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UiHTO Til. H. XXI.

The tiercet literally is: ' Ah! heavenly Justice, who can put together all the new labours and sufferings which I beheld? Why doth a mortal

error produce such ruin?' The first part refers

to the impossibility of describing in a few verses the various horrors that presented themselves. Some make who refer to the Dispenser of those torments: but it could not have been meant to ask who he is, since the exclamation itself begins

by telling us 'heavenly Justice,' giustizia di

Dio (0. The second part of the tiercet embraces a

far more momentous question the doctrine

of future rewards and punishments; a discussion so awful and complex, that it is a consolation to defer, if not entirely escape it. Recollecting Dante's own words, it is the primary, allegorical scope of the entire poem to elucidate it (»). Waving for the present the main subject conceding the exis

(i) The verse is printed ai an interrogation in the Cominiana and all the most esteemed editions;as indeed, the particle chi requires. Yet M. Cary translates it like a mere exclamation, adducing Laudino as his authority, who makes chi the sane is ehe. Landino'< words are not very clear. The two contested interpretations are as I have given: chi potrehbe ristringere in pochi versi, ec.? or chi raduna in questo lungo dell' inferno tanti travagli ec ? This second is subject to the objection adduced by me — that of putting a question which the very first words of the tiercet precludes, as well as the context of the entire poem: quasi che Dante, o non sapesse, o negasse essere la divin.i viadice Giustizia che ivi aduna tutti quei guai. Poggiali, Ed. Livorn. i807, vol. 3. p. 93.

(1) Hell, Comment, Canto i. p. 61.

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tence of the eternal castigations of Tartarus — I <i>-scend to a corollary from it. The text heiog iu the singular number 'a mortal error'(nostra colpa ) appears to some to be a demand, whether it be possible that a single error can merit such varieties of ever-lasting torment? Infinite woe can only be made for infinite crime. This is certain. After this, it is superfluous to distinguish between singular and plural. Of degrees in infinitude we can have no idea. According to human comprehension , we can scarcely avoid assenting to the position of the Stoics, that all crimes are equal; except by doing, what seems to me much wiser,

confessing we know nothing of the matter. It

may be practically useful to pronounce on the extent of any guilt from what we see of it; on

such appearances the legislator must act the

temporal by the infliction of temporal punishments, the spiritual by the threat of future ones; but theoretically, few things lead to greater confusion in reasoning. It is the invisible mind that makes the sin, not the visible act. Rut since the act of the mind precedes the visible act, the entire guilt is equally incurred, whether it be indicated by any act visible to us, or not: still more does it follow, that if the entire guilt may exist previous to any visible act, it may previous to several. The eye of Him who is to judge immaterial creatures has no need of material acts. It reads the spirit, and may or may not permit good or evil to be re

C.IHTO Ti1.

vealed by one or many overt, corporeal actions. In every case the merit or demerit of the spirit (which is truly the only merit or demerit) remains precisely the same. The law, that is the will of an eternal infinite Being must be infinite and eternal. Its prescriptions may vary, but they are only its form . Its substance can know no change. As long as those prescriptions exist, they partake of the iufinitude that prescribes them . To contravene them then is infinitely wrong; nor in that iufinitude can I have a notion of any gradations . These may, perhaps, exist; but my finite powers cannot conceive them. If an infinite Being ordains a statute ( whatever it seem in our eyes, great or small) it must be infinite, and any breach of it be infinite too; nor can I have any conception of its deserving more or less than in-. finite punishment; in which I can recognise no degrees either of alleviation or severity . Such degrees may be; but they are not within the grasp of mortal perception . The only question then is whether an infinite Being has given a law , or not. If he has , it is a line in the 'over-stepping of which (and in it alone) guilt consists; and however you advance after, this advance' (Cicero avers) 'has nothing to do with your over-stepping of the line. In this consists guilt, in-the infraction of the law ( without a reference to its apparent importance or unimportance ); and when once this infraction takes place, the guilt is completed. Every sin

r.iBTO »ii.

overturns reason and order: but as soon as order and reason are overturned, I cannot imagine the addition of any greater sinCO.'I only speak of what seems; and indeed so does Cicero. But it seems as if one crime should incur infinite punishment, just as much as many; and as if the plucking of a blade of grass, or of an apple were quite as criminal when prohibited by the Creator, as any enormity whatever. This is the sublime verity shadowed forth by the catastrophe of Eve: and such a reflection ( independent of every other ) might suffice to secure veneration for the magnificent simplicity of the Genius , who put the whole world and an apple in one and the same balance , and found them of equal weight in the estimate of Omnipotence .

Not wild.Charibdis", when the wildest masses
Of breakers combat in its pool renown'd,
Chafes like the innumerous troop that waltzes.

The misers and the prodigals drawn up face to face, one party on the interior circumference of the Circle (that is, round its central orifice) and the other on its exterior circumference (or under

(i) Quam longe progrediare, cum temel transieris , a<I augf ndum traoseundi culpam nihil pertinct. . . . Io eo est peccatum, quod non licuit. Cum quidquid peccatur, perturbatione peccatur ordinis atque rationis. Perturbata autem srmel ratione et ordine, nihil potest addi quo magi» peccare posse videatur. Par. ».

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its wall), they ever and anon charge at each other with furious cries, and, meeting mid way, strike breasts and rebound back to their former lines; where they prepare for similar encounters to be followed by similar discomfitures. Such, in substance, is the meaning of the present and following tiercets. During this eternal tilting (giostra) the shades also eternally move, or whirl like Charibdis during that violent concussion of its tides called by seamen its rintoppo (0, or rather waltze, ( as I translate it) that is, perform the ridda round the entire Circle. For the riddi of the text is from the verb riddare, ' to dance the ridda;' and the ridda was ' a dance of many persons turning round' —-which is about the same thing as a waltze (a).

* Turning weights by force of breasts ' is the original, verbatim; and it is indeed (as is also my

(i) Mr. Cary in translating onda nut ■ mass of billows , hut *' a billow,"diminishes much the propriety of the metaphor: and the more no, because Dante !>y onda s'intoppa alluded to a characteristic phenomenon of the straits of Messina, which he must ha»e observed when he was Ambassador in Sicily. Not always, but frequently when the wind blows freshly from either the South or North-east, the current* meet with perilous but transient violence and are then said to inioppar*. So, to warn ships nut to approach while the danger lasts, there is (or at least was) a tall signal-tower where pilots are employed to keep a good look out. These baing experienced, always can predict the rintoppo a little before it happens. E in qutsto modo sicuro e il passaggio. Dauiello, Comento, p. 49.

(a) Ballo di roolte persone fatto in giro. (Vocaholariu). It seems to have been a lascivious dance, which wa* at last left to the peasantry, and is now no ongar in use.

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