) Lan. Comeuto . p. »9.

(3) Hume. Hist. Vol. J. p. n9.



them; a temptation too strong for his immediate successor Petrarch, who was heard to call for the expulsion of the dogs from Jerusalem with almost as much warmth as that of foreigners from Italy (0• But if Dante indulged in no panegyric of the holy wars, neither did he undertake to reprohate them. It is reasonable to conclude, that his silence was the result of indecision . It was horrible to make religion a pretext for war: but to

this accusation the Turks were liable as well as the Christians; and if these had not assailed part of Asia, those might have overrun the whole of Europe; there was an extreme necessity of giving some outlet to the rapine and immorality of the

age, and it was no slender justification justum

bellum quibus necessarium; toa scrutinizing mind some of the remoter benefits might have been discernible, the increase of commerce and of the arts of civilization from a communication with the "east where those had then their chief seat (*)," and even the diminution of the very ignorance and bigotry that first produced the expeditions. These considerations might have well made any wise and virtuous man doubt, and, doubting, remain silent.

(i) 11 sepolcro di Cristo e in man di Ctmi. Trionfo della Fa ma. Op. a.

(a) Hume. Hiit. vol- ip. 3oi.

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Aristotle was the master of the schools in Dante's day; although that supremacy was very soon after (0 conferred on its true owner, Plato (»). Landino hesitates between two such great men as Plato and Aristotle: but surely, by saying that the latter excelled in natural, and the former in moral philosophy, he pronounces their respective rank. I know what is the fashion of the day; and that the chymist who freezes mercury in your presence, divides a sunbeam, or galvanizes a rabbit, plumes himself on the solidity of his discoveries, while the discussor of an ethical question is treated as a visionary. The exact sciences, (as they are inaptly termed) are, it is said, those most deserving of serious attention, because they furnish certain results: a doctrine well calculated to form able generals and calculators, ( but not virtuous patriots) and therefore one little obnoxious to the worst tyrants, and often even encouraged by them in order to divert their slaves from higher pursuits; so that, instead of being an argument in favour of the perfectibility of the human-kind, because it at this moment produces a temporary increase of the arts of luxury, it appears to me to be a melancholy proof of the decline of the present generation

(i) In Petrarch's time . Trionfo della Faina , Cap. 3. (2) . . . divioum ilium virum quem .... scpius fortaste laudo quam necesse est. De Legibus, Lib. in. p. i.

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and of the approaching downfall of those arts themselves, by the ruin of that public spirit which had been an incentive in producing them. But 1 also know, that this assumption of exactness in physical researches was denied by one of the wisest of our fellow creatures, "Socrates; who applied himself wholly to the moral part of philosophy and neglected the natural, as a study too fanciful and uncertain (>)." And is not his opinion warranted by the fact? Is not natural philosophy, (that pretends to evidence because it addresses, not the intellect, but the senses) remarkable for its continual fluctuation, not merely with the revolutions of centuries, but with every change of season, not with the rise or fall of mighty empires, but with the female fashions of every mouth? Are those who were authorities in chemistry ten years ago to be relied on now? Must not a student purchase his scientifick journal like a lady's magazine, and unlearn this week what he was at pains to learn last ? Even the word of Newton ceases to be revered as law. Except then it can be shown ( which it cannot) that physical science is always in a state of progressive improvement, its variations testify that it is, in practice as well as in theory, far more uncertain than that philosophy whose principles are drawn from a few fixed phenomena invariably found in the human mind. These phe

(t) Athenian Letters T- i. p. 94 Academicoium Lib. i- Cap. 4.

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